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Encyclopedia > Analogy

Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from a particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ... In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ... Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated by previously known premises. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... It has been suggested that Abductive validation be merged into this article or section. ... In discourse, a premise (also premiss in British usage) is a claim which is part of a reason or objection. ... Look up similarity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The wings of pterosaurs (1), bats (2) and birds (3) are analogous: they serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently. ...

Niels Bohr's model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system.

Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion, explanation and communication. It lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people, for example, in face perception and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition" (Hofstadter in Gentner et al. 2001).
Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, comparisons, metaphors, similes, allegories, and parables, but not metonymy. Phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word like also rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense, where proverbs and idioms give many examples of its application, but also in science, philosophy and the humanities. The concepts of association, comparison, correspondence, mathematical and morphological homology, homomorphism, iconicity, isomorphism, metaphor, resemblance, and similarity are closely related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy. Image File history File links Bohr-planetary-atom-model. ... Image File history File links Bohr-planetary-atom-model. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently retrieve information. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emotional redirects here. ... An explanation is a statement which points to causes, context, and consequences of some object, process, state of affairs, etc. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... Face perception is the process by which the brain and mind understand and interpret the face, particularly the human face. ... A facial recognition system is a computer-driven application for automatically identifying a person from a digital image. ... Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American academic. ... Look up Example in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A comparison is an evaluation of similarities and differences - described by Gregory Bateson in his book Mind and Nature as the two quanta of experience. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Examples may include the snow was as thick as a blanket, or she was as smart as a crow, or the usage of emotions similes like madder than a bull fast... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... Look up like in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... In psychology and marketing, two concepts or stimuli are associated when the experience of one leads to the effects of another, due to repeated pairing. ... A comparison is an evaluation of similarities and differences - described by Gregory Bateson in his book Mind and Nature as the two quanta of experience. ... Correspondence may refer to: In the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, correspondence is the relationship between spiritual and physical realities. ... In mathematics (especially algebraic topology and abstract algebra), homology (in Greek homos = identical) is a certain general procedure to associate a sequence of abelian groups or modules to a given mathematical object (such as a topological space or a group). ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... In abstract algebra, a homomorphism is a structure-preserving map between two algebraic structures (such as groups, rings, or vector spaces). ... In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between a form of a sign (linguistic or otherwise) and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness. ... In mathematics, an isomorphism (in Greek isos = equal and morphe = shape) is a kind of mapping between objects, devised by Eilhard Mitscherlich, which shows a relation between two properties or operations. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Resemblance may refer to: Resemblance nominalism Ludwig Wittgensteins family resemblances. ... Look up similarity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ...


Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers. The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notable in cognitive science. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...

Contents

Usage of the terms source and target

With respect to the terms source and target there are two distinct traditions of usage:

  • The logical and mathematical tradition speaks of an arrow, homomorphism, mapping, or morphism from what is typically the more complex domain or source to what is typically the less complex codomain or target, using all of these words in the sense of mathematical category theory.
  • The tradition that appears to be more common in cognitive psychology, literary theory, and specializations within philosophy outside of logic, speaks of a mapping from what is typically the more familiar area of experience, the source, to what is typically the more problematic area of experience, the target.

In abstract algebra, a homomorphism is a structure-preserving map between two algebraic structures (such as groups, rings, or vector spaces). ... In mathematics and related technical fields, the term map or mapping is often a synonym for function. ... In mathematics, a morphism is an abstraction of a structure-preserving process between two mathematical structures. ... A codomain in mathematics is the set of output values associated with (or mapped to) the domain of inputs in a function. ... In mathematics, category theory deals in an abstract way with mathematical structures and relationships between them. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...

Models and theories of analogy

Identity of relation

In ancient Greek the word αναλογια (analogia) originally meant proportionality, in the mathematical sense, and it was indeed sometimes translated to Latin as proportio. From there analogy was understood as identity of relation between any two ordered pairs, whether of mathematical nature or not. Kant's Critique of Judgment held to this notion. Kant argued that there can be exactly the same relation between two completely different objects. The same notion of analogy was used in the US-based SAT tests, that included "analogy questions" in the form "A is to B as C is to what?" For example, "Hand is to palm as foot is to ____?" These questions were usually given in the Aristotelian format: In mathematics, two quantities are called proportional if they vary in such a way that one of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other, or equivalently if they have a constant ratio. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In mathematics, an ordered pair is a collection of two objects such that one can be distinguished as the first element and the other as the second element (the first and second elements are also known as left and right projections). ... “Kant” redirects here. ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ... Logic of relatives, short for logic of relative terms, is a term used to cover the study of relations in their logical, philosophical, or semiotic aspects, as distinguished from, though closely coordinated with, their more properly formal, mathematical, or objective aspects. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ...

