FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Anarchism and Marxism
Part of the Politics series on

Anarchism The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ...

Schools of thought

CapitalistChristian
CollectivistCommunist
Feminist • Green
IndividualistMutualist
Philosophical • Primitivist
Social • Syndicalist
Without adjectives
Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Christian anarchism is a synthesis of anarchist theory with Christian theology. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Green anarchism is a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, situationism, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. ... Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Social anarchism is a term self-applied by many anarchists of the libertarian socialist thread of anarchism. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Anarchist theory

History • Economics
Anarchism and capitalism
Anarchism and Marxism
Co-operatives
Symbolism • Post-left
EspecifismoPlatformism
Propaganda of the deed
Social ecology
Spontaneous order
Workers' self-management
Anarcho-primitivists assert that, for the longest period before recorded history, human society was organized on anarchist principles. ... Anarchist economics entails theory and practice relating to economic activity within the philosophical outlines of anarchism. ... Though the libertarian socialist critique of capitalism is rooted in socialist theory, there are certain key distinctions in their critiques, which this article attempts to elucidate. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit, in an egalitarian fashion. ... Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... Especifismo is an anarchist praxis which originates in South America. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ...

Anarchism in culture

ArtsBlack anarchism
Jewish anarchismSociety
Popular Education
Criticisms
Anarchism has long had an association with the arts, particularly in music and literature. ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ... Freie Arbeiter Stimme, vol 1 no 4, Friday, July 25, 1890. ... This article discusses the anarchist critiques of society and proposed solutions from the anarchist perspective. ... Popular education is an educational technique designed to raise the consciousness of its participants and allow them to become more aware of how an individuals personal experiences are connected to larger societal problems. ... The theory and practice of anarchism has been controversial since it came to prominence in the 19th century. ...

Relationship to other
Belief Systems

Anarchism and religion
Anarchism and Marxism
Nationalism and Anarchism
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nationalism and Anarchism, both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated relationship, going back at least to Bakunin and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion to anarchism and during the first several years thereafter. ...

Anarchism geographically

AfricaAustria
ChinaEngland
FranceGreece
IrelandMexico
RussiaSpain
SwedenUkraine
United States
African Anarchism This article is about the historical and contemporary Anarchist movement in Africa. ... Anarchism in England initially developed within the context of radical Whiggery and Protestant religious dissent. ...

Anarchism lists

BooksCommunities
ConceptsOrganizations
Anarchist Daniel Guérin, Anarchism Robert Graham Anarchism. ... This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present. ... These are concepts which, although not exclusive to anarchism, are significant in historical and/or modern anarchist circles. ... This list uses the word organization in its loosest sense. ...

Anarchism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

While anarchism and Marxism are two different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of groups of anarchists and Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. They share similar long-term goals (stateless socialism, stateless communism or communalism), political opponents (conservatives, liberals), and structural targets (capitalism and existing governments). Many Marxists have participated honestly in anarchist revolutions, and many anarchists have participated honestly in Marxist revolutions. However, anarchism and Marxism have strong disagreements on issues including the nature of the state, the class structure of society, and the method of historical materialism. Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things. ... Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical...


The classic example of (actually violent) struggle between anarchists and Marxists took place during the Spanish Civil War of 1936: the revolutionary Marxists of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), the anarcho-syndicalists of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), and the anarchists of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) faced repression and attacks from the Stalinist-led International Brigade, while at the same time fighting the fascist movement of General Francisco Franco, making this at the same time an example of an anarchist/Marxist united front. However, on the positive side there have been overlaps between Anarchism and Marxism historically, including hybrid movements of anarchism and anti-authoritarian Marxism such as libertarian Marxism and Autonomism. Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... The Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI, Iberian Anarchist Federation) is a Spanish organization of Anarchist (Anarcho-Syndicalist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) trade union. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Blason of the International Brigades The International Brigade was the name given to the band of volunteers and mercenaries who travelled to Spain to fight against the Nationalist forces led by General Franco and helped by Nazi German and Mussolini Italian forces, and defend the legitimate Spanish Republic government in... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... For other meanings of autonomism, see autonomism (disambiguation) page Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria Autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. ...

Contents

Arguments surrounding the issue of the state

Modern political scientists generally define the "state" as a centralized, hierarchical, governing institution which maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force, in keeping with the definition originally proposed by the German sociologist Max Weber in his 1918 essay Politics as a Vocation. This definition is accepted by nearly all schools of modern political thought other than Marxism, including anarchism. Marxism has a unique definition of the state: that the state is an organ of one class's repression of all other classes. To Marxists, any state is intrinsically a dictatorship by one class over all others. Therefore, within Marxist theory, should the differentiation between classes disappear, so too will the state. The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... For the painter, see Max Weber (artist). ... Politics as a Vocation (Politik als Beruf) is an 1918 essay written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Marxist theory is an academic specialization in Western academias. ...


