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Encyclopedia > Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry is the science that seeks ever improved means of measuring the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials. Chemical composition is the entire picture (composition) of the material at the chemical scale and includes geometric features such as molecular morphologies and distributions of species within a sample as well as single dimensional features such as percent composition and species identity. The analytical results enabled by analytical chemistry have played critical roles in science from the understanding of basic science to a variety of practical applications, such as biomedical applications, environmental monitoring, quality control of industrial manufacturing and forensic science. Analytical Chemistry (abbreviated as ) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in analytical chemistry. ... Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. ...

Contents

Overview

Analytical chemistry is a sub discipline of chemistry that has the broad mission of understanding the chemical composition of all matter and developing the tools to elucidate such compositions. This differs from other sub disciplines of chemistry in that it is not intended to understand the physical basis for the observed chemistry as with physical chemistry and it is not intended to control or direct chemistry as is often the case in organic chemistry and it is not necessarily intended to provide engineering tactics as are often used in materials science. Analytical chemistry generally does not attempt to use chemistry or understand its basis; however, these are common outgrowths of analytical chemistry research. Analytical chemistry has significant overlap with other branches of chemistry, especially those that are focused on a certain broad class of chemicals, such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry or biochemistry, as opposed to a particular way of understanding chemistry, such as theoretical chemistry. For example the field of bioanalytical chemistry is a growing area of analytical chemistry that addresses all analytical questions in biochemistry, (the chemistry of life). Analytical chemistry and experimental physical chemistry, however, have a unique relationship in that they are very unrelated in their mission but often share the most in common in the tools used in experiments. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ...


Analytical chemistry is particularly concerned with the questions of "what chemicals are present, what are their characteristics and in what quantities are they present?" These questions are often involved in questions that are more dynamic such as what chemical reaction an enzyme catalyzes or how fast it does it, or even more dynamic such as what is the transition state of the reaction. Although analytical chemistry addresses these types of questions it stops after they are answered. The logical next steps of understanding what it means, how it fits into a larger system, how can this result be generalized into theory or how it can be used are not analytical chemistry. Since analytical chemistry is based on firm experimental evidence and limits itself to some fairly simple questions to the general public it is most closely associated with hard numbers such as how much lead is in drinking water. Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate. ...


Modern analytical chemistry

Modern analytical chemistry is dominated by instrumental analysis. There are so many different types of instruments today that it can seem like a confusing array of acronyms rather than a unified field of study. Many analytical chemists focus on a single type of instrument. Academics tend to either focus on new applications and discoveries or on new methods of analysis. The discovery of a chemical present in blood that increases the risk of cancer would be a discovery that an analytical chemist might be involved in. An effort to develop a new method might involve the use of a tunable laser to increase the specificity and sensitivity of a spectrometric method. Many methods, once developed, are kept purposely static so that data can be compared over long periods of time. This is particularly true in industrial quality assurance (QA), forensic and environmental applications. Analytical chemistry plays an increasingly important role in the pharmaceutical industry where, aside from QA, it is used in discovery of new drug candidates and in clinical applications where understanding the interactions between the drug and the patient are critical. Tunable lasers are used in DWDM-systems to allow wavelength (frequency) changes controlled by the operator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


History

Much of early chemistry (1661-~1900AD) was analytical chemistry since the questions of what elements and chemicals were present in the world around us and what are their fundamental natures is very much in the realm of analytical chemistry. There was also significant early progress in synthesis and theory which of course are not analytical chemistry. During this period significant analytical contributions to chemistry include the development of systematic elemental analysis by Justus von Liebig and systematized organic analysis based on the specific reactions of functional groups. The first instrumental analysis was flame emissive spectrometry developed by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff who discovered rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) in 1860.[1] Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (eg. ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (31 March 1811 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Caesium, Cs, 55 Series Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 6, s Density, Hardness 1879 kg/m3, 0. ...


Most of the major developments in analytical chemistry take place after 1900. During this period instrumental analysis becomes progressively dominant in the field. In particular many of the basic spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques were discovered in the early 20th century and refined in the late 20th century.[2] The separation sciences follow a similar time line of development and also become increasingly transformed into high performance instruments.[3] In the 1970s many of these techniques began to be used together to achieve a complete characterization of samples. Starting in approximately the 1970s into the present day analytical chemistry has progressively become more inclusive of biological questions (bioanalytical chemistry), whereas it had previously been largely focused on inorganic or small organic molecules. The late 20th century also saw an expansion of the application of analytical chemistry from somewhat academic chemical questions to forensic, environmental, industrial and medical questions, such as in histology.[4] Barring a few exceptions, almost every element or compound is found in an impure state i. ... Forensic chemistry applies the principles of chemistry to law enforcement. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Clinical chemistry (also known as clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology or pure blood chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Types

Traditionally, analytical chemistry has been split into two main types, qualitative and quantitative:


Qualitative

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find elemental composition of inorganic compounds. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy...