HAND : PALM : : FOOT : ____

It is worth noting that while most competent English speakers will immediately give the right answer to the analogy question (sole), it is quite more difficult to identify and describe the exact relation that holds both between hand and palm, and between foot and sole. This relation is not apparent in some lexical definitions of palm and sole, where the former is defined as the inner surface of the hand, and the latter as the underside of the foot. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, and analogy is often an easier one. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The lexical definition of a term, also known as the dictionary definition, is the meaning of the term in common usage. ... abstraction in general. ...


Recently a computer algorithm has achieved human-level performance on multiple-choice analogy questions from the SAT test (Turney 2006). The algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words (e.g., the similarity between the pairs HAND:PALM and FOOT:SOLE) by statistical analysis of a large collection of text. It answers SAT questions by selecting the choice with the highest relational similarity. For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ...


Shared abstraction

In several cultures, the sun is the source of an analogy to God.
In several cultures, the sun is the source of an analogy to God.

Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle actually used a wider notion of analogy. They saw analogy as a shared abstraction (Shelley 2003). Analogous objects did not share necessarily a relation, but also an idea, a pattern, a regularity, an attribute, an effect or a function. These authors also accepted that comparisons, metaphors and "images" (allegories) could be used as valid arguments, and sometimes they called them analogies. Analogies should also make those abstractions easier to understand and give confidence to the ones using them. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x1148, 1040 KB) Description: Crepuscular rays Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x1148, 1040 KB) Description: Crepuscular rays Source: http://www. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In ordinary English, regular is an adjective or noun used to mean in accordance with the usual customs, conventions, or rules, or frequent, periodic, or symmetric. ... An attribute is the following: Generally, an attribute is an abstraction characteristic of an entity In database management, an attribute is a property inherent in an entity or associated with that entity for database purposes. ... Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Middle Ages saw an increased use and theorization of analogy. Roman lawyers had already used analogical reasoning and the Greek word analogia. Medieval lawyers distinguished analogia legis and analogia iuris (see below). In theology, analogical arguments were accepted in order to explain the attributes of God. Aquinas made a distinction between equivocal, univocal and analogical terms, the latter being those like healthy that have different but related meanings. Not only a person can be "healthy", but also the food that is good for health (see the contemporary distinction between polysemy and homonymy). Thomas Cajetan wrote an influential treatise on analogy. In all of these cases, the wide Platonic and Aristotelian notion of analogy was preserved. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Polysemy (from the Greek πολυσημεία = multiple meaning) is the capacity for a sign to have multiple meanings. ... Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Thomas Cardinal Cajetan (Cajê-tan or Caje-tan, also known as Gaetanus) (February 20, 1469 - August 9, 1534) was an Italian cardinal best known for his opposition to the teachings of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. ...


Special case of induction

On the contrary, Bacon and later Mill argued that analogy be simply a special case of induction (see Shelley 2003). In their view analogy is an inductive inference from common known attributes to another probable common attribute, which is known only about the source of the analogy, in the following form: Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ...

Premises
a is C, D, E, F and G.
b is C, D, E and F.
Conclusion
b is probably G.
Alternative conclusion
every C, D, E and F is probably G.

This view does not accept analogy as an autonomous mode of thought or inference, reducing it to induction. However, autonomous analogical arguments are still useful in science, philosophy and the humanities (see below), which makes this reduction philosophically uninteresting. Moreover, induction tries to achieve general conclusions, while analogy looks for particular ones. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Reductionism. ...


Hidden deduction

The opposite move could also be tried, reducing analogy to deduction. It is argued that every analogical argument is partially superfluous and can be rendered as a deduction stating as a premise a (previously hidden) universal proposition which applied both to the source and the target. In this view, instead of an argument with the form: Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated by previously known premises. ... In discourse, a premise (also premiss in British usage) is a claim which is part of a reason or objection. ...

Premises
a is analogous to b.
b is F.
Conclusion
a is plausibly F.

We should have:

Hidden universal premise
all Gs are plausibly Fs.
Hidden singular premise
a is G.
Conclusion
a is plausibly F.

This would mean that premises referring the source and the analogical relation are themselves superfluous. However, it is not always possible to find a plausibly true universal premise to replace the analogical premises (see Juthe 2005). And analogy is not only an argument, but also a distinct cognitive process. A common dictionary definition of truth is agreement with fact or reality.[1] There is no single definition of truth about which the majority of philosophers agree. ...