However, there is some convergence of views. Anarchists believe that any state will inevitably be dominated by a political and economic elite, therefore becoming effectively an organ of class domination. Conversely, Marxists believe that successful class repression almost always requires a superior capacity for violence, and that all societies prior to socialism are ruled by a minority class, so that in Marxist theory any non-socialist state will possess the properties attributed to all states by anarchists and others. Bakunin wrote in his seminal "Anarchism and the State"

"They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship—their dictatorship, of course—can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up."

Commenting on the proclaimed desire of Marx to eventually see the State abolished and thus end up creating an Anarchist system via state power he added:

"anarchism or freedom is the aim, while the state and dictatorship is the means, and so, [for marxists] in order to free the masses, they have first to be enslaved."

(from Mikhail Bakunin, Statism and Anarchism. [1]


The process of transition

The theory of the state leads directly into the practical question of what form the transition to the stateless society both anarchists and Marxists view as their end goal will take.


Marxists believe that a successful transition to stateless communism will require the repression of capitalists who would otherwise re-establish their own control, and therefore the existence of a state in some form run by workers (see dictatorship of the proletariat). Anarchists contend that the "workers' state" advocated by Marxists is a logical impossibility since, as soon as any group begins to govern by means of a state apparatus, they cease being workers (if they ever were) and become oppressors. Also the idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat has been criticized by most anarchists both on a theoretical and historical basis. Mainly, it is argued that it is not a class that takes power but a minority, a party in the Leninist sense, and so is a dictatorship over the proletariat. They point to the measures taken by Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin during the Russian Revolution since as early as 1917 as evidence of this. Anarchists support their arguments by pointing to the undemocratic nature of the Soviet Union and other self-identified "Marxist" states, while Marxists support theirs by pointing to the defeat of anarchist-led revolutions such as that during the Spanish Civil War. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict...

Part of a series on
Marxism
Theoretical Works
The Communist Manifesto
Das Kapital
The Civil War in France
Sociology and Anthropology
Alienation
Bourgeoisie
Class consciousness
Commodity fetishism
Communism
Cultural hegemony
Exploitation
Human nature
Ideology
Proletariat
Reification
Relations of production
Socialism
Economics
Marxian economics
Labour power
Law of value
Means of production
Mode of production
Productive forces
Surplus labour
Surplus value
Transformation problem
Wage labour
History
Anarchism and Marxism
Capitalist mode of production
Class struggle
Dictatorship of the proletariat
Primitive accumulation of capital
Proletarian revolution
Proletarian internationalism
World Revolution
Philosophy
Marxist philosophy
Historical materialism
Dialectical materialism
Analytical Marxism
Marxist autonomism
Marxist feminism
Marxist humanism
Structural Marxism
Western Marxism
Libertarian Marxism
Young Marx
Important Marxists
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Karl Kautsky
Georgi Plekhanov
Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
Rosa Luxemburg
Mao Zedong
Georg Lukács
Antonio Gramsci
Karl Korsch
Che Guevara
Frankfurt School
Jean-Paul Sartre
Louis Althusser
Criticisms
Criticisms of Marxism
Full list
Communism Portal
This box: view  talk  edit

