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Encyclopedia > Analogue electronics

Analog electronics (or "analogue", see analog) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. In contrast, in digital electronics signals usually take only two different levels. The term "analog" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represented the signal. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Analog device is apparatus that measures continuous information. ... Look up analog, analogue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, small changes in the input result in small changes in the output. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (IPA pronunciation: ) (sometimes called a pronumeral) is a symbolic representation denoting a quantity or expression. ... A digital circuit that acts as a binary clock, hand-wired on a series of breadboards Digital electronics are electronics systems that use digital signals. ...

Contents

Analog signals

Main article: Analog signal

An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses angular position as the signal to convey pressure information. Electrical signals may represent information by changing their voltage, current, frequency, or total charge. Information is converted from some other physical form ( such as sound, light, temperature, pressure, position) to an electrical signal by a transducer. An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... Bourdon Tube Type Indicator Side Mechanical Side Mechanical Details A pressure or vacuum gauge usually consists of a closed coiled tube (called a Bourdon tube) connected to the chamber or pipe in which pressure is to be sensed. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... The angular is a large bone in the lower jaw of amphibians, birds and reptiles, which is connected to all other lower jaw bones: the dentary (which is the entire lower jaw in mammals), the splenial, the suprangular, and the articular Also see: Angular momentum. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ...


The signals take any value from a given range, and each unique signal value represents different information. Any change in the signal is meaningful, and each level of the signal represents a different level of the phenomenon that it represents. For example, suppose the signal is being used to represent temperature, with one volt representing one degree Celsius. In such a system 10 volts would represent 10 degrees, and 10.1 volts would represent 10.1 degrees. Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Another method of conveying an analog signal is to use modulation. In this, some base carrier signal has one of its properties altered: amplitude modulation (AM) involves altering the amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage waveform by the source information, frequency modulation (FM) changes the frequency. Other techniques, such as changing the phase of the carrier signal are also used. In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ...


In an analog sound recording, the variation in pressure of a sound striking a microphone creates a corresponding variation in the current passing through it or voltage across it. An increase in the volume of the sound causes the fluctuation of the current or voltage to increase proportionally while keeping the same waveform or shape. “Microphones” redirects here. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ...


Mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic and other systems may also use analog signals. For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Pneumatics, from the Greek πνευματικός (pneumatikos, coming from the wind) is the use of pressurized air in science and technology. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ...


Inherent noise

Analog systems exhibit noise; that is, random disturbances or variations. Since all variations of an analog signal are significant, any disturbance is equivalent to a change in the original signal and so appears as noise. As the signal is copied and re-copied, or transmitted over long distances, these random variations become dominant and lead to signal degradation. Electrically these disturbances are reduced by shielding, and using low noise amplifiers. In science, and especially in physics and telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target information (signal) being received at a detector. ... There are a number of uses for the word shield: A shield is a protective device, meant to intercept attacks. ...


The effects of random noise can make signal loss and distortion impossible to recover, since amplifying the signal to recover attenuated parts of the signal often generates more noise and amplifies the noise as well.


Analog vs. digital electronics

Since the information is encoded differently in analog and digital electronics, the way they process a signal is consequently different. All operations that can be performed on an analog signal such as amplification, filtering, limiting, and others, can also be duplicated in the digital domain. A digital circuit that acts as a binary clock, hand-wired on a series of breadboards Digital electronics are electronics systems that use digital signals. ... Generally, amplification is a basic process sometimes seen in nature, and often used in processes which involve a signal which must be made stronger. ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass filter (left) and a low-pass filter (right). ...


The first electronic devices invented and mass produced were analog. The use of microelectronics has reduced the cost of digital techniques and now make digital methods feasible and cost-effective. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ...


The main differences between analog and digital electronics are listed below:

Noise 
Because of the way information is encoded in analog circuits, they are much more susceptible to noise than digital circuits, since a small change in the signal can represent a significant change in the information present in the signal and can cause the information present to be lost. Since digital signals take on one of only two different values, a disturbance would have to be about one-half the magnitude of the digital signal to cause an error; this property of digital circuits can be exploited to make signal processing noise-resistant. In digital electronics, because the information is quantized, as long as the signal stays inside a range of values, it represents the same information. Digital circuits use this principle to regenerate the signal at each logic gate, lessening or removing noise.
Precision 
A number of factors affect how precise a signal is, mainly the noise present in the original signal and the noise added by processing. See signal-to-noise ratio. Fundamental physical limits such as the shot noise in components limits the resolution of analog signals. In digital electronics additional precision is obtained by using additional digits to represent the signal; the practical limit in the number of digits is determined by the performance of the analog to digital converters, since digital operations can usually be performed without loss of precision.
Design Difficulty 
Digital systems are much easier and smaller to design than comparable analog circuits. This is one of the main reasons why digital systems are more common than analog. An analog circuit must be designed by hand, and the process is much less automated than for digital systems. Also, because the smaller the integrated circuit (chip) the cheaper it is, and digital systems are much smaller than analog, digital is cheaper to manufacture.

This article is about noise as in sound. ... The term DSP, when used by itself, can refer to: // Underground Bhangra DJ Short for Deathlike Silence Productions. ... Generally, quantization is the state of being constrained to a set of discrete values, rather than varying continuously. ... A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an electrical engineering concept defined as the ratio of a signal power to the noise power corrupting the signal. ... Photon noise simulation. ... This article or section should include material from AD converters In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...

See also

An analog chip is a set of miniature electronic analog circuits formed on a single piece of semiconductor material. ... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Analogue electronics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (488 words)
Analogue electronics are those electronics systems with a continuously variable signal.
Analogue is usually thought of in an electrical context, but mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also use analogue signals.
Any information may be conveyed by an analogue signal, often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, temperature, position, or pressure, and is achieved using a transducer.
Electronics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1205 words)
The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors.
The design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems is part of the field of electronics engineering, and includes the hardware design side of computer engineering.
The main uses of electronic circuits are the controlling, processing and distribution of information, and the conversion and distribution of electric power.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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