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Encyclopedia > Anarchism
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Anarchism (from Greek ἀν (without) + ἄρχειν (to rule) + ισμός (from stem -ιζειν), "without archons," "without rulers")[1] is a political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory government[2][3][4][5] (including but not limited to the state), and is often described as opposition to all forms of authority.[6] Anarchism is defined by The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics as "the view that society can and should be organized without a coercive state."[7] Some authors use the term "anarchism" to refer exclusively to libertarian socialism, while calling anarchism that favors free markets in society as "libertarianism" without the "socialism" descriptor.[8] For other uses, see Archon (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or...


There are many types and traditions of anarchism,[9][10] some of which are mutually exclusive.[11] Anarchism is usually considered to be a radical left-wing ideology, and as such anarchist economics and legal philosophy lean toward anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism or participatory economics; however, anarchism has always included an individualist strain, including those who support market systems like mutualism or free-market capitalism.[12][13][14][15] Or, claimed by the anarchist Cindy Milstein, anarchism is a "political tradition that has consistently grappled with the tension between the individual and society." [3] Others, such as panarchists and anarchists without adjectives neither advocate nor object to any particular form of organization. According to The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, "there is no single defining position that all anarchists hold, beyond their rejection of compulsory government, and those considered anarchists at best share a certain family resemblance".[16] Anarchist schools of thought differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism.[7] Some anarchists have vocally opposed all types of coercion, while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution on the path to anarchy or utopia.[17] Anarchist economics entails theory and practice relating to economic activity within the philosophical outlines of anarchism. ... Anarchist law refers to a concept about the law to use in anarchies, although some people define anarchies as communities without any law. ... Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... In theoretical economics, a free market is a controversial model of an idealized economy, wherein exchanges are free from coercion and control except for guardianship which allows for private property ownership in land, natural resources, and the broadcast spectrum, as well as intellectual property and corporations. ... Cindy Milstein is an anarchist activist and educator who talks at various anarchist and socialist gatherings, including the very informal but in depth class, Anarchism 101 at the National Conference on Organized Resistance, at the American University in Washington DC, in 2003 and 2004. ... Panarchism is a political philosophy advocating the peaceful co-existence of all political systems, where each individual may voluntarily adhere to the system of their choice, free to join and leave the jurisdiction of the governments he sees fit. ... The Oxford Companion to Philosophy is a reference work in Philosophy ed. ... Family resemblance (German Familienähnlichkeit [1]) is a philosophical conception proposed by Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarchism is a political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory rule. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

Main article: History of anarchism
James Northcote, William Godwin, oil on canvas, 1802, the National Portrait Gallery. William Godwin is credited as one of the founders of modern anarchism.
James Northcote, William Godwin, oil on canvas, 1802, the National Portrait Gallery. William Godwin is credited as one of the founders of modern anarchism.

Some claim anarchist themes can be found in the works of Taoist sages Laozi[18] and Zhuangzi. The latter has been translated, "There has been such a thing as letting mankind alone; there has never been such a thing as governing mankind [with success]." and "A petty thief is put in jail. A great brigand becomes a ruler of a State."[19] Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics and their contemporary, Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, also introduced similar topics.[18][20] Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Originating in the Greek language (αρχή arche means sovereignty), the term anarchy can be understood as the state of absence of sovereignty. According to Harold Barclay, long before anarchism emerged as a distinct perspective... William Godwin. ... William Godwin. ... James Northcote (October 22, 1746 - July 13, 1831), was an English painter. ... William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. ... At least three art galleries are named National Portrait Gallery: National Portrait Gallery, Australia National Portrait Gallery, London National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Diogenes (Greek: Diogenes o Sinopeus) the Cynic, Greek philosopher, was born in Sinope (modern day Sinop, Turkey) about 412 BC (according to other sources 399 BC), and died in 323 BC at Corinth. ... This article is about the ancient Greek school of philosophy. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed...


Modern anarchism, however, sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.[21] Although by the turn of the 19th century the term "anarchist" had an entirely positive connotation,[22] it first entered the English language in 1642 during the English Civil War as a term of abuse used by Royalists to damn those who were fomenting disorder.[22] By the time of the French Revolution some, such as the Enragés, began to use the term positively,[23][unreliable source?] in opposition to Jacobin centralisation of power, seeing "revolutionary government" as oxymoronic.[22] From this climate William Godwin developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought.[24] Godwin was, according to Peter Kropotkin, "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work."[18][25] Godwin, a philosophical anarchist, opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present "necessary evil"[26] that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge.[24] Godwin advocated extreme individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labor be eliminated.[27] Godwin felt discrimination on any grounds besides ability was intolerable. The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Abuser redirects here. ... °°°°°°°°°°°→→→→→→→→→→→→§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§ Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Les Enragés (literally The Angry Ones) were a radical group active during the French Revolution (1789) opposed to the Jacobins. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... This article is about the contradiction in terms. ... William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarchism is a political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory rule. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ... Limited government is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is prohibited by law, usually in a written constitution. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ...


The first to describe himself as anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon,[22] which led some to call him the founder of modern anarchist theory.[28] Proudhon proposed spontaneous order, whereby organization emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy" where order arises when everybody does “what he wishes and only what he wishes"[29] and where "business transactions alone produce the social order."[30] Like Godwin, Proudhon opposed violent revolutionary action. He saw anarchy as "a form of government or constitution in which public and private consciousness, formed through the development of science and law, is alone sufficient to maintain order and guarantee all liberties. In it, as a consequence, the institutions of the police, preventive and repressive methods, officialdom, taxation, etc., are reduced to a minimum. In it, more especially, the forms of monarchy and intensive centralization disappear, to be replaced by federal institutions and a pattern of life based on the commune"[31] By "commune", Proudhon meant local self-government or according to literal translation, "municipality", rather than a communist arrangement.[32] Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... Spontaneous order is a term that describes the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ...


Schools of thought

Main article: Anarchist schools of thought
Mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865) was the first self-described anarchist.
Mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865) was the first self-described anarchist.

Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarchism is a political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory rule. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon from http://www. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon from http://www. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ...

Mutualism

Mutualism began in 18th century English and French labor movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States.[33] Proudhon's ideas were introduced by Charles A. Dana,[34] to individualist anarchists in the United States including Benjamin Tucker and William Batchelder Greene.[35] Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... Charles Anderson Dana (August 8, 1819 – October 17, 1897) was an American journalist, author, and government official, best known for his association with Ulysses S. Grant during the American Civil War and his aggressive political advocacy after the war. ... In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ... Benjamin Ricketson Tucker Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was the leading proponent of American individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... William B. Greene William Batchelder Greene (1819-1878) was a 19th century individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and currency reformer in the United States. ...


Mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation, and credit and currency reform. According to Greene, in the mutualist system each worker would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount."[36] Mutualism has been retrospectively characterized as being ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism.[37] Proudhon first characterized his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property."[38] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism comprises several traditions[39] which hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public authority."[40] Individualist anarchism is supportive of property being held privately, unlike the social/socialist/collectivist/communitarian wing which advocates common ownership.[41] Individualist anarchism has been espoused by individuals such as William Godwin,[42] Henry David Thoreau,[43] Josiah Warren, and Murray Rothbard. Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Individualist anarchism (also anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism) refers to any of several traditions that hold that individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public... William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Josiah Warren (1798-1874) was an individualist anarchist, inventor, musician, and author in the United States. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ...