Therefore, both Marxists and anarchists wish to "smash" the existing state. After the "smashing" of the state, Marxists seek replacing it immediately a workers state, ie the dictatorship of the proletariat, or the workers organized as the ruling class. From this point, as expressed by Frederick Engels, the worker's state will begin to wither away, finally ceasing to exist when class antagonisms have been defeated. On the other hand, anarchists feel the re-creation of any sort of state will place power in the hand of a tiny minority, that States with their repressive capacities and massive bureaucracies tend to be self-perpetuating and do not "wither away", and that in practice establishing a new state is thus counter-revolutionary because in order to eventually eliminate it a second revolution will be required. Anarchists point to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the demands by grassroots movements throughout the soviet block to abolish the dictatorship but keep socialism as a failed attempt to make such a second revolution. The failure of such movements as they were co-opted by former soviet leaders (nomenklatura) who instead kept the dictatorship and abolished socialism, is seen as evidence that such a long and circuitous route from capitalism to freedom is inefficient and unlikely to actually result in freedom. Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Image File history File links Karl_Marx. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... The Civil War in France was a book written by Karl Marx as an address to the General Council of the International, with the aim of distributing to workers of all countries a clear understanding of the character and world-wide significance of the heroic struggle of the Parisian Communards... Marxs theory of alienation (Entfremdung in German), as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally belong together, or to antagonism between things that are properly in harmony. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Class consciousness is a category of Marxist theory, referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them. ... In Marxist theory, commodity fetishism is an inauthentic state of social relations, said to arise in complex capitalist market systems, where social relationships are confused with their medium, the commodity. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci. ... The rate of exploitation is a concept in Marxian political economy. ... Marxs theory of human nature occupies an important place in his critique of capitalism, his conception of communism, and his materialist conception of history. Marx has sometimes been held to deny the existence of any human nature, though this view is now generally accepted to be mistaken. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Reification (German: Verdinglichung, literally: ver-, over + ding: thing + -lichung: as english, -ify) is the consideration of an abstraction or an object as if it had human or living existence and abilities; at the same time it implies the thingification of social relations. ... Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhaltnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx in his theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Note: Marxian is not restricted to Marxian economics, as it includes those inspired by Marxs works who do not identify with Marxism as a political ideology. ... Labor power (in German: Arbeitskraft, or labor force) is a crucial concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. ... The law of value is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning the way of producing) is a specific combination of: productive forces: these include human labor-power, tools, equipment, buildings and technologies, materials, and improved land social and technical relations... For the specific theoretical justifications behind the Great Leap Forward and the Five Year Plans, see Theory of Productive Forces. ... Surplus labour is a concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. ... Surplus value, according to Marxism, is unpaid labour that is extracted from the worker by the capitalist, and serves as the basis for capitalist accumulation. ... In Karl Marxs economics the transformation problem is the problem of finding a general rule to transform the values of commodities (based on labour according to his labour theory of value) into the competitive prices of the marketplace. ... Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... The capitalist mode of production is a concept in Karl Marx’s critique of political economy. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Primitive accumulation of capital is a concept introduced by Karl Marx in part 8 of the first volume of Das Kapital (in German: ursprungliche Akkumulation, literally original accumulation or primeval accumulation). Its purpose is to help explain how the capitalist mode of production can come into being. ... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... Analytical Marxism refers to a style of thinking about Marxism that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s. ... For other meanings of autonomism, see autonomism (disambiguation) page Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria Autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... The term Marxist humanism has as its foundation Marxs conception of the alienation of the labourer as he advances it in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844--an alienation that is born of a capitalist system in which the worker no longer functions as (what Marx terms) a... Structural Marxism was an approach to Marxist philosophy based on structuralism, primarily associated with the work of the French philosopher Louis Althusser and his students. ... Western Marxism is a term used to describe a wide variety of Marxist theoreticians based in Western and Central Europe (and more recently North America), in contrast with philosophy in the Soviet Union. ... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... ‘Young Marx’ is one half of the concept in Marxology that Karl Marx’s intellectual development can be broken into two board categories, the other being ‘Mature Marx’. There is disagreement though as to when Marx thought began to mature, Lenin claimed Marxs first mature work as “The Poverty... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Георгий Валентинович Плеханов) (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ...   (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic in the tradition of Western Marxism. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Karl Korsch (August 15, 1886 - October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theorist. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or El Che, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 23, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... This article is on criticisms of Marxism, a branch of socialism. ...


Marxists respond to this saying that the organized, centralized repression of the capitalist class will be absolutely necessary, and that the proletariat can only accomplish this by the use of the state.


The Marxist position blends into anarchism at one end of the spectrum, because anarchists disagree amongst themselves if a system of democratic workers' councils with a monopoly of violence constitutes a state or not, while Marxists disagree widely among themselves over the form of the dictatorship of the proletariat. A workers council is a council, or deliberative body, composed of working class or proletarian members. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...


Political parties

The issue of seizing state power brings up the issue of political parties, which also divides anarchists and Marxists. Most Marxists see political parties as useful or even necessary tools for seizing state power, since they view a centrally coordinated effort as necessary to successfully defeat the capitalist class and state and establish a body capable of maintaining power. However, Marxists disagree on whether a revolutionary party ought to participate in bourgeois elections, what role it should have after a revolution, and how it should be organized. On the other hand, anarchists generally refuse to participate in governments, and so do not form political parties, since they view any hierarchically organized structure as having an inherent tendency to become authoritarian and oppressive. However, many of them do organize politically on the basis of direct democracy and federalism in order to participate more effectively in popular struggles and lead the people towards social revolution (by example and diffusion of ideas). Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


Violence and revolution

Another practical question closely related to the theory of the state is whether and how much violence is acceptable in order to achieve a successful revolution. Anarchists argue that all states are "illegitimate" because they all rely on systematic violence, and that while small-scale violence and even targeted assassination of criminal elites may be useful or necessary in some circumstances (see propaganda by the deed), mass violence against ordinary people - such as that practiced by Stalin in the Great Purges, or by Mao during the Cultural Revolution - is never acceptable or justifiable. Most Marxists argue that large-scale violence is legitimate and so "just war" is possible, at least in the limited circumstances of collective self-defense, for example against an attempted coup or an imperialist invasion. Some (notably Stalinists) argue further that in general "the ends justify the means," so that in theory any amount of violence and bloodshed may be justified in order to achieve communism. Propaganda of the Deed or Propaganda by Deed was an anarchist doctrine that promoted the decisive action of individuals to inspire further action by others. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples... Just war is a specific concept of how warfare might be justified, typically in accordance with a particular situation, or scenario, and expanded or supported by reference to doctrine, tradition, or historical commentary. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


On the other hand, some Anarchists promote self-defense rather than large-scale anti-state violence. Some promote non-violent protests, marches, and general strikes, only condoning violence in self-defense against aggressive actions taken by the State to prevent non-violent anarchist revolutions. Many anarcho-socialists such as Individualist and Mutualist Anarchists however usually prefer reformist approaches rather than open violence and would only advocate such under extreme circumstances. Modern social anarchists most often promote non-violence and violence only in self-defense, but do not believe in reformist approaches.