Shared structure

According to Shelley (2003), the study of the coelacanth drew heavily on analogies from other fish.
According to Shelley (2003), the study of the coelacanth drew heavily on analogies from other fish.

Contemporary cognitive scientists use a wide notion of analogy, extensionally close to that of Plato and Aristotle, but framed by the structure mapping theory (See Dedre Gentner et al. 2001). The same idea of mapping between source and target is used by conceptual metaphor theorists. Structure mapping theory concerns both psychology and computer science. Image File history File links Species  Latimeria chalumnae Family  Latimeriidae File links The following pages link to this file: Coelacanth ... Image File history File links Species  Latimeria chalumnae Family  Latimeriidae File links The following pages link to this file: Coelacanth ... Families See text. ... In any of several studies that treat the use of signs, for example, linguistics, logic, mathematics, semantics, and semiotics, the extension of a concept, idea, or sign consists of the things to which it applies, in contrast with its comprehension or intension, which consists very roughly of the ideas, properties... Dedre Gentner is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. ... The word mapping has several senses: In mathematics and related technical fields, it is some kind of function: see map (mathematics). ... Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


According to this view, analogy depends on the mapping or alignment of the elements of source and target. The mapping takes place not only between objects, but also between relations of objects and between relations of relations. The whole mapping yields the assignment of a predicate or a relation to the target. In mathematics and related technical fields, the term map or mapping is often a synonym for function. ...


Structure mapping theory has been applied and has found considerable confirmation in psychology. It has had reasonable success in computer science and artificial intelligence (see below). Some studies extended the approach to specific subjects, such as metaphor and similarity (see Gentner et al. 2001 and Gentner's publication page). Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up similarity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard (1997) developed their multiconstraint theory within structure mapping theory. They defend that the "coherence" of an analogy depends on structural consistency, semantic similarity and purpose. Structural consistency is maximal when the analogy is an isomorphism, although lower levels are admitted. Similarity demands that the mapping connects similar elements and relations of source and target, at any level of abstraction. It is maximal when there are identical relations and when connected elements have many identical attributes. An analogy achieves its purpose insofar as it helps solve the problem at hand. The multiconstraint theory faces some difficulties when there are multiple sources, but these can be overcome (Shelley 2003). Hummel and Holyoak (2005) recast the multiconstraint theory within a neural network architecture. Keith J. Holyoak is a leading researcher in cognitive psychology and cognitive science, working on human thinking and reasoning. ... Paul Thagard is Professor of Philosophy, with cross appointment to Psychology and Computer Science, and Director of the Cognitive Science Program, at the University of Waterloo, Canada. ... Look up coherence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Semantic similarity, variously also called semantic closeness/proximity/nearness, is a concept whereby a set of documents or terms within term lists are assigned a metric based on the likeness of their meaning / semantic content. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... In mathematics, an isomorphism (in Greek isos = equal and morphe = shape) is a kind of mapping between objects, devised by Eilhard Mitscherlich, which shows a relation between two properties or operations. ... // See also Artificial neural network. ...


A problem for the multiconstraint theory arises from its concept of similarity, which, in this respect, is not obviously different from analogy itself. Computer applications demand that there are some identical attributes or relations at some level of abstraction. Human analogy does not, or at least not apparently. This article is about modern humans. ...


High-level perception

Douglas Hofstadter and his team (see Chalmers et al. 1991) challenged the shared structure theory and mostly its applications in computer science. They argue that there is no line between perception, including high-level perception, and analogical thought. In fact, analogy occurs not only after, but also before and at the same time as high-level perception. In high-level perception, humans make representations by selecting relevant information from low-level stimuli. Perception is necessary for analogy, but analogy is also necessary for high-level perception. Chalmers et al. conclude that analogy is high-level perception. Forbus et al. (1998) claim that this is only a metaphor. It has been argued (Morrison and Dietrich 1995) that Hofstadter's and Gentner's groups do not defend opposite views, but are instead dealing with different aspects of analogy. Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American academic. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. ...


Applications and types of analogy

Rhetoric

  • An analogy can be a spoken or textual comparison between two words (or sets of words) to highlight some form of semantic similarity between them. Such analogies can be used to strengthen political and philosophical arguments, even when the semantic similarity is weak or non-existent (if crafted carefully for the audience).