One of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism was Max Stirner,[44] who wrote The Ego and Its Own (1844), a founding text of the philosophy.[44] Stirner's philosophy was an "egoist" form of individualist anarchism according to which the only limitation on the rights of the individual is his power to obtain what he desires[45], taking no notice of God, state, or moral rules.[46] To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality" — he supported property by force of might rather than moral right.[47] Stirner preached self-assertion and foresaw "associations of egoists" where respect for ruthlessness drew people together.[42] Portrait of Max Stirner by Friedrich Engels taken from a 1900 essay on Stirner. ... Portrait of Max Stirner by Friedrich Engels taken from a 1900 essay on Stirner. ... In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing a new generation of thinkers. ... Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner (the nom de plume he adopted from a schoolyard nickname he had acquired as a child because of his high brow Stirn), was a German philosopher, who ranks as one of the literary grandfathers of nihilism... In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ... Engels redirects here. ... Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner (the nom de plume he adopted from a schoolyard nickname he had acquired as a child because of his high brow Stirn), was a German philosopher, who ranks as one of the literary grandfathers of nihilism... The Ego and Its Own (German: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; also translated as The Individual and His Property; a literal translation would read The Sole One and His Property) is the main work by German philosopher Max Stirner, published in 1844. ... The philosophy of Max Stirner is credited as an influence on the development of nihilism, existentialism, post-modernism and anarchism, especially of individualist anarchism and postanarchism. ... Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self-interest ethical egoism - the ethical doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is in their self-interest rational egoism - the belief that it is rational to act... Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ...


A less radical form of individualist anarchism was advocated by the "Boston anarchists,"[48] American individualists who supported private property exchangeable in a free market.[49] They advocated the protection of liberty and property by private contractors,[50] and endorsed exchange of labor for wages,[51]. They did not have a problem that "one man employ another" or that "he direct him," in his labor but demanded that "all natural opportunities requisite to the production of wealth be accessible to all on equal terms and that monopolies arising from special privileges created by law be abolished."[52] They believed state monopoly capitalism (defined as a state-sponsored monopoly[53]) prevented labor from being fully rewarded. Even among the nineteenth century American individualists, there was not a monolithic doctrine, as they disagreed amongst each other on various issues including intellectual property rights and possession versus property in land.[54][55][56] A major cleft occurred later in the 19th century when Tucker and some others abandoned natural rights and converted to an "egoism" modeled upon Stirner's philosophy.[55] Some "Boston anarchists", like Tucker, identified themselves as "socialist" – a term which at the time denoted a broad concept – by which he meant a commitment to solving "the labor problem" by radical economic reform.[57]) By the turn of the 20th century, the heyday of individualist anarchism had passed,[58] although it was later revived with modifications by Murray Rothbard and the anarcho-capitalists in the mid-twentieth century, as a current of the broader libertarian movement.[48][59] A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The theory of State monopoly capitalism (Stamocap or Stamokap theory) was initially a Marxist-Leninist doctrine popularised after world war 2. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... The philosophy of Max Stirner is credited as an influence on the development of nihilism, existentialism, post-modernism and anarchism, especially of individualist anarchism and postanarchism. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ... Anarcho-capitalism is a view that regards all forms of the state as unnecessary and harmful, particularly in matters of justice and self-defense, while being highly supportive of private property. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ...


Libertarian socialism

Main article: Libertarian socialism

Social anarchism or libertarian socialism, is one of two different broad categories of anarchism, the other category being individualist anarchism. The schools within this category of anarchism emphasize cooperation, oppose private property,[60] mutual aid, abolition of authoritarianism in voluntary organizations themselves,[61] and usually community control of the means of production.[62] Political philosophies commonly described as libertarian socialist include: many varieties of anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism[63], some forms of mutualism,[64] social ecology,[65] and council communism[66] (or even communism itself, as it is described by Karl Marx or Lenin in a further stage of development of socialism). Some scholars use libertarian socialism synonymously with anarchism.[67] Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ...


Collectivist anarchism

Collectivist anarchism (a specific tendency not to be confused with the broad category sometimes called collectivist or communitarian anarchism[68]) is a revolutionary[69] form of anarchism commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin and with Johann Most.[70] Unlike mutualists, collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, instead advocating that ownership be collectivized. This was to be initiated by small cohesive elite group through acts of violence, or "propaganda by the deed," which would inspire the workers as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production.[69] However, collectivization was not to be extended to the distribution of income, as workers would be paid according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being distributed "according to need" as in anarcho-communism. Although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labor, some held out the possibility of a post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution according to need.[71] Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism but opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat, despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist stateless society.[72] Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... Communitarianism as a philosophy began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Johann Most born in Augsburg, Germany, 1846, died in Cinncinnati, Ohio, 1906, was a German Anarchist during the late 1800s. ... Propaganda of the Deed or Propaganda by Deed was an anarchist doctrine that promoted the decisive action of individuals to inspire further action by others. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...

Anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin believed that in anarchy, workers would spontaneously self-organize to produce goods in common for all society.
Anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin believed that in anarchy, workers would spontaneously self-organize to produce goods in common for all society.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1600 pixel, file size: 611 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1600 pixel, file size: 611 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... For other uses, see Anarchy (disambiguation). ...

Anarchist communism

Main article: Anarchist communism

Anarchist communists propose that a society composed of a number of self-governing communes with collective use of the means of production and direct democracy as the political organizational form, and related to other communes through federation would be the freest form of social organisation.[73] However, some anarchist communists oppose the majoritarian nature of direct democracy, feeling that it can impede individual liberty and favor consensus democracy.[74] In anarchist communism, individuals would not receive direct compensation for labour (through sharing of profits or payment), but would instead have free access to the resources and surplus of the commune.[75] According to anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin and later Murray Bookchin, the members of such a society would spontaneously perform all necessary labour because they would recognize the benefits of communal enterprise and mutual aid.[76][page # needed] Kropotkin believed that private property was one of the causes of oppression and exploitation and called for its abolition,[77][78] advocating instead common ownership.[77] Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... In Marxist theory, the commune is a form of political organization adopted during the first phase of communism. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... This article is about federal states. ... Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision making to the process of legislation. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The status of anarchist communism within anarchism is disputed, because it is seen by most individualist anarchists as incompatible with freedom.[79] Some anarcho-syndicalists, such as the Spanish union CNT. saw an anarcho-communist society as their objective. Platformism is an anarchist communist tendency in the tradition of Nestor Makhno who argued for the "vital need of an organization which, having attracted most of the participants in the anarchist movement, would establish a common tactical and political line for anarchism and thereby serve as a guide for the whole movement."[80] Some forms of anarchist communism are strongly Egoist in nature,[81] and are strongly influenced by radical individualist philosophy, believing that anarcho-communism does not require a communitarian nature at all; anarchist communist Emma Goldman was influenced by both Max Stirner and Kropotkin and blended their philosophies together in her own.[82] For other uses, see Freedom. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Dielo Trudas Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)[1]. The... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... Ethical egoism is belief that one ought to do what is in ones own self-interest, although a distinction should be made between what is really in ones self-interest and what is only apparently so (see psychological egoism). ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ...