Arguments surrounding the issue of class

Both Marxist and anarchist class analyses are based on the idea that society is divided up into many different "classes", each with differing interests according to their material circumstance. The two differ, however, in where they draw the lines between these groups.


For Marxists, the two most relevant classes are the "bourgeoisie" (owners of the means of production) and the "proletariat" (wage laborers). Marx believed that the unique historical circumstances of industrial workers would incite them to organize together and seize the state and the means of production from the business class, collectivize them, and create a classless society administered by and for workers. He explicitly dismissed peasants, other "petty-bourgeois" small property-holders, and the "lumpen-proletariat" - the unemployed "underclass" - as incapable of creating revolution. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


The anarchist class analysis predates Marxism and contradicts it. Anarchists argue that it is not the whole ruling class who actually has control over the state, but a minority which is part of the ruling class (and thus, defending its interests), but with its own concerns, particularly retaining power. A revolutionary minority taking over State power and imposing its will on the people would be just as authoritarian as the ruling minority in capitalism, and would eventually constitute itself as a ruling class. This was predicted by Bakunin long before the Russian revolution and the fall of the Soviet Union when he wrote:

If you took the most ardent revolutionary, vested him in absolute power, within a year he would be worse than the Czar himself.

(Quoted in Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970), pp.25-26)


Also, traditionally anarchists have advocated that a successful revolution needs the support of the peasantry, and that it can only get it by redistribution of land between landless peasants and minifundists. That is, it explicitly rejects imposing state property of the land, although voluntary collectivization is seen as more efficient and thus supported (indeed, during the Spanish revolution anarchists impulsed hundreds of collectivizations but only a tiny minority had all the land in the area, small peasants were allowed to cultivate their own land without hired labour).


Some modern anarchists (particularly pareconists) argue that there are three “classes,” which have relevance to social change - not two. The first is the labor class (which includes everyone whose labor is involved in producing and distributing goods as well as much of the so-called “service” industry). This includes farmers, peasants, small landowners, small business owners who labor with their employees and blue, pink and white-collar workers. The second is the coordinator class which includes everyone whose labor is primarily concerned with “coordinating” and managing the labor of others primarily on behalf of the bourgeoisie, administrating organizations, setting the intellectual status quo or managing the State apparatus. The anarchist definition of the "coordinator class" includes people such as bureaucrats, technocrats, managers, administrators, middle-class intellectuals (such as economists, political and social scientists, mathematicians, philosophers, etc.), physical scientists, judges, lawyers, military officials, political party organizers and leaders, etc. And finally the elite owning class or "capital class" (which derives its income from its control of wealth, land, property and resources). They further contend that Marxism fails, and will always fail, because it creates a dictatorship of the coordinating class and that a "dictatorship of the proletariat" is a logical impossibility. Bakunin foreshadowed this argument when he wrote: Participatory economics, or parecon, a participatory economics system proposed as an alternative to other systems such as capitalism and coordinatorism, emerged from the work of the radical theorist Michael Albert and of the radical economist Robin Hahnel, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well-known Russian anarchist contemporaneous to Karl Marx. ...

the "State has always been the patrimony of some privileged class: a priestly class, an aristocratic class, a bourgeois class. And finally, when all the other classes have exhausted themselves, the State then becomes the patrimony of the bureaucratic class and then falls—or, if you will, rises—to the position of a machine."

On the International Workingmen's Association and Karl Marx, Mikhail Bakunin, 1872 [2]


Some believe that Marxism fails because its theoretical "socialist mode of production" involves centralizing and empowering the State apparatus which empowers people from the coordinator class to seize control of the State and means of production to manage the labor class, effectively acting as a surrogate capital class. However, this is less of a problem for libertarian Marxists who believe that such as State apparatus should operate on working class-led participatory democracy or even as a consociational state. Political scientists define a consociational state as a state which has major internal divisions along ethnic, religious, or linguistic lines, yet nonetheless manages to remain stable, due to consultation among the elites of each of its major social groups. ...


Key differences thus include the fact that Anarchists do not differentiate between peasants, lumpen, and proletarians and instead define all people who work for the profit of others as members of the working class, regardless of occupation; and that anarchists do differentiate between the economic and political elites who set policy and the business and government functionaries that carry those policies out whereas Marxists lump the two together.


