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Encyclopedia > Analytical psychology
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconscious • Unconscious
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
TransferenceSublimationResistance Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of ego and id, see EGO and ID. Id, ego, and superego are the three components of the human mind in the psychoanalytic model introduced by Sigmund Freud in the early 20th century. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... For other uses, see Sublimation. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Important figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna FreudMargaret Mahler
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Ernest JonesHeinz Kohut
John Bowlby
Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Jung redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud and Sadie Burkard (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Julia. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was a U.S. psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ... John Bowlby (February 26, 1907 - September 2, 1990) was a British psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and his pioneering work in attachment theory. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
Civilization and Its Discontents A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...


Schools of thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child Attachment theory is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for discussion of interpersonal relationships between human beings. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

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Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced by his students and other thinkers who followed in his tradition. It is distinct from Freudian psychoanalysis but also has a number of similarities. Its aim is the apprehension and integration of the deep forces and motivations underlying human behaviour by the practice of an accumulative phenomenology around the significance of dreams, folklore and mythology. Depth psychology and archetypal psychology are related in that they both employ the model of the unconscious mind as the source of healing and development in the individual. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Jung redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Depth psychology is a broad term that refers to any psychological approach examining the depth (the hidden or deeper parts) of human experience. ... Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. ...

Contents

Overview

Jung developed his own distinctive approach to the study of the human mind. In his early years when working in a Swiss hospital with schizophrenic patients and working with Sigmund Freud and the burgeoning psychoanalytic community, he took a closer look at the mysterious depths of the human unconscious. Fascinated by what he saw (and spurred on with even more passion by the experiences and questions of his personal life) he devoted his life to the exploration of the unconscious. Unlike many modern psychologists, Jung did not feel that experimenting using natural science was the best means to understand the soul. For him, an empirical investigation of the world of dream, myth, and soul represented the most promising road to deeper understanding. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The overarching goal of Jungian psychology is the reconciliation of the life of the individual with the world of the supra-personal archetypes. Central to this process is the individual's encounter with the unconscious. Humans experience the unconscious through symbols encountered in all aspects of life: in dreams, art, religion, and the symbolic dramas we enact in our relationships and life pursuits. Essential to the encounter with the unconscious, and the reconciliation of the individual's consciousness with this broader world, is learning this symbolic language. Only through attention and openness to this world is the individual able to harmonize their life with these suprapersonal archetypal forces.


"Neurosis" results from a disharmony between the individual's consciousness and the greater archetypal world. The aim of psychotherapy is to assist the individual in reestablishing a healthy relationship to the unconscious (neither being swamped by it — a state characteristic of psychosis — nor completely shut off from it — a state that results in malaise, empty consumerism, narcissism, and a life cut off from deeper meaning). The encounter between consciousness and the symbols arising from the unconscious enriches life and promotes psychological development. Jung considered this process of psychological growth and maturation (which he called the process of individuation) to be of critical importance to the human being, and ultimately to modern society. Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a catch all term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. ...


In order to undergo the individuation process, the individual must be open to the parts of oneself beyond one's own ego. In order to do this, the modern individual must pay attention to dreams, explore the world of religion and spirituality, and question the assumptions of the operant societal worldview (rather than just blindly living life in accordance with dominant norms and assumptions).


The fundamentals

The unconscious

The basic assumption is that the personal unconscious is a potent part — probably the more active part — of the normal human psyche. Reliable communication between the conscious and unconscious parts of the psyche is necessary for wholeness. Look up Unconscious in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Also crucial is the belief that dreams show ideas, beliefs, and feelings of which individuals are not readily aware, but need to be, and that such material is expressed in a personalized vocabulary of visual metaphors. Things "known but unknown" are contained in the unconscious, and dreams are one of the main vehicles for the unconscious to express them. For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


Analytical psychology distinguishes between a personal and a collective unconscious. (see below) Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ...


The collective unconscious contains archetypes common to all human beings. That is, individuation may bring to surface symbols that do not relate to the life experiences of a single person. This content is more easily viewed as answers to the more fundamental questions of humanity: life, death, meaning, happiness, fear. Among these more spiritual concepts may arise and be integrated into the personality. Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ...


The collective unconscious

Jung's concept of the collective unconscious has often been misunderstood. In order to understand this concept, it is essential to understand Jungian archetypes. Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and his school of analytical psychology, archetypes are innate universal pre-conscious psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ...