Quantitative

test for anions carbonate-add dilute acid,result:effervescence, carbon dioxide produced ...

Approaches

Most modern analytical chemistry is categorized by two different approaches such as analytical targets or analytical methods. Analytical Chemistry (journal) reviews two different approaches alternatively in the issue 12 of each year. Analytical Chemistry (abbreviated as ) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in analytical chemistry. ...


By Analytical Targets

  • Bioanalytical chemistry
  • Material analysis
  • Chemical analysis
  • Environmental analysis
  • Forensics

Forensic chemistry applies the principles of chemistry to law enforcement. ...

By Analytical Methods

Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Spectrophotometer In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... It has been suggested that Electrophoretic mobility be merged into this article or section. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ...

Traditional analytical techniques

Although modern analytical chemistry is dominated by sophisticated instrumentation, the roots of analytical chemistry and some of the principles used in modern instruments are from traditional techniques many of which are still used today. These techniques also tend to form the backbone of most undergraduate analytical chemistry educational labs. Examples include:


Titration

For more details on this topic, see Titration.

Titration involves the addition of a reactant to a solution being analyzed until some equivalence point is reached. Often the amount of material in the solution being analyzed may be determined. Most familiar to those who have taken college chemistry is the acid-base titration involving a color changing indicator. There are many other types of titrations, for example potentiometric titrations. Titration setup: the titrant drops from the burette into the analyte solution in the flask. ...


Gravimetry

For more details on this topic, see Gravimetry.

Gravimetric analysis involves determining the amount of material present by weighing the sample before and/or after some transformation. A common example used in undergraduate education is the determination of the amount of water in a hydrate by heating the sample to remove the water such that the difference in weight is due to the water lost. Gravimetry is the measurement of a gravitational field. ...


Inorganic qualitative analysis

Inorganic qualitative analysis generally refers to a systematic scheme to confirm the presence of certain, usually aqueous, ions or elements by performing a series of reactions that eliminate ranges of possibilities and then confirms suspected ions with a confirming test. Sometimes small carbon containing ions are included in such schemes. With modern instrumentation these tests are rarely used but can be useful for educational purposes and in field work or other situations where access to state-of-the-art instruments are not available or expedient.


Instrumental Analysis

Spectroscopy

For more details on this topic, see Spectroscopy.

Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation. Spectroscopy consists of many different applications such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and so on. Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Atomic absorption spectroscopy In analytical chemistry, Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. ... a Headline text hi today for the first time i fucked my 14 years neighbour she was very excited when she saw my dick thouh it was a bit thick and long but she gladly become agree to let me fuck her at my first stroke i broke her seal... Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS, formerly known as ESCA - Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) was developed at Uppsala University, Sweden in the 60s by a group headed by Kai Siegbahn, who in 1981 won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his work in developing the technique. ... Mößbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect. ...


Mass Spectrometry

For more details on this topic, see Mass Spectrometry.

Mass spectrometry measures mass-to-charge ratio of molecules using electric and magnetic fields. There are several ionization methods: electron impact, chemical ionization, electrospray, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, and others. Also, mass spectrometry is categorized by approaches of mass analyers: magnetic-sector,quadrupole mass analyzer, quadrupole ion trap, Time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, and so on. Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles, such as those in electric currents and magnets. ... A sector instrument is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that utilizes a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two as a mass analyzer. ... The quadrupole mass analyzer is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry. ... A quadrupole ion trap (also known as a Paul trap, QIT, twisted quadrupole ion trap or sometimes just ion trap) refers to an ion trap that uses static and radio frequency (RF) ~1MHz oscillating AC electric fields to trap ions as well a mass spectrometer that uses such a trap... The Time of flight (TOF) method of measuring particle mass-to-charge ratio is done as follows. ... Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance, also known as Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry, is a type of mass analyzer (or mass spectrometer) for determining the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of ions based on the cyclotron frequency of the ions in a magnetic field. ...


Crystallography

For more details on this topic, see Crystallography.