Anarcho-syndicalism

Main articles: Syndicalism and Anarcho-syndicalism
A common anarcho-syndicalist flag.
A common anarcho-syndicalist flag.

In the early twentieth century anarcho-syndicalism arose as a distinct school of thought within anarchism.[83] With greater focus on the labour movement than previous forms of anarchism, syndicalism posits radical trade unions as a potential force for revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society, democratically self-managed by the workers. Anarcho-syndicalists seek to abolish the wage system and private ownership of the means of production, which they believe lead to class divisions. Important principles of syndicalism include workers' solidarity, direct action (such as general strikes and workplace recuperations), and workers' self-management. Anarcho-syndicalism and other branches of anarchism are not mutually exclusive: anarcho-syndicalists often subscribe to communist or collectivist anarchist economic systems.[84] Its advocates propose labour organization as a means to create the foundations of a non-hierarchical anarchist society within the current system and bring about social revolution. Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Image File history File links Anarchist_flag. ... Image File history File links Anarchist_flag. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Poster for the Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas (MNER), at a worker-recovered print shop, Chilavert Artes Gráficas in Buenos Aires, Argentina Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Poster for the Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas (MNER), at a worker-recovered print shop, Chilavert Artes Gráficas in Buenos Aires, Argentina Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ...


Rudolf Rocker was a leading early anarcho-syndicalist thinker who outlined a view of the origins of the movement, what it sought, and why it was important to the future of labour in his 1938 pamphlet Anarchosyndicalism.[84][85] Although more frequently associated with labor struggles of the early twentieth century (particularly in France and Spain), many syndicalist organizations are active today, united across national borders by membership in the International Workers Association, including the SAC in Sweden, the USI in Italy, and the CNT in Spain. Rudolf Rocker (1873-1958) Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 - September 19, 1958) was an anarcho-syndicalist writer, historian and prominent activist. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ... Central Organization of the Workers of Sweden (in Swedish: Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation) is an anarcho-syndicalist trade union federation in Sweden. ... Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; Italian Syndicalist Union or Italian Workers Union) is an Italian trade union. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ...


Recently-developed schools of thought

Temporary Autonomous Zone theorist Hakim Bey is an influential figure in contemporary anarchist circles.
Temporary Autonomous Zone theorist Hakim Bey is an influential figure in contemporary anarchist circles.

Anarchism continues to generate many eclectic and syncretic philosophies and movements; since the revival of anarchism in the U.S. in the 1960s,[86] a number of new movements and schools have emerged. Anarcho-capitalism developed out of radical anti-state libertarianism as a rejuvenated form of individualist anarchism, while the burgeoning feminist and environmentalist movements also produced anarchist offshoots. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism is Hakim Beys most famous work. ... Hakim Bey redirects here. ... Syncretic Politics involve taking political positions that attempt to reconcile seemingly opposed ideological systems, usually by combining some elements associated with the left with some associated with the right. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Individualist anarchism (also anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism) refers to any of several traditions that hold that individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public... Feminists redirects here. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ...


Post-left anarchy

Post-left anarchy is a tendency which seeks to distance itself from the traditional "left" and to escape the confines of ideology in general. Post-leftists argue that anarchism has been weakened by its long attachment to contrary "leftist" movements and single issue causes and calls for a synthesis of anarchist thought and a specifically anti-authoritarian revolutionary movement outside of the leftist milieu. Post-anarchism is a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought developed by Saul Newman and associated with thinkers such as Todd May, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. It draws from a wide range of ideas including autonomism, post-left anarchy, situationism, postcolonialism and Zapatismo. Another recent form of anarchism critical of formal anarchist movements is insurrectionary anarchism which advocates informal organization and active resistance to the state; its proponents include Wolfi Landstreicher and Alfredo M. Bonanno. Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... Left wing redirects here. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Post-anarchism or postanarchism is the term used to represent anarchist philosophies developed since the 1980s using post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Saul Newman (born 1972) is a political theorist and central post-anarchist thinker, currently honorary research fellow at the University of Western Australia (not to be confused with the Saul Newman who works at American University in Washington, D.C.). He received his B.A. from the University of Sydney... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French militant, institutional psychotherapist and philosopher, a founder of both schizoanalysis and ecosophy. ... Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria Autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Postcolonialism (postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is a set of theories in philosophy, film, political sciences and literature that deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule. ... Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which opposes formal anarchist organizations such as labor unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses. ... Wolfi Landstreicher is a contemporary anarchist theorist. ... Alfredo M. Bonanno, an insurrectionary anarchist from Italy, has had a great impact on insurrectionary anarchism, writing essays such as Armed Joy, The Anarchist Tension and others. ...

Murray Rothbard (1926–1995), 20th century progenitor of anarcho-capitalism who asserted that "capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism."
Murray Rothbard (1926–1995), 20th century progenitor of anarcho-capitalism who asserted that "capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism."[87]

Image File history File links Murray_Rothbard. ... Image File history File links Murray_Rothbard. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ...

Anarcho-capitalism and free market anarchism

Main articles: Anarcho-capitalism and Free market anarchism

Anarcho-capitalism or free market anarchism[88] is "based on a belief in the freedom to own private property, a rejection of any form of governmental authority or intervention, and the upholding of the competitive free market as the main mechanism for social interaction."[89] Because of the historically anti-capitalist nature of most anarchist thought, the status of anarcho-capitalism within anarchism is disputed, particularly by communist anarchists.[90] Anarcho-capitalists distinguish between free market capitalism – peaceful voluntary exchange[91] – from "state capitalism" which Murray Rothbard defined as a collusive partnership between big business and government that uses coercion to subvert the free market.[92] Whether in its natural rights-based or utilitarian formulations, anarcho-capitalism has a theory of legitimacy that supports private property as long as it was obtained by labor, trade, or gift.[93] In an anarcho-capitalist society, its proponents hold, voluntary market processes would result in the provision of social institutions such as law enforcement, defence and infrastructure by competing for-profit firms, charities or voluntary associations.[94] rather than the state. In Rothbardian anarcho-capitalism, law (the non-aggression principle) is enforced by the market but not created by it, while according to David D. Friedman's utilitarian version, the law itself is produced by the market. Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... This article discusses anarchism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ... Big Business or big business is a term used to describe large corporations, individually or collectively. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... In modern usage, the practice of charity means the giving of help to those in need. ... Voluntarism (lat. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... David D. Friedman (b. ...


While the term "anarcho-capitalism" was coined by Rothbard and its origin is attributed to 1960's America, some historians, including Rothbard himself, trace the school as far back as the mid-19th century to free-market theorists such as Gustave de Molinari.[95] [96] Anarcho-capitalism has drawn influence from pro-market theorists such as Gustave de Molinari, Frédéric Bastiat, and Robert Nozick, as well as American individualist thinkers such as Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner.[97][98] Considered a form of individualist anarchism,[99] it differs from the individualism of the "Boston anarchists" of the 19th century in its rejection of the labor theory of value (and its normative implications) in favor of the neoclassical or Austrian School marginalist view. Anarcho-capitalist ideas have in turn contributed to the development of agorism,[100] autarchism, and crypto-anarchism.[101] For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Gustave de Molinari Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with French laissez-faire liberal economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille. ... Gustave de Molinari Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with French laissez-faire liberal economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille. ... Frédéric Bastiat Claude Frédéric Bastiat (June 30, 1801–December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal theorist, political economist, and member of the French assembly. ... Origins Ideas Topics Related Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... Benjamin Ricketson Tucker Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was the leading proponent of American individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American individualist anarchist political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Individualist anarchism (also anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism) refers to any of several traditions that hold that individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public... The labor theories of value (LTV) are theories in economics according to which the true values of commodities are related to the labor needed to produce them. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... The Austrian School, also known as the “Vienna School” or the “Psychological School”, is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... Marginalism is the use of marginal concepts within economics. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Agorism is an anarchist political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III and characterized by proponents as left-libertarian. ... The term autarchy has two different meanings. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ...