The archetypes of the collective unconscious could be thought of as the DNA of the human psyche.[citation needed] Just as all humans share a common physical heritage and predisposition towards specific gross physical forms (like having two legs, a heart, etc.) so do all humans have innate psychological predispositions in the form of archetypes, which compose the collective unconscious. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


In contrast to the objective material world, the subjective realm of archetypes cannot be fully plumbed through quantitative modes of research. Instead it can be revealed more fully through an examination of the symbolic communications of the human psyche — in art, dreams, religion, myth, and the themes of human relational/behavioural patterns. Devoting his life to the task of exploring and understanding the collective unconscious, Jung theorized that certain symbolic themes exist across all cultures, all epochs, and in every individual. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ...


The archetypes

Main article: Jungian archetypes

The use of psychological archetypes was advanced by Jung in 1919 and generally adopted in the social sciences. In Jung's psychological framework, archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas and may be used to interpret observations. A group of memories and interpretations associated with an archetype is a complex, e.g. a mother complex associated with the mother archetype. Jung treated the archetypes as psychological organs, analogous to physical ones in that both are morphological givens that arose through evolution. According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and his school of analytical psychology, archetypes are innate universal pre-conscious psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ...


Self-realization and neuroticism

Main articles: Self-realization and Neuroticism

An innate need for self-realization leads people to explore and integrate these rejected materials. This natural process is called individuation, or the process of becoming an individual. Categories: Substubs ... For the band, see Neurotic (band). ... Categories: Substubs ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ...


According to Jung, Self-realization can be divided into two distinct tiers. In the first half of our lives we separate from humanity. We attempt to create our own identities (I, myself). This is why there is such a need for young men to be destructive, and can be expressed as animosity from teens directed at their parents. Jung also said we have a sort of “second puberty” that occurs between 35-40- outlook shifts from emphasis on materialism, sexuality, and having children to concerns about community and spirituality.


In the second half of our lives, humans reunite with the human race. They become part of the collective once again. This is when adults start to contribute to humanity (volunteer time, build, garden, create art, etc.) rather than destroy. They are also more likely to pay attention to their unconscious and conscious feelings. Young men rarely say "I feel angry." or "I feel sad.” This is because they have not yet rejoined the human collective experience, commonly reestablished in their older, wiser years, according to Jung. A common theme is for young rebels to "search" for their true selves and realize that a contribution to humanity is essentially a necessity for a whole self. Jungs archetype self is the perfect personality. ...


Jung proposes that the ultimate goal of the collective unconscious and self-realization is to pull us to the highest experience. This, of course, is spiritual.


If a person does not proceed toward self-knowledge, neurotic symptoms may arise. Symptoms are widely defined, including, for instance, phobias, fetishism, depression. A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ... The term phobia, which comes from the Ancient Greek word for fear (φόβος, fobos), denotes a number of psychological and physiological conditions that can range from serious disabilities to common fears to minor quirks. ... A fetish (from French fétiche; from Portuguese feitiço; from Latin facticius, artificial and facere, to make) is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular a man-made object that has power over others. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


The shadow

The shadow is an unconscious complex that is defined as the repressed and suppressed aspects of the conscious self. This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ...


There are constructive and destructive types of shadow. This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


On the destructive side, it often represents everything that the conscious person does not wish to acknowledge within themselves. For instance, someone who identifies as being kind has a shadow that is harsh or unkind. Conversely, an individual who is brutal has a kind shadow. The shadow of persons who are convinced that they are ugly appears to be beautiful.


On the constructive side, the shadow may represent hidden positive influences. This has been referred to as "the gold in the shadow." Jung points to the story of Moses and Al-Khidr in the 18th Sura (Chapter) of the Koran as an example. Al-Khadir (right) and Dhul-Qarnayn, here referring to Alexander the Great, marvel at the sight of a salted fish that comes back to life when touched by the Water of Life. ...


Jung emphasized the importance of being aware of shadow material and incorporating it into conscious awareness, lest one project these attributes on others.


The shadow in dreams is often represented by dark figures of the same gender as the dreamer.


According to Jung the human being deals with the reality of the Shadow in four ways: denial, projection, integration and/or transmutation.