Speech communication is the aural form of transferring ideas, thoughts, instructions and/or directives utilizing the speakers vocal chords and mouth to stimulate the air, thus causing waves of sound to strike the audible receptors of the hearer, resulting in a transformation back into mental images and/or symbols... Illustration of a scribe writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation of and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ...

Linguistics

  • An analogy can be the linguistic process that reduces word forms perceived as irregular by remaking them in the shape of more common forms that are governed by rules. For example, the English verb help once had the preterite holp and the past participle holpen. These obsolete forms have been discarded and replaced by helped by the power of analogy (or by widened application of the productive Verb-ed rule.) However, irregular forms can sometimes be created by analogy; one example is the American English past tense form of dive: dove, formed on analogy with words such as drive: drove.
  • Neologisms can also be formed by analogy with existing words. A good example is software, formed by analogy with hardware; other analogous neologisms such as firmware and vaporware have followed. Another example is the humorous term underwhelm, formed by analogy with overwhelm.
  • Analogy is often presented as an alternative mechanism to generative rules for explaining productive formation of structures such as words. Others argue that in fact they are the same mechanism, that rules are analogies that have become entrenched as standard parts of the linguistic system, whereas clearer cases of analogy have simply not (yet) done so (e.g. Langacker 1987.445-447). This view has obvious resonances with the current views of analogy in cognitive science which are discussed above.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... In computing, firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. ... Vaporware is software or hardware product which is announced by a developer well in advance of release, but which then fails to emerge, either with or without a protracted development cycle. ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ...

Science

Analogs are often used in theoretical and applied sciences in the form of models or simulations which can be considered as strong analogies. Other much weaker analogies assist in understanding and describing functional behaviours of similar systems. For instance, an analogy commonly used in electronics textbooks compares electical circuits to hydraulics.


Mathematics

Some types of analogies can have a precise mathematical formulation through the concept of isomorphism. In detail, this means that given two mathematical structures of the same type, an analogy between them can be thought of as a bijection between them which preserves some or all of the relevant structure. For example,  Bbb{R}^2 and  Bbb{C} are isomorphic as vector spaces, but the complex numbers,  Bbb{C} , have more structure than  Bbb{R}^2 does -  Bbb{C} is a field as well as a vector space. Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ... In mathematics, an isomorphism (in Greek isos = equal and morphe = shape) is a kind of mapping between objects, devised by Eilhard Mitscherlich, which shows a relation between two properties or operations. ... A bijective function. ... The complex numbers are an extension of the real numbers, in which all non-constant polynomials have roots. ... In abstract algebra, a field is an algebraic structure in which the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (except division by zero) may be performed, and the same rules hold which are familiar from the arithmetic of ordinary numbers. ... In mathematics, a vector space (or linear space) is a collection of objects (called vectors) that, informally speaking, may be scaled and added. ...


Category theory takes the idea of mathematical analogy much further with the concept of functors. Given two categories C and D a functor F from C to D can be thought of as an analogy between C and D, because F has to map objects of C to objects of D and arrows of C to arrows of D in such a way that the compositional structure of the two categories is preserved. This is similar to the structure mapping theory of analogy of Dedre Gentner, in that it formalizes the idea of analogy as a function which satisfies certain conditions.. In mathematics, category theory deals in an abstract way with mathematical structures and relationships between them. ... Did somebody just say functor? In category theory, a functor is a special type of mapping between categories. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


Artificial intelligence

See case-based reasoning Case-based reasoning (CBR), broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. ...


Anatomy

See also: Analogy (biology)

In anatomy, two anatomical structures are considered to be analogous when they serve similar functions but are not evolutionarily related, such as the legs of vertebrates and the legs of insects. Analogous structures are the result of convergent evolution and should be contrasted with homologous structures. The wings of pterosaurs (1), bats (2) and birds (3) are analogous: they serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ...


Morality

Analogical reasoning plays a very important part in morality. This may be in part because morality is supposed to be impartial and fair. If it is wrong to do something in a situation A, and situation B is analogous to A in all relevant features, then it is also wrong to perform that action in situation B. Moral particularism accepts analogical moral reasoning, rejecting both deduction and induction, since only the former can do without moral principles.-1... Moral particularism is the view that there are no moral principles and moral judgement can be found only as one decides particular cases, either real or imagined. ...


Law

In law, analogy is used to resolve issues on which there is no previous authority. A distinction has to be made between analogous reasoning from written law and analogy to precedent case law. Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... In law, a precedent or authority is a legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court may need to adopt when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. ... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz...