Further, some Anarchists argue that Marxism fails because it springs from the minds of middle class intellectuals, while arguing that anarchism springs spontaneously from the self-activity and self-organization of the labor class. They point to the fact that schools of Marxism are often named after the intellectuals who formed the movements through high analytical and philosophical praxis theorization. While schools of Anarchism tend to emerge from organizational principles or forms of practice and are rarely (if ever) named after or centered around an individual intellectual. Anarchists distinguish themselves by what they do, and how they organize themselves where as Marxists tend to distinguish themselves by their strategic approach and their philosophical or intellectual methodology. Marxists, however, contend that their ideas are not new ideologies which sprang from intellectuals but are ideas which form from the class contradictions of each economic and social mode of history. They argue that Marxian socialism in particular arose from the minds of the working class due to the class contradictions of the capitalist mode of production. Some Marxists even argue that Anarchism springs from the ideas of proletarians (or even petty bourgeoisie) who have been marginalized by capitalism as an unorganized and unrefined reactionary struggle against the forces of capitalism.


Other axes of oppression

The Marxist class analysis has consequences for how Marxists relate to the liberation movements of groups such as women, indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, and cultural minorities (such as homosexuals). Classical Marxism was generally dismissive of such movements and argued that class struggle had to take precedence over all other forms of struggle because it was the class struggle - and only the class struggle - that could allow the working class to seize power by seizing the state. It was assumed that, once State power had been seized, issues such as racism, sexism, could be much more easily dealt with. Since the 1970's, however, most Marxist organizations explicitly support such liberation movements, not only because they are worthy in and of themselves, but also on the grounds that they are seen as necessary for a working-class revolution. Many Marxists believe that attempts by oppressed people to liberate themselves will continue to fail to achieve their full aims until class society is done away with, because under capitalism and other class societies, social power rests at the point of production. Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used both in academic sociology as well as in ordinary conversation. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Sociologists usually define power as the ability to impose ones will on others, even if those others resist in some way. ...


Anarchists and others criticize Marxists for giving class priority in this way and in explaining the causes of historical change, arguing that to do so denigrates other oppressions, which operate with their own independent dynamics. Anarchists see all liberation movements by oppressed people as fundamentally legitimate, be they "proletarians", "peasants", or others, without needing to fit these movements into a predetermined schema for revolution. However, this position is not the only one throughout the anarchist movement, many anarchists believe that single issue struggles are extremely limited in their scope although they participate (as Marxists do) in them, trying to advance their positions and methods in an anarchist way. The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ...


Marxists tend to view people as sharing a certain class consciousness based on their station in capitalist society. They believe that people share a collective socio-economic mindset and that freedom comes from liberating the class of it's class status shackles, thus eventually empowering the individual. Anarchists on the other hand tend to view people as social individuals who share a common condition in capitalist society, but don't necessarily share a uniform class consciousness. Class consciousness is a category of Marxist theory, referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them. ...


Religion

See also: Anarchism and religion

Religion is another area of disagreement amongst anarchists and Marxists. Marxists view religion as an instrument of the bourgeoisie to dominate the minds of the lower classes and inspire subservience to authority and acceptance of the status quo in return for promises of future reward.[citation needed] Marxists tend to envision a "pure communism" as being free of religion, sometimes promoting violence against clergy and religious institutions. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Despite the hostility of Marxism to organized religion, there have been attempts to fuse the two, Liberation theology being the most obvious example. Some Priests associated with Liberation Theology have even joined and fought with armed guerrillas, Camilo Torres, for instance, joined and fought with the ELN (National Liberation Army) in Columbia and died in combat. Although the Vatican has actively condemned liberation theology, liberation theology remains influential in parts of Latin America, most notably with the Landless Workers' Movement of Brazil. Liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the Oppressed. ... Fr. ... National Liberation Army is the name of several groups: National Liberation Army of Albania Macedoinian National Liberation Army Algerian National Liberation Army National Liberation Army (Bolivia). ... MST logo Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement, or in Portuguese Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), is the largest social movement in Latin America with an estimated 1. ...


Anarchists advocate resistance to oppressive and authoritarian institutions, including religious ones; and in extreme cases this may include violent resistance. During the Spanish Civil War, for instance, the Catholic Church was one of the biggest landowners and allied itself with the Falangist Fascist movement led by Francisco Franco. Opposition to Catholic institutions and the collectivization of church lands by peasants formed a major part of the anarchist revolution that opposed Franco in Barcelona. In the Basque country, however, most priests defied the church and opposed Fascism and urged their congregations to do likewise, and so on the ground there was little in the way of physical conflict between anarchists and Catholics over religion. Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Basque may refer to: Look up Basque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In contrast to Marxism, anarchism has historically been more accepting of personal spirituality and egalitarian religions. Anarchism has also historically gained much more support amongst religious communities and at various times and places explicitly anarchist forms of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and other religions have claimed tens of thousands of members. Some anarchists envision future society as being free of religion while others envision a future society in which egalitarian religions and spirituality play a prominent role. Christian anarchism is a synthesis of anarchist theory with Christian theology. ...