Anima and animus

Jung identified the anima as being the unconscious feminine component of men and the animus as the unconscious masculine component in women. However, this is rarely taken as a literal definition: many modern day Jungian practitioners believe that every person has both an anima and an animus. Jung stated that the anima and animus act as guides to the unconscious unified Self, and that forming an awareness and a connection with the anima or animus is one of the most difficult and rewarding steps in psychological growth. Jung reported that he identified his anima as she spoke to him, as an inner voice, unexpectedly one day. Not to be confused with Anima Animus. ... Not to be confused with Anima Animus. ...


Often, when people ignore the anima or animus complexes, the anima or animus vies for attention by projecting itself on others. This explains, according to Jung, why we are sometimes immediately attracted to certain strangers: we see our anima or animus in them. Love at first sight is an example of anima and animus projection. Moreover, people who strongly identify with their gender role (e.g. a man who acts aggressively and never cries) have not actively recognized or engaged their anima or animus.


Jung attributes human rational thought to be the male nature, while the irrational aspect is considered to be natural female. Consequently, irrationality is the male anima shadow and rationality is the female animus shadow.


Psychoanalysis

Main articles: Psychoanalysis and Dream analysis

Analysis is a way to experience and integrate the unknown material. It is a search for the meaning of behaviours, symptoms, events. Many are the channels to reach this greater self-knowledge. The analysis of dreams is the most common. Others may include expressing feelings in art pieces, poetry or other expressions of creativity. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ...


Giving a complete description of the process of dream interpretation and individuation is complex. The nature of the complexity lies on the fact that the process is highly specific to the person who does it.


While Freudian psychoanalysis assumes that the repressed material hidden in the unconscious is given by repressed sexual instincts, Analytical psychology has a more general approach. There is no preconceived assumption about the unconscious material. The unconscious, for Jungian analysts, may contain repressed sexual drives, but also aspirations, fears, etc. Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...


Psychological types

Analytical psychology distinguishes several psychological types or temperaments.

  • Extravert (Jung's spelling is extravert, which most dictionaries use; the variant "extrovert" is not preferred)
  • Introvert

The attitude type could be thought of as the flow of libido (psychic energy). The Introvert's flow is directed inward toward concepts and ideas and the Extravert's is directed outward towards people and objects. There are several contrasting characteristics between Extraverts and Introverts: Extraverts desire breadth and are action-oriented, while introverts seek depth and are self-oriented. The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (spelled Extravert by Carl Jung), were originally employed by Sigmund Freud and given significant amplification later by Jung. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ...


Research has shown that there may be a positive correlation between the Introversion/Extraversion types and health deterioration. Introverts may be more inclined to catatonic type schizophrenia and extraverts towards bipolar disorder. For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


The often misunderstood terms extravert and introvert derive from this work. In Jung's original usage, the extraversion "is an outward-turning of libido",[1], whereas introversion is an inward-turning of libido. Everyone has both the intraversion and the extraversion mechanisms, and the collectively dominant type determines whether an individual is introvert or extravert.[1] The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... Introvert is a rock band from Miami, Florida. ... Introvert is a rock band from Miami, Florida. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ...


According to Jung, the conscious psyche is an apparatus for adaptation and orientation, and consists of a number of different psychic functions. Among these he distinguishes four basic functions:[1]

  • sensing - perception by means of the sense organs;
  • intuition - perceiving in unconscious way or perception of unconscious contents.
  • thinking - function of intellectual cognition; the forming of logical conclusions;
  • feeling - function of subjective estimation;

Thinking and feeling functions are rational, while sensing and intuition are nonrational. According to Jung, rationality consists of figurative thoughts, feelings or actions with reason—a point of view based on objective value, which is set by practical experience. Nonrationality is not based in reason. Jung notes that elementary facts are also nonrational, not because they are illogical but because, as thoughts, they are not judgments.


In any person, the degree of introversion/extraversion of one function can be quite different from that of another function.


Generally, we tend to favor our most developed, superior function, while we can broaden our personality by developing the others. Related to this, Jung noted that the unconscious often tends to reveal itself most easily through a person's least developed, inferior function. The encounter with the unconscious and development of the underdeveloped function(s) thus tend to progress together. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). ...