Anarcha-feminism

Main article: Anarcha-feminism
A purple and black flag is often used to represent Anarcha-feminism.
A purple and black flag is often used to represent Anarcha-feminism.

Anarcha-feminism is a synthesis of radical feminism and anarchism that views patriarchy (male domination over women) as a fundamental manifestation of involuntary hierarchy – to which anarchists are opposed. Anarcha-feminism was inspired in the late 19th century by the writings of early feminist anarchists such as Lucy Parsons, Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre. Anarcha-feminists, like other radical feminists, criticize and advocate the abolition of traditional conceptions of family, education and gender roles. Many Anarcha-feminists are especially critical of marriage. For instance, the feminist anarchist Emma Goldman has argued that marriage is a purely economic arrangement and that "... [woman] pays for it with her name, her privacy, her self-respect, her very life."[102]. Anarcha-feminists by contrast view patriarchy as a fundamental problem in society and believe that the feminist struggle against sexism and patriarchy is an essential component of the anarchist struggle against the state and capitalism. L. Susan Brown expressed the sentiment that "as anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is inherently feminist".[103] There have been several male anarcha-feminists as well such as the Anarcho-communist Joseph Déjacque who opposed Proudhons anti-feminist views."[104] Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Image File history File links Anfem. ... Image File history File links Anfem. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... English family c. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Lucy Parsons Lucy Parsons (1853-March 7, 1942) was an American radical labor organizer, anarchist and is remembered as a powerful orator. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866–June 20, 1912) was, according to Emma Goldman, the most gifted and brilliant anarchist woman America ever produced; yet she is not widely known even among anarchists today. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... L. Susan Brown is an anarcha-feminist writer and theoretician. ... Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Joseph Déjacque (b. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Antifeminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms. ...


Green anarchism

Main article: Green anarchism
Green and black flag of Green Anarchism.
Green and black flag of Green Anarchism.

Green anarchism is an anarchist school of thought which puts an emphasis on the environment. Anarcho-primitivism is a form of green anarchism that believes civilization and technology inevitably lead to inequality and are incompatible with anarchism and in effect must be abolished. Anarcho-primitivists often criticize traditional anarchism for supporting civilization and technology which they believe are inherently based on domination and exploitation and instead advocate the process of rewilding or reconnecting with the natural environment. Not all green anarchists are primitivists. There is a strong critique of technology among some green anarchists, though not all reject it entirely. Sometimes green anarchism is said to be techno-positive or techno-negative to differentiate between those who advocate use of advanced green technology to create and maintain an anarchist society and those who mainly see civilization and modern technology as something negative. Non-primitivist green anarchists, such as anthropologist Brian Morris, often draw influence from the social ecology of Murray Bookchin. Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Green anarchism is a school of thought within anarchism which puts an emphasis on the environment. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Central New York City. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Rewilding is the process of undoing domestication. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ...


Anarchism without adjectives

"Anarchism without adjectives", in the words of historian George Richard Esenwein, "referred to an unhyphenated form of anarchism, that is, a doctrine without any qualifying labels such as communist, collectivist, mutualist, or individualist. For others,…[it] was simply understood as an attitude that tolerated the coexistence of different anarchist schools".[105] "Anarchism without adjectives" emphasizes harmony among various anarchist factions and attempts to unite them around their shared anti-authoritarian beliefs. The position was first adopted in 1889 by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol as a call for toleration, after being troubled by the "bitter debates" among the different anarchist movements.[106] Voltairine de Cleyre,[107] Errico Malatesta,[108] and Fred Woodworth are noteworthy exponents of the view.[109] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Individualist anarchism (also anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism) refers to any of several traditions that hold that individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public... Fernando Tarrida del Mármol (1861 - 1915), was a Cuban anarchist writer. ... “Tolerance” redirects here. ... Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866–June 20, 1912) was, according to Emma Goldman, the most gifted and brilliant anarchist woman America ever produced; yet she is not widely known even among anarchists today. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... // Biography and Politics Fred Woodworth is an anarchist and atheist writer based in the United States. ...


Anarchism as a social movement

Anarchism as a social movement has regularly endured fluctuations in popularity. Its classical period, which scholars demarcate as from 1860 to 1939, is associated with the working-class movements of the nineteenth century and the Spanish Civil War-era struggles against fascism.[110] American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ...


The First International

Collectivist anarchist Mikhail Bakunin opposed the Marxist aim of dictatorship of the proletariat in favour of universal rebellion, and allied himself with the anti-authoritarians in the First International before his expulsion by the Marxists.
Collectivist anarchist Mikhail Bakunin opposed the Marxist aim of dictatorship of the proletariat in favour of universal rebellion, and allied himself with the anti-authoritarians in the First International before his expulsion by the Marxists.[22]

In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of 1848,[context needed] but in 1864 the International Workingmen's Association (sometimes called the "First International") united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon, Blanquists, Philadelphes, English trade unionists, socialists and social democrats.[citation needed] Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organization. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marx's state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings.[citation needed] In 1868, following their unsuccessful participation in the League of Peace and Freedom (LPF), Mikhail Bakunin and his associates joined the First International – which had decided not to get involved with the LPF. They allied themselves with the anti-authoritarian socialist sections of the International, who advocated the revolutionary overthrow of the state and the collectivization of property. At first, the collectivists worked with the Marxists to push the First International in a more revolutionary socialist direction. Subsequently, the International became polarized into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads.[citation needed] Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as authoritarian and predicted that, if a Marxist party came to power, its leaders would simply take the place of the ruling class they had fought against.[111][112] In 1872, the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress, where Bakunin and James Guillaume were expelled from the International and its headquarters were transferred to New York. In response, the anti-authoritarian[neutrality disputed] sections formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress, adopting a revolutionary anarchist program.[113] Full shot of Mikhail Bakunin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Full shot of Mikhail Bakunin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... State socialism, broadly speaking, is any variety of socialism which relies on ownership of the means of production by the state. ... Bakunins membership card of the League of Peace and Freedom The Inaugural Congress of the League of Peace and Freedom was originally planned for September 5, 1867 in Geneva. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... The Hague Congress of the International Workers Association (September 1872) marked the end of this organization as a unitarian alliance of all socialist factions (Anarchists and Marxists). ... James Guillaume (February 16, 1844 - November 20, 1916) was a leading member of the Jura federation of the First International, the anarchist wing of the International. ... The Anarchist St. ...


Anarchism and organized labor

Main articles: Anarcho-syndicalism and Anarchism in Spain
Spanish anarcho-syndicalists successfully organized autonomous communities during the Spanish Revolution (1936–1939).