Nationalism and Relationships with Indigenous Peoples and Stateless Nations

Main article: National Bolshevism

Anarchism and Marxism differ sharply in their relationships with indigenous peoples and national minorities. Early in the history of both movements thinkers from Marx to Bakunin to Kropotkin predicted that the coming revolution would wipe away all distinctions of nationality, that the workers of the world have no "nation", and that the natural form for socialism was internationalism that neither acknowledged or respected boundaries. This remained the established position of the entire anti-capitalist left up until the early 1900s and still holds considerable sway in both anarchist and Marxist circles. Nationalism and Anarchism, both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated relationship, going back at least to Bakunin and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion to anarchism and during the first several years thereafter. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub- group that forms less than half of the population, and — as a rule — is outnumbered by at least one other sub-group. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...


During the build-up to the Russian revolution, however, Lenin and the Bolsheviks found it convenient to promise independence to the various indigenous non-Russian national minorities, notably the Ukrainians and the Poles, in return for their support against the Czarist empire. Once in power those promises were broken and nationalist movements throughout Russia and later the USSR were brutally crushed by Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, and all their successors until the collapse of the USSR as a political unit. In the run-up to WWII Russia's foreign policy centered around the idea of National Bolshevism, through which the Bolshevik political elite in Russia sought to instigate and support communist-nationalist revolutions around the world, most notably in Hungary and Germany, and then absorb the newly independent areas into a Soviet commonwealth - a goal that was achieved after WWII with the Warsaw Pact. The failure of an attempted National Bolshevik rising in Germany in 1939 crippled the German left, paving the way for the Nazi's rise to power and the fallout from the failed operation was critical in allowing Stalin to seize power and expel or murder his rivals. Elements of this persisted in Soviet foreign policy throughout the cold war and helped motivate support of nationalist and anti-imperialist movements throughout the third world. Aid by Russia to the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese revolution was driven by the same motivation, but once in power Mao refused to allow the USSR to control Chinese policy, leading to a break with Stalin that culminated in a brief war between the two powers. The same process would later play out in the relationship between Communist rulers in China and Vietnam. Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Anti-imperialism is a current within the political left advocating the collapse of imperialism. ...


During the Chinese revolution a parallel process occurred as Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party first promised independence and self-determination to all of China's many stateless nations, and then not only refused to deliver once the CCP's grip on power was solidified but actually invaded and annexed Tibet, which he regarded as a renegade province. Every successive Communist government throughout the world has followed this same pattern of first promising indigenous national minorities self-determination in order to gain their support and then actively opposing that self-determination once in power. In a nutshell, the general policy of Marxist governments from Lenin on has been to support revolution nationalism and the rights of indigenous groups in theory and to oppose it in practice. Most recently, the Sandanistas in Nicaragua were accused of carrying out campaigns of ethnic cleansing against indigenous peoples in order to seize their land. “Mao” redirects here. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: ) is a Nicaraguan political party founded on broad socialist principles. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti...


Ward Churchill has gone so far as to argue in his essay on Marxism and Indigenism[citation needed] that Marxism is inherently imperialist and racist in effect, if not in intent, because it is based on the idea of historical progress and industrialization as inevitable, and sees industrial proletarian-based societies as more "advanced" than other societies (particularly indigenous societies). Other scholars argue that the conflict has to do with the demands of running a State structure and argue that if the Bolsheviks had come to power in Poland (for example) instead of Russia they would have had to become Polish nationalists and would have bitterly opposed Russian attempts to dominate Poland. Seizing the Russian State, however, meant that they had to defend the interests of that State; and the rights of stateless nations thus became anathema. Photo of Ward Churchill from University of Colorado faculty web page Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer, Vietnam veteran, political activist, and academic. ...


The position of Anarchism is somewhat the reverse. Most Anarchists, both historically and up to the present day, see borders and national divisions as detrimental and envision a world in which distinctions of race and ethnicity fade and disappear over time as the ideal. In practice, however, Anarchism is based on small-scale systems of self-determination, local self-governance, and mutual aid that fulfill the desire of national minorities for self-determination on a de facto basis; and has thus been historically compatible with anti-state forms of nationalism. The most notable collaboration, of course, being the movements for self-rule by the Catalans and Basques in Spain which found expression under the banner of the anarchist CNT during the Spanish Civil War. More recently there has been an attempt at an explicit fusion of Anarchism and native-American political traditions manifested in the modern Indigenist movement. Anti-State nationalist organizations that explicitly describe their politics as Anarchist currently exist in Ireland and Bretony. Many members of the modern American Indian Movement also consider themselves Anarchists. For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Catalans are an ethnic group or nation whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northwestern Spain and southwestern France. ... CNT may be: Confederación Nacional del Trabajo Confédération nationale du travail (CNT-F) Carbon nanotube Computer Network Technology Corporation, an enterprise adquired by McData in January 2005 This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... AIM logo AIM flag The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States. ...