The complex

Main article: Complex (psychology)

Early in Jung's career he coined the term and described the concept of the "complex". Jung claims to have discovered the concept during his free association and galvanic skin response experiments. Freud obviously took up this concept in his Oedipus complex amongst others. Jung seemed to see complexes as quite autonomous parts of psychological life. It is almost as if Jung were describing separate personalities within what is considered a single individual, but to equate Jung's use of complexes with something along the lines of multiple personality disorder would be a step out of bounds. In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ... In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ... A Free Association is an association which meets certain mostly negative criteria. ... Galvanic skin response (or GSR), also known as electrodermal response (EDR) or psychogalvanic reflex (PGR), is a method of measuring the electrical resistance of the skin and interpreting it as an image of activity in certain parts of the body. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Overview In psychiatry, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the current name of the condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and Multiple Personality Syndrome. ...


Jung saw an archetype as always being the central organizing structure of a complex. For instance, in a "negative mother complex," the archetype of the "negative mother" would be seen to be central to the identity of that complex. This is to say, our psychological lives are patterned on common human experiences. Interestingly, Jung saw the Ego (which Freud wrote about in German literally as the "I", one's conscious experience of oneself) as a complex. If the "I" is a complex, what might be the archetype that structures it? Jung, and many Jungians, might say "the hero," one who separates from the community to ultimately carry the community further. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ...


Clinical theories

Main article: Psychoanalysis

Jung's writings have been of much interest to people of many backgrounds and interests, including theologians, people from the humanities, and mythologists. Jung often seemed to seek to make contributions to various fields, but he was mostly a practicing psychiatrist, involved during his whole career in treating patients. A description of Jung's clinical relevance is to address the core of his work. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...


Jung started his career working with hospitalized patients with major mental illnesses, most notably schizophrenia. He was interested in the possibilities of an unknown "brain toxin" that could be the cause of schizophrenia. But the majority and the heart of Jung's clinical career was taken up with what we might call today individual psychodynamic psychotherapy, in gross structure very much in the strain of psychoanalytic practice first formed by Freud. A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, usually meeting about once or twice a week. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


It is important to state that Jung seemed to often see his work as not a complete psychology in itself but as his unique contribution to the field of psychology. Jung claimed late in his career that only for about a third of his patients did he use "Jungian analysis." For another third, Freudian psychology seemed to best suit the patient's needs and for the final third Adlerian analysis was most appropriate. In fact, it seems that most contemporary Jungian clinicians merge a developmentally grounded theory, such as Self psychology or Donald Winnicott's work, with the Jungian theories in order to have a "whole" theoretical repertoire to do actual clinical work. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Adlerian is an umbrella term that encompasses a diversity of approaches to psychology and psychotherapy generally related to the ideas of Alfred Adler. ... The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology, especially in Self Psychology, a paradigm first associated with psychoanlytic theorist Heinz Kohut. ... Donald Woods Winnicott (7 April 1896 - January 28, 1971) was a pediatrician and psychoanalyst. ...


The "I" or Ego is tremendously important to Jung's clinical work. Jung's theory of etiology of psychopathology could almost be simplified to be stated as a too rigid conscious attitude towards the whole of the psyche. That is, a psychotic episode can be seen from a Jungian perspective as the "rest" of the psyche overwhelming the conscious psyche because the conscious psyche effectively was locking out and repressing the psyche as a whole. eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... Repressed memory is one of the most controversial subjects in the history of psychology and psychiatry. ...


John Weir Perry's book The Far Side of Madness explores and fleshes out this idea of Jung's very well. The story is a psychological description of a psychotic episode.


Jung hypothesized a medical basis for schizophrenia that was beyond the understanding of the medical science of his day (and seems to still be beyond present medical science in a satisfactory sense). Twin studies and plenty of clinical material seem to point clearly to a medical basis for schizophrenia. It perhaps can best be said that schizophrenia is both medical and psychological. A medical understanding (again, as yet still lacking) would not change the fact that schizophrenia is lived by those who have it psychologically; that is to say, as theorists and scientists, we may be able to say that schizophrenia happens in genes, brains, and the electrochemical, but for one who has schizophrenia it also happens in their mind and experience. This is to say a purely medical treatment of major mental illness is inadequate, as is a purely psychological treatment of major mental illness.


Post-Jung

Samuels (1985) has distinguished three schools of "post-Jungian" therapy - the classical, the developmental and the archetypal. Today there are more developments.


Classical school

The classical school is that which tries to remain faithful to what Jung himself proposed and taught in person and in his 20-plus volumes of work. Jung redirects here. ...