Analogies from codes and statutes

In civil law systems, where the preeminent source of law are legal codes and statutes, a lacuna (a gap) arises when a specific issue is not explicitly dealt with in written law. Judges will try to identify a provision whose purpose applies to the case at hand. That process can reach a high degree of sophistication, as judges sometimes not only look at specific provision to fill lacunae (gaps), but at several provisions (from which an underlying purpose can be inferred) or at general principles of the law to identify the legislator's value judgement from which the analogy is drawn. Besides the not very frequent filling of lacunae, analogy is very commonly used between different provisions in order to achieve substantial coherence. Analogy from previous judicial decisions is also common, although these decisions are not binding authorities. Civil law or Continental law or Romano-Germanic law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Look up lacuna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... The term moral obligation has a number of meanings in moral philosophy, in religion, and in laymans terms. ... ζōA legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. ... A value judgment is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something based on a particular set of values or on a particular value system. ... Look up coherence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ...


Analogies from precedent case law

By contrast, in common law systems, where precedent cases are the primary source of law, analogies to codes and statutes are rare (since those are not seen as a coherent system, but as incursions into the common law). Analogies are thus usually drawn from precedent cases: The judge finds that the facts of another case are similar to the one at hand to an extent that the analogous application of the rule established in the previous case is justified. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Engineering

Often a physical prototype is built to model and represent some other physical object. For example, wind tunnels are used to test scale models of wings and aircraft, which act as an analog to full-size wings and aircraft. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with prototyping. ... A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...


For example, the MONIAC (an analog computer) used the flow of water in its pipes as an analog to the flow of money in an economy. Moniac Computer The MONIAC (Monetary National Income Automatic Computer) also known as the Phillips Hydraulic Computer and the Financephalograph, was created in 1949 by the New Zealander economist Bill Phillips to model the national economic processes of the United Kingdom, while Phillips was a student at the London School of... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ...


See also

Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ... Conceptual Blending is a theory of cognition[1]. According to the Theory of Conceptual Blending, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are blended in a subconscious process. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

External links and references

Look up analogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Analogy in Early Greek Thought.
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Analogy in Patristic and Medieval Thought.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Medieval Theories of Analogy.
  • Dedre Gentner's publications page, most of them on analogy and available for download.
  • Shawn Glynn’s publications page, all on teaching with analogies and some available for download.
  • Keith Holyoak's publications page, many on analogy and available for download.
  • Chalmers, D.J. et al. (1991). Chalmers, D.J., French, R.M., Hofstadter, D., High-Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy.
  • Forbus, K. et al. (1998). Analogy just looks like high-level perception.
  • Gentner, D., Holyoak, K.J., Kokinov, B. (Eds.) (2001). The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-57139-0
  • Itkonen, E. (2005). Analogy as Structure and Process. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Juthe, A. (2005). "Argument by Analogy", in Argumentation (2005) 19: 1–27.
  • Holland, J.H., Holyoak, K.J., Nisbett, R.E., and Thagard, P. (1986). Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-58096-9.
  • Holyoak, K.J., and Thagard, P. (1995). Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-58144-2.
  • Holyoak, K.J., and Thagard, P. (1997). The Analogical Mind.
  • Hummel, J.E., and Holyoak, K.J. (2005). Relational Reasoning in a Neurally Plausible Cognitive Architecture
  • Lamond, G. (2006). Precedent and Analogy in Legal Reasoning, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Langacker, Ronald W. (1987). Foundations of Cognitive grammar. Vol. I, Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Morrison, C., and Dietrich, E. (1995). Structure-Mapping vs. High-level Perception.
  • Shelley, C. (2003). Multiple analogies in Science and Philosophy. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Turney, P.D., and Littman, M.L. (2005). Corpus-based learning of analogies and semantic relations. Machine Learning, 60 (1-3), 251-278.
  • Turney, P.D. (2006). Similarity of semantic relations. Computational Linguistics, 32 (3), 379-416.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Analogy - LoveToKnow 1911 (531 words)
Thus by analogy, the word "loud," originally applied to sounds, is used of garments which obtrude themselves on the attention; all metaphor is thus a kind of analogy.
Strictly the argument by analogy is based on similarity of relations between things, not on the similarity of things, though it is, in general, extended to cover the latter.
The term was used in a special sense by Kant in his phrase, "Analogies of Experience," the third and most important group in his classification of the a priori elements of knowledge.
analogy: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (3029 words)
Analogy is either the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from a particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general.
Analogies are thus usually drawn from precedent cases: The judge finds that the facts of another case are similar to the one at hand to an extent that the analogous application of the rule established in the previous case is justified.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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