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Encyclopedia > Anaphylatoxin

Anaphylatoxins, or anaphylotoxins, are fragments (C3a, C4a or C5a) that are produced during the pathways of the complement system. In immunology, soluble C3-convertase, also known as iC3Bb, catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b as part of the alternative complement system. ... Complement component 4 is a protein involved in the complement system. ... C5a is a protein fragment released from complement component C5. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ...


Direct and indirect functions

Most notable is the ability to trigger degranulation of (release of substances from) mast cells or basophils, which is an important part of the immune system in all kinds of inflammation and especially as part of defense against parasites. If the degranulation is too strong, it can cause allergic reactions. The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ... A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Pancreatitus can be caused by an Allergic Reaction to a food. ...

Anaphylatoxins indirectly mediate:

Cultured Smooth muscle of the aorta. ... Bronchospasm is a difficulty in breathing caused by a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ...


Important anaphylatoxins:

  • C3a is not as strong as C5a, but stronger than C4a and can trigger degranulation of Mast-cells and serve as a chemotactic targeting molecule for eosinophile granulocytes.
  • C4a is the least active anaphylatoxin
  • C5a is the strongest toxin in the row, it is a very strong mediator of inflammation.
    • co-stimulation of C3b at times of phagocytosis (not possible without C5a).
    • Chemotactor and activator for granulocytes in general and macrophages
    • stimulates respiratory burst in Neutrophils
    • increases vascular permeability
    • contracts smooth muscle cells
    • activates mastcells to churn out Histamine and TNF-Alpha

During the activation of T cells, co-stimulation of molecules is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response. ...


Although some drugs (morphine, codeine, synthetic ACTH) and some neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, substance P) are important mediators of degranulation of mast cells or basophils, they are generally not called anaphylatoxins. This term is reserved only for fragments of the complement. Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In neuroscience, Substance P is a neuropeptide: a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. ...

See also

An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ...

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