Developmental school

The developmental school, associated with Michael Fordham, Brian Feldman etc., can be considered a bridge between Jungian psychoanalysis and Melanie Klein's object relations theory. Laings and Goodheart are also often mentioned. Michael Scott Montague Fordham (born 4 August 1905, Kensington, London, died 14 April 1995) was an English psychiatrist, a Jungian analyst. ... In psychodynamics, Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ...


Archetypal school

The archetypal school (sometimes called "the imaginal school"), with different views associated with the Mythopoeticists, such as James Hillman in his intellectual theoretical view of Archetypal psychology, Clarissa Pinkola Estés, in her view that ethnic and aboriginal people are the originators of archetypal psychology and have long carried the maps to the journey of the soul in their songs, tales, dream-telling, art and rituals; Marion Woodman who proposes a feminist viewpoint regarding archetypal psychology, and other Jungians like Thomas Moore, as well. Most mythopoeticists/archetypal psychology innovators either imagine the Self not to be the main archetype of the collective unconscious as Jung thought, but rather assign each archetype equal value...Others, who are modern progenitors of archetypal psychology (such as Estés), think of the Self as that which contains and yet is suffused by all the other archetypes, each giving life to the other. Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. ... The mythopoetic mens movement is a general style of psychological self-help, largely inspired by the work of Joseph Campbell. ... The mythopoetic mens movement is a general style of psychological self-help, largely inspired by the work of Joseph Campbell. ... James Hillman (1926- ) is an American psychologist, considered to be one of the most original of the 20th century (Moore, in Hillman, 1989). ... Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. ... Clarissa Pinkola Estés, Ph. ... Marion Woodman is a mythopoetic womens movement figure. ... Thomas Moore is the author of popular spiritual books including the New York Times best seller, Care of the Soul (1992). ...


Robert L. Moore, one of Jung's most dedicated followers, has explored the archetypal level of the human psyche in a series of five books co-authored with Douglas Gillette, which have played an important role in the men's movement in the United States. R. Moore likes to use computerese, so he likens the archetypal level of the human psyche to a computer's hard wiring (its fixed physical components). Our personal experiences of course influence our accessing the archetypal level of the human psyche, but personalized ego consciousness can be likened to computer software (such as Microsoft Word). Robert L. Moore, Ph. ... Douglas Gillette is an author who has written a series of five books with co-author Robert L. Moore that explore the archetypal level of the human psyche. ... The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of domestic violence. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ...


Process Oriented school

Process oriented psychology (sometimes called process work) is associated with the Zurich trained Jungian analyst Arnold Mindell. Process work developed in the late 1970's and early 1980's and was originally identified as a "daughter of Jungian Psychology". Process work stresses awareness of the "unconscious" as an ongoing flow of experience. This approach expands Jung's work beyond verbal individual therapy to include body experience, altered and comatose states as well as multicultural group work. Process Oriented Psychology refers to a body of theory and practice that encompasses a broad range of psychotherapeutic, personal growth, and group process applications. ... Arnold Mindell (born 1940) is an American physicist, psychotherapist, writer and the founder of Process Oriented Psychology. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Jung, C.G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol.6), ), ISBN
  • Robert Aziz, C.G. Jung’s Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (1990), currently in its 10th printing, a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN .
  • Robert Aziz, Synchronicity and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology in Carl B. Becker, ed. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, (1999), ISBN .
  • Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm: The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 13:.
  • A. Samuels, (1985). Jung and the Post-Jungians. London: Routledge.
  • Frederic Fappani," Education and Archetypal Psychology ", Ed.Cursus, Paris.
  • Clifford Mayes, Jung and education; elements of an archetypal pedagogy, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005
  • Clifford Mayes, Inside Education: Depth Psychology in Teaching and Learning (Paperback)

See also

This article is considered orphaned, since there are few or no other articles linked to this one. ... Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ... The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). ... The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) is a self-assessed personality questionnaire designed to help people better understand themselves, first introduced in the book Please Understand Me. ... Socionics (Russian: соционика) is a model of personality based on Carl Jungs work on Psychological Types, Freuds theory of the conscious and subconscious mind, and Antoni Kępińskis theory of information metabolism. ... The mythopoetic mens movement is a general style of psychological self-help, largely inspired by the work of Joseph Campbell. ... For the software company, see Introversion Software. ...