The anti-authoritarian sections of the First International were the precursors of the anarcho-syndicalists, seeking to "replace the privilege and authority of the State" with the "free and spontaneous organization of labor."[114] In 1886, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (FOTLU) of the United States and Canada unanimously set May 1, 1886, as the date by which the eight-hour work day would become standard.[115] In response, unions across America prepared a general strike in support of the event.[116] Upon May 3, in Chicago, a fight broke out when replacement workers attempted to cross the picket line. Police intervention led to the deaths of four men, enraging the workers of the city. The next day, May 4, anarchists staged a rally at Chicago's Haymarket Square.[117] A bomb was thrown by an unknown party near the conclusion of the rally, killing an officer.[118] In the ensuing panic, police opened fire on the crowed and each other.[119] Seven police officers and at least four workers were killed.[120] Eight anarchists directly and indirectly related to the organizers of the rally were arrested and charged with the murder of the deceased officer. The men became international political celebrities among the labor movement. Four of the men were executed and a fifth committed suicide prior to his own execution. The incident became known as the Haymarket affair, and was a setback for the labor movement and the struggle for the eight hour day. In 1890 a second attempt, this time international in scope, to organize for the eight hour day was made. The event also had the secondary purpose of memorializing workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair.[121] The celebration of International Workers' Day on May Day became an annual event the following year. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... woman with cntfai flag This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... woman with cntfai flag This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present. ... In Spanish history, there have been several revolutions. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions represented a transition stage of Labor unions in the United States; it was the immediate predecessor of the American Federation of Labor. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886 in Chicago is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... International Workers Day (a name used interchangeably with May Day) is a celebration of the social and economic achievements of the international labour movement. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ...


In 1907, the International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam gathered delegates from 14 different countries, among which important figures of the anarchist movement, including Errico Malatesta, Pierre Monatte, Luigi Fabbri, Benoît Broutchoux, Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Christiaan Cornelissen, etc. Various themes were treated during the Congress, in particular concerning the organisation of the anarchist movement, popular education issues, the general strike or antimilitarism. A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism (or trade unionism). Malatesta and Monatte in particular opposed themselves on this issue, as the latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution, while Malatesta did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient.[122] Malatesta thought that trade-unions were reformist, and could even be, at times, conservative. Along with Cornelissen, he cited as example US trade-unions, where trade-unions composed of qualified workers sometimes opposed themselves to non-qualified workers in order to defend their relatively privileged position. The International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam took place from 24 August to 31 August 1907. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... Pierre Monatte (1881 - 27 June 1960) was a French trade unionist, who worked in the printing industry (ouvrier du livre). ... Luigi Fabbri (1877 – 1935), was an Italian militant anarchist and writer, agitator and propagandist charged with defeatism during the World War I. Born in Fabriano (Ancona), Italy 1877, died in Montevideo, Uruguay 1935. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Rudolf Rocker (1873-1958) Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 - September 19, 1958) was an anarcho-syndicalist writer, historian and prominent activist. ... Christiaan Cornelissen (1864-1942) was a Dutch syndicalist writer, economist, and trade unionist. ... It has been suggested that Folk high school be merged into this article or section. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... -1... Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a society can ultimately change a societys fundamental economic relations and political structures. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators Labor unions in the United States function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries. ...


The Spanish Workers Federation in 1881 was the first major anarcho-syndicalist movement; anarchist trade union federations were of special importance in Spain. The most successful was the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour: CNT), founded in 1910. Before the 1940s, the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics and played a major role in the Spanish Civil War. The CNT was affiliated with the International Workers Association, a federation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions founded in 1922, with delegates representing two million workers from 15 countries in Europe and Latin America. The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) and the CNT. CGT membership was estimated to be around 100,000 for the year 2003.[123] Other active syndicalist movements include the US Workers Solidarity Alliance and the UK Solidarity Federation. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World, claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... CGT demonstration in Barcelona, October 2005 CGT sticker The Confederación General del Trabajo of Spain (CGT) is a Anarcho-Syndicalist trade union, arisen from the split of CNT/AIT after the arrival of democracy and the following reorganization and restructuring process of the trade unions. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Workers Solidarity Alliance (WSA) is a United States political activist group that advocates anarcho-syndicalism; WSA is not a trade union or proto-union. ... Formed in 1994, the Solidarity Federation (SolFed) is a federation of class struggle anarchists active in Britain. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ...


The Russian Revolution

Anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman opposed Bolshevik consolidation of power following the Russian Revolution (1917).
Anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman opposed Bolshevik consolidation of power following the Russian Revolution (1917).

Anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both February and October revolutions, many anarchists initially supporting the Bolshevik coup. However, the Bolsheviks soon turned against the anarchists and other left-wing opposition, a conflict that culminated in the 1921 Kronstadt rebellion. Anarchists in central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined the victorious Bolsheviks. In the Ukraine, anarchists fought in the civil war against Whites and then the Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno, who attempted to establish an anarchist society in the region for a number of months. The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1207x945, 248 KB) Description Woman anarchist leader and aid in draft war. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1207x945, 248 KB) Description Woman anarchist leader and aid in draft war. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Alexander Berkman, 1892 Alexander Berkman (November 21, 1870 – June 28, 1936) was a Russian-American writer and a leading member of the anarchist movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... The February Revolution in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Simon Karetnik, Batko Makhno, and Fedir Shchus (Fedor Shchus). ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ...


Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, before they left Russia. Both wrote accounts of their experiences in Russia, criticizing the amount of control the Bolsheviks exercised. For them, Bakunin's predictions about the consequences of Marxist rule that the rulers of the new "socialist” Marxist state would become a new elite[111] had proved all too true. Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Alexander Berkman, 1892 Alexander Berkman (November 21, 1870 – June 28, 1936) was a Russian-American writer and a leading member of the anarchist movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian...


The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as setting an example; Communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the US, for example, certain members of the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW left the organizations and joined the Communist International. In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT or General Confederation of Work) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including...


In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles, which included Nestor Makhno, concluded that anarchists needed to develop new forms of organisation in response to the structures of Bolshevism. Their 1926 manifesto, called the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft),[80] was supported by some communist anarchists, though opposed by many others.[who?] Platformist groups today include the Workers Solidarity Movement in Ireland and the North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists of North America. From 1925-1928, Dielo Truda (trans: Workers Cause), was an anarchist publication put out by the Group of Russian Anarchists Abroad, as well as the group itself, made up of anarchists exiled from Russia after the Russian Revolution. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Dielo Trudas Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)[1]. The... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... NEFAC (the North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists or the Fédération des Communistes Libertaires du Nord-Est) is an anarchist communist organization, associated with International Libertarian Solidarity and consisting of active member collectives in Canada and the United States. ...


The fight against fascism

Main article: Anti-fascism
See also: Anarchism in Italy, Anarchism in France, and Anarchism in Spain
Anti-fascist Maquis, who resisted Nazi and Francoist rule in Europe.
Anti-fascist Maquis, who resisted Nazi and Francoist rule in Europe.