Crystallography is a technique that characterizes the chemical structure of materials at the atomic level by analyzing the diffraction patterns of usually x-rays that have been deflected by atoms in the material. From the raw data the relative placement of atoms in space may be determined. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Electrochemical Analysis

For more details on this topic, see Electrochemistry.

Electrochemistry measures the interaction of the material with an electric field. English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ...


Thermal Analysis

Further information: Calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis

Calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis measure the interaction of a material and heat. The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Thermogravimetric Analysis or TGA is a type of testing that is performed on samples to determine changes in weight in relation to change in temperature. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ...


Separation

Further information: Separation process, Chromatography, electrophoresis

Separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures. Chromatography and electrophoresis are representative of this field. In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process is a process that transforms a mixture of substances into two or more compositionally-distinct products. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... It has been suggested that Electrophoretic mobility be merged into this article or section. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... It has been suggested that Electrophoretic mobility be merged into this article or section. ...


Hybrid Techniques

Combinations of the above techniques produce "hybrid" or "hyphenated" techniques. Several examples are in popular use today and new hybrid techniques are under development. For example, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS, GC-IR, LC-NMR, CE-MS, and so on. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. ...


Hyphenated separation techniques refers to a combination of two (or more) techniques to detect and separate chemicals from solutions. Most often the other technique is some form of chromatography. Hyphenated techniques are widely used in chemistry and biochemistry. For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ...


A slash is sometimes used instead of hyphen, especially if the name of one of the methods contains a hyphen itself. A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ...


List of hyphenated techniques:

  1. LC-MS (or HPLC-MS)
  2. HPLC/ESI-MS
  3. LC-DAD
  4. CE-MS
  5. CE-UV
  6. GC-MS

For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... Electrospray (nanoSpray) ionization source Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a technique used in mass spectrometry to produce ions. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be used to separate ionic species by their charge and frictional forces. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be used to separate ionic species by their charge and frictional forces. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC), is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ...

Microscopy

For more details on this topic, see Microscopy.

The visualization of single molecules, single cells, biological tissues and nano- micro materials is very important and attractive approach in analytical science. Also, hybridization with other traditional analytical tools is revolutionizing analytical science. Microscopy can be categorized into three different fields: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. Recently, this field is rapidly progressing because of the rapid development of computer and camera industries. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ...


Lab-on-a-chip

Further information: Microscopy, microfluidics, μTAS

Miniaturized analytical instrumentation, which is also called as microfluidics or micro total analysis system (μTAS). The beauty of lab-on-a-chip system is that a whole device can be visualized under a microscope. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Glass microfluidic devices from Syrris and Dolomite Microfluidics deals with the behavior, precise control and manipulation of microliter and nanoliter volumes of fluids. ... μTAS stands for Micro Total chemical Analysis System, and refers to offers a microfluidic device which can perform highly efficient, simultaneous analysis of a large number of biologically important molecules for genomic, proteomic and metabolic studies. ...


Methods and data analysis

Standard Curve

A standard method for analysis of concentration involves the creation of a calibration curve. This allows for determination of the amount of a chemical in a material by comparing the results of unknown sample to those of a series known standards.If the concentration of element or compound in a sample is too high for the detection range of the technique, it can simply be diluted in a pure solvent. If the amount in the sample is below an instrument's range of measurement, the method of addition can be used. In this method a known quantity of the element or compound under study is added, and the difference between the concentration added, and the concentration observed is the amount actually in the sample. A calibration curve is a graphical display of the functional relationship between the expected value of the observed signal to the analyte amount. ...


Internal Standards

Sometimes an internal standard is added at a known concentration directly to an analytical sample to aid in quantitation. The amount of analyte present is then determined relative to the internal standard as a calibrant. An internal standard in analytical chemistry is a chemical substance that is added in a constant amount to samples, the blank and calibration standards in a chemical analysis. ...


Trends

Analytical chemistry research is largely driven by performance (sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, linear range, accuracy, precision, and speed), and cost (purchase, operation, training, time, and space). The linear range is that range of input or output values for which an electronic amplifier produces an output signal that is a direct, linear function of the input signal. ...


A lot of effort is put in shrinking the analysis techniques to chip size. Although there are few examples of such systems competitive with traditional analysis techniques, potential advantages include size/portability, speed, and cost. (micro Total Analysis System (µTAS) or Lab-on-a-chip). Microscale chemistry reduces the amounts of chemicals used. Look up chip, chips in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... TAS is the abbreviation for Total Analysis System. ... Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a term for devices that integrate (multiple) laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size and that are capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters. ... Microscale Chemistry (often referred to as Small-Scale Chemistry, in German:Chemie im Mikromaßstab[[1]]) is a teaching method widely used at school and at university levels, working with small quantities of chemical substances. ...