Arguments concerning the method of historical materialism

Marxism uses a form of analysis of human societies called "historical materialism." At the crux of historical materialist analysis is the idea that people find themselves in a predetermined material world, and act to produce changes upon that world within the limits of what changes they can conceive of. More specifically, the fundamental economic relations of production are the driving force of history, explaining phenomena in the "superstructural" ideological and legal realms, at least in the long run. Underlying these processes is the idea that contradictions and opposed social groups will naturally form and drive social progress. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhaltnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx in his theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ... Broadly speaking, a contradiction is when two or more statements, ideas, or actions are seen as incompatible. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ...


Marx derived his formulation of historical materialism from the earlier German philosopher Hegel's system of dialectics. This method works from the assumptions that any natural phenomenon is defined through contrast with other phenomena, that quantities can be viewed qualitatively, that precise understanding of imprecise phenomena is possible (comparable to many physical uncertainty principles). Marx and his coworker Friedrich Engels "turned Hegel on his head" and argued that these methods could be applied to human society in the form of historical materialism, so that classes can be studied by using contrast between, for example, owner and worker, or by taking quantities to make qualities, such as translating uneven distribution of private property to show class disparity. While Marx's methodology, as a historical methodology, found its limit in human history, other Marxists such as Frederick Engels or Joseph Stalin claimed that dialectical methodology applied to all phenomena. These Marxist's dialectics are usually described as dialectical materialism and find their closest anarchist mirror in Kropotkin's discussion of mutual aid structures in the evolution of animal species. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ...


Anarchists use a wide variety of tools of social analysis and some anarchists see value in historical materialism as a tool for social analysis. The Irish Workers Solidarity Movement, for instance, makes agreeing with the historical materialist method's value a central point of unity. Many anarchists, however, dismiss dialectical materialism (if not also historical materialism), as a pseudo-science based on untestable and unfalsifiable universal claims. Anarchists were among the first to criticise the dialectical materialist trend as pseudo-science. In general, anarchists emphasise the subjective role of human consciousness, even within methods of analysis such as historical materialism; and generally criticise either the application of Marxist methodologies, or Marxist methodologies in general, on the basis that determinist analyses dehumanise people as the agents of history, and that such methodologies are therefore not sustainable as a universal methodologies. Within Marxism these criticisms are mirrored by the criticisms of Socialist Humanists, Western Marxists, Autonomists Marxists and other similar thinkers. The Workers Solidarity Movement is an anarchist organisation in Ireland broadly in the platformist tradition of Nestor Makhno. ...


Determinism

A simple interpretation of historical materialism suggests that if Marxism is right about the class forces operating in capitalism, a successful working-class revolution is inevitable. Some Marxists, notably the leaders of the Second International in the late 19th and early 20th century, have believed this. However, the degree to which the revolution must be made by conscious forces has always been a matter of dispute among Marxists, with many arguing that Marx' famous statement that "I am not a Marxist" was a rejection of determinism, and the split was sharpened by the First World War, when the social democratic parties of the Second International supported their respective nations' war efforts. Many Marxist opponents of the war, such as Rosa Luxemburg, blamed the Second International's "betrayal" partly on its doctrine of the inevitability of socialism, which justified its attempt to reform existing capitalist states. Luxemburg put the alternatives for the future, instead, as "socialism or barbarism." The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ...


Since an influential segment of anarchists reject either dialectical materialism or historical materialism or both, these anarchists usually do not claim that revolution and the reorganization of society are inevitable, only that they are desirable. Some anarchists, while rejecting dialetical or historical materialism claim other bases for the inevitability of revolution, such as the natural yearning of consciousness for freedom; these anarchists find their mirror within Marxist intellectual movements in individuals such as Herbert Marcuse. According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German and later American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, and a member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Historical relationships between anarchists and Marxists

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

International Workingmen's Association

The International Workingmen's Association (the First International), at its founding, was an alliance of socialist groups, including both anarchists and Marxists. Both sides had a common aim and common enemies. But each was critical of the other, and the inherent conflict between the two groups soon embodied itself in an ongoing argument between Mikhail Bakunin, representative of anarchist ideas, and Karl Marx himself. In 1872, the conflict in the First International climaxed with the expulsion of Bakunin and those who had become known as the "Bakuninists" when they were outvoted by the Marx party at the Hague Congress. The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... For the character on the TV series Lost, see Mikhail Bakunin Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Hague Congress of the International Workers Association (September 1872) marked the end of this organization as a unitarian alliance of all socialist factions (Anarchists and Marxists). ...


Industrial Workers of the World

In the late 19th and early 20th century, many Marxists and anarchists were united within syndicalist movements for militant revolutionary labor unions, such as the Industrial Workers of the World (the Wobblies). The IWW was formed by the combination of Marxist labor union activists influenced by the De Leonist ideas of the Socialist Labor Party (USA) with a number of anarchist and syndicalist activists. Anarchists and Marxists cooperated successfully in the IWW until the 1920s when, acting under direction from Lenin and the Bolshevik government in Moscow, most of the communists in the union deserted it and moved en masse to join the more mainstream labor movement. The union became a largely anarchist organization at that time and has remained so to this day, though it makes few ideological requirements of its members. Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... Developed by Daniel De Leon, Marxism-Deleonism is a form of Marxism. ... The Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP) is the oldest socialist political party in the United States and the second oldest socialist party in the world. ...