In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of fascism in Europe transformed anarchism's conflict with the state. Italy saw the first struggles between anarchists and fascists. Italian anarchists played a key role in the anti-fascist organisation Arditi del Popolo, which was strongest in areas with anarchist traditions and marked up numerous successful victories, including repelling Blackshirts in the anarchist stronghold of Parma in August 1922.[124] In France, where the far right leagues came close to insurrection in the February 1934 riots, anarchists divided over a united front policy.[125] Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Italy, in particular at the turn of the 20th century, had a strong anarcho-syndicalist movement. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... Image File history File links Members_of_the_Maquis_in_La_Tresorerie. ... Image File history File links Members_of_the_Maquis_in_La_Tresorerie. ... Members of the Maquis in La Tresorerie For other uses, see Maquis. ... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Italy, in particular at the turn of the 20th century, had a strong anarcho-syndicalist movement. ... Logo of the Arditi del Popolo. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Far right leagues (Ligues dextrême droite) gathered several French far right movements opposed to parliamentarism, which mainly dedicate themselves to military parades, street brawls, demonstrations and riots. ... The 6 February 1934 crisis refers to an anti-parliamentarist demonstration organised in Paris by far-right leagues (antiparliamentarian militias), which finished by a riot on Place de la Concorde, which is located on the Right Bank of the Seine, in front of the Palais Bourbon, seat of the National... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to...


In Spain, the CNT initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in 1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the ruling class responded with an attempted coup, and the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) was underway. In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivized the land. But even before the eventual fascist victory in 1939, the anarchists were losing ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists, who controlled the distribution of military aid to the Republican cause from the Soviet Union. According to George Orwell and other foreign observers, Stalinist-led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both dissident Marxists and anarchists. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and...


Internal issues and debates

Main article: Issues in anarchism
The efficacy and legitimacy of using violence to political ends have been controversial issues amongst anarchists.
The efficacy and legitimacy of using violence to political ends have been controversial issues amongst anarchists.

Anarchism is a philosophy which embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies and schools of thought; as such, disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common. The compatibility of capitalism), nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys a complex relationship with ideologies such as Marxism, communism and anarcho-capitalism. Anarchists may be motivated by humanism, divine authority, enlightened self-interest or any number of alternative ethical doctrines. It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Anarchism and violence have become closely connected in popular thought, in part because of a concept of propaganda of the deed. Propaganda of the deed, or attentát, was espoused by a number... Though the libertarian socialist critique of capitalism is rooted in socialist theory, there are certain key distinctions in their critiques, which this article attempts to elucidate. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Nationalism and anarchism both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated relationship, going back at least to Bakunin and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion... While anarchism and Marxism are two different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of groups of anarchists and Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. ... It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses anarchism and anarcho-capitalism. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Ethical egoism is belief that one ought to do what is in ones own self-interest, although a distinction should be made between what is really in ones self-interest and what is only apparently so (see psychological egoism). ...


Phenomena such as civilization, technology (e.g. within Anarcho-primitivism and insurrectionary anarchism), and the democratic process may be sharply criticized within some anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others. Anarchist attitudes towards race, gender and the environment have changed significantly since the modern origin of the philosophy in the eighteenth century. Central New York City. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which opposes formal anarchist organizations such as labor unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses. ... It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ...


On a tactical level, while propaganda of the deed was a tactic used by anarchists in the 19th century (e.g. the Nihilist movement), contemporary anarchists espouse alternative methods such as nonviolence, counter-economics and anti-state cryptography to bring about an anarchist society. The diversity in anarchism has led to widely different use of identical terms among different anarchist traditions, which has led to many definitional concerns in anarchist theory. Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Nihilist movement was an 1860s Russian cultural movement which rejected existing authorities and values. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... It has been suggested that Major conflicts within anarchist thought be merged into this article or section. ...