External links

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Aušra Augustinavičiūtė (born April 4, 1927 - died August 19, 2005) Lithuanian psychologist, author of numerous scientific theories and discoveries, the founder of Socionics. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and his school of analytical psychology, archetypes are innate universal pre-conscious psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ... The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). ... INTP (Introverted iNtuitive Thinking Perceiving) is one of the sixteen personality types found in a number of psychological typology systems based on C.G. Jungs theories of psychology. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Logical Intuitive Introvert. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Ethical Intuitive Introvert. ... INFP (Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving) is an acronym utilized to refer to one of the sixteen personality type[1] preferences. ... ISTP (Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving) is one of the sixteen personality types from personality type systems based on C.G. Jung, of which the best-known are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Socionics. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Logical Sensory Introvert. ... The Center for Applications of Psychological Type is a non-profit organization co-founded by Isabel Myers in 1975 for MBTI development, research and training. ... ISFP (Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving) is one of the sixteen personality types from personality type systems based on C.G. Jung, of which the best-known are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Socionics. ... ESTP (Extroverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving) is one of the sixteen personality types from personality type systems based on C.G. Jung, of which the best-known are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Socionics. ... ESTJ (Extroverted Sensing Thinking Judging) is one of the sixteen personality types from personality type systems based on C.G. Jung, of which the best-known are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Socionics. ... ESFJ (Extroverted Sensing Feeling Judging) is one of the sixteen personality types from personality type systems based on C.G. Jung, which best known are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Socionics. ... The Center for Applications of Psychological Type is a non-profit organization co-founded by Isabel Myers in 1975 for MBTI development, research and training. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Intuitive Logical Extrovert. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Logical Intuitive Extrovert. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Ethical Intuitive Extrovert. ... For the Socionics facsimile of this type, see Intuitive Ethical Extrovert. ... The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) is a self-assessed personality questionnaire designed to help people better understand themselves, first introduced in the book Please Understand Me. ... The Idealist Temperament is one of the Four Temperaments defined by David Keirsey. ... NT, for iNtuitive Thinker, is a classification of personality under the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator system, specifically as augmented by David Kersey. ... The Guardian Temperament is one of the Four Temperaments defined by David Keirsey. ... The Artisan Temperament is one of the Four Temperaments defined by David Keirsey Artisans correlate with the SP Myers-Briggs types. ... Socionics (Russian: соционика) is a model of personality based on Carl Jungs work on Psychological Types, Freuds theory of the conscious and subconscious mind, and Antoni Kępińskis theory of information metabolism. ... The Intuitive Logical Extrovert, ILE, ENTp, the Inventor, the Seeker, el hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Sensory Ethical Introvert, SEI, ISFp, the Mediator, Alexandre Dumas, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Ethical Sensory Extrovert, ESE, ESFj, the Enthusiast, Victor Hugo, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Logical Intuitive Introvert, LII, INTj, the Analyst, Maximilien Robespierre, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Sensory Logical Extrovert, SLE, ESTp, the Conqueror, Sergey Zhukov, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Intuitive Ethical Introvert, IEI, INFp, the Poet, the Lyricist, Sergei Yesenin, Ray Bradbury, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Ethical Intuitive Extrovert, EIE, ENFj, the Actor, the Mentor, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Logical Sensory Introvert, LSI, ISTj, the Inspector, Maxim Gorky, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Sensory Ethical Extrovert, SEE, ESFp, the Poltician, the Ambassador, or Julius Caesar, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... For the Myers-Briggs and Keirsey Temperament Sorter facsimile off this type, see INTP. The Intuitive Logical Introvert, ILI, INTp, the Critic, Honoré de Balzac, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Logical Intuitive Extrovert, LIE, ENTj, the Enterpriser, the Enterpreneur, Jack London, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Ethical Sensory Introvert, ESI, ISFj, the Guardian, Theodore Dreiser, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Intuitive Ethical Extrovert, IEE, ENFp, the Psychologist, Thomas Henry Huxley, Tom Sawyer, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Sensory Logical Introvert, SLI, ISTp, the Craftsman, Jean Gabin, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Logical Sensory Extrovert, LSE, ESTj, the Director, the Administrator, Sherlock Holmes, Stirlitz, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ... The Ethical Intuitive Introvert, EII, INFj, the Humanist, Fyodor Dotstoyevsky, or is one of the sixteen Socionics types. ...

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Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers.
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Analytical Psychology is the school of depth psychology based on the discoveries and concepts of Carl Gustav Jung.
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