Much effort is also put into analyzing biological systems. Examples of rapidly expanding fields in this area are:

  • Genomics - DNA sequencing and its related research. Genetic fingerprinting and DNA microarray are very popular tools and research fields.
  • Proteomics - the analysis of protein concentrations and modifications, especially in response to various stressors, at various developmental stages, or in various parts of the body.
  • Metabolomics - similar to proteomics, but dealing with metabolites.
  • Transcriptomics- mRNA and its associated field
  • Lipidomics - lipids and its associated field
  • Peptidomics - peptides and its associated field
  • Metalomics - similar to proteomics and metabolomics, but dealing with metal concentrations and especially with their binding to proteins and other molecules.

Analytical chemistry has played critical roles in the understanding of basic science to a variety of practical applications, such as biomedical applications, environmental monitoring, quality control of industrial manufacturing, forensic science and so on. Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind - specifically, the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. ... The Transcriptome is the set of all mRNA molecules (or transcripts) in one or a population of biological cells for a given set of environmental circumstances. ... Lipidomics is the large-scale study of non-water-soluble metabolites (lipids). ...


The recent developments of computer automation and information technologies have innervated analytical chemistry to initiate a number of new biological fields. For example, automated DNA sequencing machines were the basis to complete human genome projects leading to the birth of genomics. Protein identification and peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry opened a new field of proteomics. Furthermore, a number of ~omics based on analytical chemistry have become important areas in modern biology. Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Also, analytical chemistry has been an indispensable area in the development of nanotechnology. Surface characterization instruments, electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes enables scientists to visualize atomic structures with chemical characterizations. Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ...


Analytical chemistry is pursuing the development of practical applications and commercial instruments rather than elucidating scientific fundamentals. This may be an arguable difference from overlapping science areas such as physical chemistry and biophysics, although there isn't any distinct boundaries among disciplines in contemporary science and technology. However, this aspect may attract many engineers' interest; thus, it is not difficult to see papers from engineering departments in analytical chemistry journals.


Among active contemporary analytical chemistry research fields, micro total analysis system is considered as a great promise of revolutionary technology. In this approach, integrated and miniaturized analytical systems are being developed to control and analyze single cells and single molecules. This cutting-edge technology has a promising potential of leading a new revolution in science as integrated circuits did in computer developments. TAS is the abbreviation for Total Analysis System. ...


References

  1. ^ ANALYTICAL SCIENCES 2001, VOL.17 SUPPLEMENT [1], Basic Education in Analytical Chemistry
  2. ^ Talanta Volume 51, Issue 5, p921-933 [2], Review of analyticalnext term measurements facilitated by drop formation technology
  3. ^ TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry Volume 21, Issues 9-10, Pages 547-557 [3], History of gas chromatography
  4. ^ Talanta, Volume 36, Issues 1-2, January-February 1989, Pages 1-9 [4] History of analytical chemistry in the U.S.A.

Talanta is a monthly international journal of pure and applied analytical chemistry, in English, published by Elsevier. ... Talanta is a monthly international journal of pure and applied analytical chemistry, in English, published by Elsevier. ...

Further reading

  • Journal of AOAC International ISSN: 1060-3271, AOAC International

See also

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Analytical chemistry at:
The Department of Analytical chemistry
  • List of chemical analysis methods
  • List of materials analysis methods
  • Important publications in analytical chemistry
  • American Chemical Society: Division of Analytical Chemistry
  • Royal Society of Chemistry: Analytical Gateway

  Results from FactBites:
 
Analytical chemistry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (879 words)
Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure.
Mass spectrometry is used to determine the molecular mass, the elemental composition, structure and sometimes amount of chemical species in a sample by ionizing the analyte molecules and observing their behavior in electric and magnetic fields.
Analytical chemistry research is largely driven by performance (sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, linear range, accuracy, precision, and speed), and cost (purchase, operation, training, time, and space).
VC2: Careers: Analytical Chemistry (2276 words)
Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter.
Analytical chemists are employed in every part of the chemical, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical, food, and waste management industries as well as in government and private consulting labs and with vendors of chemical instrumentation.
Because analytical chemistry is a service discipline, combining the skills of a chemical analyst with knowledge of the unique problems of other chemical disciplines (such as organic, polymer, inorganic, and environmental chemistries) is a valuable asset.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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