Citations

  1. ^ Anarchy Merriam-Webster's Online dictionary
  2. ^ Malatesta, Errico, "Towards Anarchism", MAN!. Los Angeles: International Group of San Francisco. OCLC 3930443.
  3. ^ Agrell, Siri (2007-05-14). "Working for The Man". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 
  4. ^ "Anarchism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 29 August 2006
  5. ^ "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. P. 14 "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable."
  6. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail, God and the State, pt. 2.; Tucker, Benjamin, State Socialism and Anarchism.; Kropotkin, Piotr, Anarchism: its Philosophy and Ideal; Malatesta, Errico, Towards Anarchism; Bookchin, Murray, Anarchism: Past and Present, pt. 4; An Introduction to Anarchism by Liz A. Highleyman
  7. ^ a b Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  8. ^ Ross, Dr. Jeffery Ian. ‘Controlling State Crime’ Transaction Publishers (200) p.400
  9. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings, Courier Dover Publications, 2002, p.5
  10. ^ R.B. Fowler (1972). "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought". Western Political Quarterly 25 (4): 738–752. doi:10.2307/446800. 
  11. ^ Sylvan, Richard. "Anarchism". A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, editors Goodwin, Robert E. and Pettit, Philip. Blackwell Publishing, 1995, p.231
  12. ^ "Usually considered to be an extreme left-wing ideology, anarchism has always included a significant strain of radical individualism, from the hyperrationalism of Godwin, to the egoism of Stirner, to the libertarians and anarcho-capitalists of today." Brooks, Frank H. 1994. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p. xi
  13. ^ Colin Moynihan (2007). "Book Fair Unites Anarchists. In Spirit, Anyway". New York Times (April 16). 
  14. ^ Dennis Roddy (2003). "Anarchists: Can they get it together?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 02). 
  15. ^ Joseph Kahn (2000). "Anarchism, the Creed That Won’t Stay Dead; The Spread of World Capitalism Resurrects a Long-Dormant Movement". New York Times (August 5). 
  16. ^ "Anarchism". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 31
  17. ^ Fowler, R.B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought". The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4. (Dec., 1972), pp. 743–744
  18. ^ a b c Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Encyclopædia Britannica 1910
  19. ^ Murray Rothbard. "Concepts of the role of intellectuals in social change toward laissez faire".
  20. ^ Cynics entry at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Julie Piering
  21. ^ "Anarchism", Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006 (UK version)
  22. ^ a b c d e "Anarchism", BBC Radio 4 program, In Our Time, Thursday December 7, 2006. Hosted by Melvyn Bragg of the BBC, with John Keane, Professor of Politics at University of Westminster, Ruth Kinna, Senior Lecturer in Politics at Loughborough University, and Peter Marshall, philosopher and historian.
  23. ^ Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. pg. 85
  24. ^ a b William Godwin entry at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Mark Philip, 2006-05-20
  25. ^ Godwin himself attributed the first anarchist writing to Edmund Burke's Vindication of Natural Society. "Most of the above arguments may be found much more at large in Burke's Vindication of Natural Society; a treatise in which the evils of the existing political institutions are displayed with incomparable force of reasoning and lustre of eloquence…" – footnote, Ch. 2 Political Justice by William Godwin.
  26. ^ Godwin, William [1793] (1796). Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners. G.G. and J. Robinson. OCLC 2340417. 
  27. ^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  28. ^ Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).
  29. ^ Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem, ed. H. Cohen (New York: Vanguard Press, 1927), p.45.
  30. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1979). The Principle of Federation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0802054587. “The notion of anarchy in politics is just as rational and positive as any other. It means that once industrial functions have taken over from political functions, then business transactions alone produce the social order.” 
  31. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1969). Selected Writings. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books. OCLC 221546850. 
  32. ^ Bernstein, Samuel. 1984. French Political and Intellectual. History. Transaction Publishers. p. 174
  33. ^ "A member of a community," The Mutualist; this 1826 series criticized Robert Owen's proposals, and has been attributed to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests of Valley Forge; Wilbur, Shawn, 2006, "More from the 1826 "Mutualist"?"
  34. ^ Dana, Charles A. Proudhon and his "Bank of the People" (1848).
  35. ^ Tucker, Benjamin R., "On Picket Duty", Liberty (Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order) (1881–1908); 5 January 1889; 6, 10; APS Online pg. 1
  36. ^ "Communism versus Mutualism", Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments. (Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1875) William Batchelder Greene: "Under the mutual system, each individual will receive the just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount; and so much as the individual laborer will then get over and above what he has earned will come to him as his share in the general prosperity of the community of which he is an individual member."
  37. ^ Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Princeton University Press 1996 ISBN 0–691–04494–5, p.6
    Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, Blackwell Publishing 1991 ISBN 0–631–17944–5, p.11
  38. ^ Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. What Is Property? Princeton, MA: Benjamin R. Tucker, 1876. p. 281.
  39. ^ Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 2
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    Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, edited by Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, Alvin Saunders Johnson, 1937, p. 12.
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  47. ^ "What my might reaches is my property; and let me claim as property everything I feel myself strong enough to attain, and let me extend my actual property as fas as I entitle, that is, empower myself to take…" In Ossar, Michael. 1980. Anarchism in the Dramas of Ernst Toller. SUNY Press. p. 27
  48. ^ a b Levy, Carl. "Anarchism". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007.
  49. ^ "Anarchism is a word without meaning, unless it includes the liberty of the individual to control his product or whatever his product has brought him through exchange in a free market – that is, private property. Whoever denies private property is of necessity an Archist." "Anarchism and Property", by Benjamin Tucker in The New Freewoman, November 15, 1913
  50. ^ Benjamin Tucker, "defense is a service like any other service; that it is labor both useful and desired, and therefore an economic commodity subject to the law of supply and demand; that in a free market this commodity would be furnished at the cost of production; that, competition prevailing, patronage would go to those who furnished the best article at the lowest price; that the production and sale of this commodity are now monopolized by the State; and that the State, like almost all monopolists, charges exorbitant prices" "Instead of a Book" (1893)
    "Anarchism does not exclude prisons, officials, military, or other symbols of force. It merely demands that non-invasive men shall not be made the victims of such force. Anarchism is not the reign of love, but the reign of justice. It does not signify the abolition of force-symbols but the application of force to real invaders." Tucker, Benjamin. Liberty October 19, 1891.
  51. ^ Tucker, Benjamin. "Labor and Its Pay", from Individual Liberty: Selections from the Writings of Benjamin T. Tucker
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  53. ^ Schwartzman, Jack. "Ingalls, Hanson, and Tucker: Nineteenth-Century American Anarchists". American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 62, No. 5 (November, 2003). p. 325
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  56. ^ Watner, Carl. "Spooner Vs. Liberty"PDF (1.20 MiB) in The Libertarian Forum. March 1975. Volume VII, No 3. ISSN 0047–4517. pp. 5–6.
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  60. ^ "Libertarian Socialism". Retrieved on 2008-06-30.
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  62. ^ Suissa, Judith(2001) "Anarchism, Utopias and Philosophy of Education", Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4), 627–646. doi:10.1111/1467-9752.00249
  63. ^ Sims, Franwa (2006). The Anacostia Diaries As It Is. Lulu Press, p.160. 
  64. ^ Carson, Kevin. "Are Mutualists Socialists?". A Mutualist FAQ. Mutualist.org: Free Market Anti-Capitalism. Retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  65. ^ Bookchin, Murray. 'Post-Scarcity Anarchism' AK Press (2004) p.xl
  66. ^ Chomsky, Noam. 'Chomsky on Democracy and Education' Routledge (2002) p.133
  67. ^ Ross, Dr. Jeffery Ian. ‘Controlling State Crime’ Transaction Publishers (200) p.400
  68. ^ Morris, Christopher W. 1998. An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge University Press. p 50. The collectivist category is also sometimes known as social, socialist, or communitarian anarchism category.
  69. ^ a b Patsouras, Louis. 2005. Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 54
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  71. ^ Guillaume, James, Ideas on Social Organization(1876)
  72. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail (1990). Statism and Anarchy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521361826. “They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship -- their dictatorship, of course -- can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up.” 
  73. ^ Puente, Isaac. "Libertarian Communism". The Cienfuegos Press Anarchist Review. Issue 6 Orkney 1982
  74. ^ Graeber, David and Grubacic, Andrej. Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary Movement Of The Twenty-first Century
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  78. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. Words of a Rebel, p99.
  79. ^ Yarros, Victor S. "A Princely Paradox", Liberty, Vol 4. No. 19, Saturday, April 9, 1887, Whole Number 97; Tucker, Benjamin. "Labor and Its Pay"; Appleton, Henry. "Anarchism, True and False", Liberty 2.24, no. 50, 6 September 1884, p. 4; Swartz, Clarence Lee. What is Mutualism?; Rothbard, Murray. "The Death Wish of the Anarcho-Communists"
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  81. ^ Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88.
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  87. ^ "Exclusive Interview With Murray Rothbard" The New Banner: A Fortnightly Libertarian Journal. 25 February 1972.
  88. ^ "This volume honors the foremost contemporary exponent of free-market anarchism. One contributor describes Murray Rothbard as 'the most ideologically committed zero-State academic economist on earth'." Review by Lawrence H. White of "Man, Economy, and Liberty: Essays in honor of Murray N. Rothbard", published in Journal of Economic Literature, Vol XXVIII, June 1990, page 664
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  92. ^ Murray Rothbard, A Future of Peace and Capitalism; Murray Rothbard, Left and Right: The Prospects for Liberty.
  93. ^ Rothbard, Murray (1969) Confiscation and the Homestead PrinciplePDF (580 KiB) The Libertarian Forum Vol. I, No. VI (June 15, 1969) Retrieved 5 August 2006
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  96. ^ Rothbard, Murray. Preface. The Production of Security. By Gustave Molinari. 1849, 1977. [1]
  97. ^ DeLeon, David. The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, p. 127
  98. ^ Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, 1987, ISBN 0–631–17944–5, p. 290: "A student and disciple of the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, Rothbard combined the laissez-faire economics of his teacher with the absolutist views of human rights and rejection of the state he had absorbed from studying the individualist American anarchists of the nineteenth century such as Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. (Rothbard himself is on the anarchist wing of the movement.)"
  99. ^ Adams, Ian. 2002. Political Ideology Today. p. 135. Manchester University Press; Ostergaard, Geoffrey. 2003. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. W. Outwaite ed. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.
  100. ^ Konkin, Samuel Edward. New Libertarian Manifesto. KoPubCo year = 2006. ISBN 9780977764921. 
  101. ^ Vernor Vinge, James Frankel. True Names: And the Opening of the Cyberspace Frontier (2001), Tor Books, p.44
  102. ^ Goldman, "Marriage and Love", Red Emma Speaks, p. 205
  103. ^ Brown, Susan. "Beyond Feminism: Anarchism and Human Freedom" Anarchist Papers 3 Black Rose Books (1990) p. 208
  104. ^ Anarchist-Communism by Alain Pengam
  105. ^ Esenwein, George Richard "Anarchist Ideology and the Working Class Movement in Spain, 1868–1898" [p. 135]
  106. ^ Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press, 1996, p. 6
  107. ^ Voltairine De Cleyre, "Why I Am an Anarchist"
  108. ^ Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism [p. 198–9]
  109. ^ Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Paul Avrich (2006). p. 475
  110. ^ Jonathan Purkis and James Bowen, "Introduction: Why Anarchism Still Matters", in Jonathan Purkis and James Bowen (eds), Changing Anarchism: Anarchist Theory and Practice in a Global Age (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), p.3.
  111. ^ a b "On the International Workingmen's Association and Karl Marx" in Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971
  112. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail [1873] (1991). Statism and Anarchy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0–521–36973–8. 
  113. ^ Graham, Robert ''Anarchism (Montreal: Black Rose Books 2005) ISBN 1–55164–251–4
  114. ^ Resolutions from the St. Imier Congress, in Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Vol. 1, p.100 [2]
  115. ^ "How May Day Became a Workers' Holiday". The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything. bbc.co.uk (4 October 2001). Retrieved on 2008-01-19. “(It is) Resolved ... that eight hours shall constitute a legal day's labor from and after May 1, 1886, and that we recommend to labor organizations throughout this district that they so direct their laws so as to conform to this resolution by the time named.”
  116. ^ "How May Day Became a Workers' Holiday". The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything. bbc.co.uk (4 October 2001). Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  117. ^ Avrich. The Haymarket Tragedy, p. 193. 
  118. ^ "Patrolman Mathias J. Degan". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  119. ^ Chicago Tribune, June 27, 1886, quoted in Avrich. The Haymarket Tragedy, p. 209. 
  120. ^ "Act II: Let Your Tragedy Be Enacted Here". The Dramas of Haymarket. Chicago Historical Society (2000). Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  121. ^ Foner. May Day, p. 42. 
  122. ^ Extract of Malatesta's declaration (French)
  123. ^ Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003" (International:SPIRE Associates 2004)
  124. ^ Holbrow, Marnie, "Daring but Divided" (Socialist Review November 2002)
  125. ^ Berry, David. "Fascism or Revolution". Le Libertaire. August 1936)