Russian Revolution

Both anarchists and Marxists participated in the overthrow of the Tsar in February 1917 in the beginning stages of the 1917 Russian Revolution. However, a hostile relationship quickly developed between anarchists and Bolsheviks, so that anarchists generally opposed the Bolshevik-initiated transfer of power from the Provisional Government to the Bolshevik commissars (acting on behalf of Bolshevik-led workers councils), in October 1917. Even the ensuing civil war pitting the Bolshevik government and Red Army against the Tsarist White Armies did not reconcile anarchists and Bolsheviks; although the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of the Ukraine, led by anarchists, fought counter-revolutionary forces only to be suppressed by Red Army leader Trotsky afterwards (because they refused to join the Red Army and accept Bolshevik authority) - however these Ukrainian anarchists were also highly critical of other anarchists in the Russian Revolution who lacked their discipline; anarchists were involved in a series of violent uprisings against the Bolshevik-led government in 1918 arguing for free soviets, freedom of expression and association, the end of war communism and the establishment of free communes on the basis of voluntary association. Most of Russian anarchists were imprisoned and their press silenced, leaving only token freedom to the least menacing sectors. At the end of the civil war, sailors at Kronstadt influenced by anarchists and dissident marxists mutinied, demanding more political and economical liberties while defending socialism and workers democracy, and were violently crushed by the Bolshevik Red Army. Anarchism remained illegal in the Soviet Union from this period until its 1991 collapse. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейц&#1099... Nestor Makhno. ... The Third Russian Revolution (also called the Russian Revolution of 1918, or the July Revolution 1918) is a term describing a series of anarchist rebellions and uprisings against both the Bolsheviks and the White movement, which started on 6 July 1918 and were most prominent for the remainder of that... Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Attempted syntheses

A number of political ideologies and movements have attempted some degree of synthesis of the Marxist and anarchist traditions with the aim of a liberated workers society. These include the followers of Joseph Dietzgen in the 19th century, syndicalism, De Leonism, council communism, and Bordigism in the first half of the 20th century, and the Situationist International and Autonomist Marxism in the second half of the 20th century, all falling under the broad label of libertarian socialism. The modern Zapatista movement in Chiapas, Mexico also incorporates both anarchist and Marxist ideas, along with indigenous Mayan political thought. Joseph Dietzgen (December 1828 - 1888) was a socialist philosopher and anarchist sympathizer. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Developed by Daniel De Leon, Marxism_Deleonism is a form of Marxism. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Amadeo Bordiga (1889 - 1970) was a prominent Italian socialist. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... Autonomism, or Autonomist Marxism is a left-wing political movement and theory. ... Libertarian socialism includes a group of political philosophies that aims to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society within which individuals freely co-operate together as equals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... this article concerns in particular the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ...


Further reading

  • Barker, John H. Individualism and Community: The State in Marx and Early Anarchism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. ISBN 0-313-24706-4
  • D'Agostino, Anthony. Marxism and the Russian Anarchists. San Francisco: Germinal Press, 1977. ISBN 0-918064-03-1.
  • Dolgoff, Sam (ed.). Bakunin on Anarchism. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 2002. ISBN 0-919619-05-3 (Hardcover), ISBN 0-919619-06-1 (Paperback)
  • Paul Thomas, Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London: Routledge, 1985. ISBN 0-7102-0685-2
  • Vincent, K. Steven. Between Marxism and Anarchism: Benoit Malon and French Reformist Socialism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. ISBN 0-918064-03-1

Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

  • Anarchism vs. Marxism - A Marxist perspective on the differences between anarchism and Marxism.
  • Anarchy After Leftism
  • Bakunin vs. Marx - A libertarian socialist analysis of the differences between Bakunin in Marx.
  • Libertarian Communist Library - Contains many Anarchist and Marxist Texts, as well as texts which crossover between the two.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anarchism and Marxism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1585 words)
Even though anarchist communism and Marxism are two very different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of some anarchists and some Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined.
Marxism has a unique definition of the state: that the state is an organ of one class's repression of all other classes.
Anarchism further contends that Marxism fails, and will always fail, because it creates a dictatorship of the coordinating class and that "dictatorship of the proletariat" is a logical impossibility.
Anarchism (9648 words)
Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of social hierarchy.
Even leftist anarchism and Marxism are two very different political philosophies, although there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of some anarchists and some Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined.
Anarchism had a large influence on French Symbolism of the late 19th century, such as that of Stéphane Mallarmé, who was quoting as saying "La vraie bombe c'est le livre" (the true bomb is the book) and infiltrated the cafes and cabarets of turn of the century Paris (see the Drunken Boat #2).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m