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Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... God and the State is the most well-known literary work of Russian Anarchist, Mikhail Bakunin. ... Benjamin Ricketson Tucker Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was the leading proponent of American individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 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Dr Ruth Ellen Kinna is a politics lecturer at Loughborough University where she specialises in political philosophy, she is also the author of Anarchism - A Beginners Guide. Ruth Kinna holds a BA in History and Politics from the University of London and a D.Phil in Politics from the University... Loughborough University is located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. ... Peter Marshall is a philosopher, historian, biographer,travel writer and poet. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... Garden City, New York, is a village in central Nassau County, New York, in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William B. 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A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Journal of Libertarian Studies is a scholarly journal published quarterly by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr. ... Carl Watner (1948-) is an American author and historian of libertarian studies, and a voluntaryist. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Paul Avrich is a professor and historian. ... 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Isaac Puente (1896 -1936) was a Basque doctor and Spanish anarchist active in the CNT. He is best known for his famous and influential pamphlet Libertarian Communism, published in 1932. ... David Graeber David Graeber is an anarchist and anthropologist. ... Cover of Elephant Editions reprint of Conquest Of Bread, 1985. ... Fields, Factories and Workshops is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political position. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Victor Yarros was a 19th century American anarchist and author. ... 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Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Anarchism portal

Image File history File links BlackFlagSymbol. ... This article discusses various anarchist symbols, including the circle-A and the black flag. ...

Further reading

  • Anarchism. A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Robert Graham, editor.
    • Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939) Black Rose Books, Montréal and London 2005. ISBN 1–55164–250–6.
    • Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939–2006) Black Rose Books, Montréal 2007. ISBN 9781551643113.
  • Anarchism, George Woodcock (Penguin Books, 1962)
  • Anarchy: A Graphic Guide, Clifford Harper (Camden Press, 1987) (An overview, updating Woodcock's classic, and illustrated throughout by Harper's woodcut-style artwork)
  • The Anarchist Reader, George Woodcock (Ed.) (Fontana/Collins 1977) (An anthology of writings from anarchist thinkers and activists including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin, Bookchin, Goldman, and many others.)
  • The Dispossessed, Ursula K. Le Guin (a 1974 science fiction novel that takes place on a planet with an anarchist society; winner of both the Hugo and Nebula Awards for best novel.)

Anarchist Daniel Guérin, Anarchism Robert Graham Anarchism. ... Robert Graham has written several books which challenge conventional history, mostly pertaining to the pyramids at Giza. ... George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 - January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer. ... Cover art of Harpers 1978 Class War Comix Clifford Harper (born July 13, 1949) is an artist who describes himself as a committed anarchist and cartoonist. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced [ˈpruːd É’n] in British English, [pʁu dɔ̃] in French) (January 15, 1809 – January 19, 1865) was a French mutualist political philosopher of the socialist tradition. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... The Dispossessed: An Ambiguous Utopia is a 1974 utopian science fiction novel by Ursula K. Le Guin, set in the same fictional universe as that of The Left Hand of Darkness (the Hainish Cycle). ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsÉ™lÉ™ ËŒkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ... The Nebula is an award given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), for the best science fiction/fantasy fiction published in the United States during the two previous years (see rolling eligibility below). ...

External links

Look up Anarchism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Anarchism
Wikisource has several original texts related to:
Anarchism
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Anarchism

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

General resources

  • "An Anarchist FAQ Webpage" – An Anarchist FAQ
  • Anarchist Theory FAQ by Bryan Caplan
  • Infoshop.org – Anarchist news, information, and online library.
  • Anarchism.net – a pluralist resource on anarchism

An Anarchist FAQ is an online FAQ written by an international work group of anarchists connected through the internet. ... Bryan Caplan (b. ...

Biographical and bibliographical

  • Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopedia–1,700+ entries, with short bios, links & dedicated pages.
  • Anarchy Archives – Anarchy Archives, information relating to famous anarchists including their writings.
  • Anarchist virtual library 768 books, booklets and texts about anarchism.
  • Spunk.org – Spunk Library, extensive archive of anarchist documents
  • "Zinelibrary.net" anarchist zines to download, print and distribute

The Anarchy Archives project is a self-described online research center on the history and theory of Anarchism. ...

News

  • A-infos "a multi-lingual news service by, for, and about anarchists"
  • Anarchist News – news reports from an anarchist perspective
  • Anarkismo - A multi-lingual, international news and theory site

Image File history File links Vote. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
anarchism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (436 words)
Also central in anarchism are the belief in individual freedom and the denial of any authority, particularly that of the state, that hinders human development.
Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoic philosophy, is regarded as the father of anarchism.
As an organized movement, anarchism is largely dead, but it retains importance as a philosophical attitude and a political tendency, and to lesser degree as a source of social protest.
Anarchism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4459 words)
Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and political movement, derived from the Greek αναρχία ("without archons" or "without rulers").
Thus "anarchism," in its most general meaning, is the belief that all forms of domination, coersion, and rulership are undesirable and should be abolished.
Anarcho-capitalism, inspired by the self-ownership principle of individualist anarchism, diverges by rejecting labor theory of value and the label of socialism in favor of the subjective theory of value and a broader notion of private property.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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