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Encyclopedia > Analog television

Analog television (or analogue television) encodes television and transports the picture and sound information as an analog signal, that is, by varying the amplitude and/or frequencies of the broadcast signal. All systems preceding digital television, such as NTSC, PAL or SECAM are analog television systems. An analog or analogue signal is an allergy continuous in both time and amplitude. ... FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ...


Broadcasters using analog television systems encode their signal using NTSC, PAL or SECAM analog encoding and then modulate this signal onto a VHF or UHF carrier. An analog television picture is "drawn" on the screen an entire frame each time, in the manner of a motion picture (cinematograph) film, irrespective of the picture content. NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... This article is about the radio frequency. ...

Contents

Analog television technology

Analog television, like all other motion picture systems, exploits the properties of the human eye to create the illusion of moving images. The human eye retains an image for a fraction of a second, which is called "persistence of vision." Due to the persistence of vision effect, a rapid sequence of images will be perceived as an integrated moving image. If the rate of frames is too low, such as 16 frames per second, the moving images will seem jumpy and jerky. Frame rates of 24 frames per second were used for motion pictures to create a smooth moving image. When NTSC television standards were developed, 30 Hz was chosen at the frame rate, and then later 29.97 Hz. The PAL system has a frame rate of 25 frames per second. NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ...


When onscreen images are bright, the persistence of vision effect does not last as long, which meant that more frames had to be projected per second. Motion picture projectors resolve this problem by using shutters. Since shutters cannot be used for televisions, television engineers increased the repetition rate to two "flashes" per frame by interlacing and scanning a single frame two times. These interlacing repeated frames do come at a cost, though; in some cases, the repeated frames cause aberrations such as serrations on the edge of moving objects, misalignment, interline flicker, or a shimmering effect.


In black and white television based on a cathode ray tube (CRT), a single electron beam scans a phosphor screen from left to right and then returns to the top. The electron beam is brightness-modulated to create intensity changes which cause the different shades of grey. Analogue television equipment has been manufactured using alternative forms of display, such as LCD, but the picture display is still updated a frame at a time in the same manner as the flying-spot CRT.


To support color signals contained in the broadcast, a color synchronization signal called a "color burst" is added to the basic black and white information. When color television was introduced, engineers ensured that black and white televisions would still be able to display signals that were broadcast in color. To do this, the original monochrome information is still transmitted in the color signal, and then the color difference information is added on top.


Three major standards for television are American NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) color television system, the European PAL (Phase Alternation Line rate) and the French-Former Soviet Union SECAM (Sequential Couleur avec Memoire) standard. The three systems have different numbers of vertical lines. NTSC uses 525 lines (interlaced). In contrast, PAL and SECAM use 625 lines. NTSC displays more frames per second than PAL and SECAM. PAL's color encoding is similar to the NTSC system's. SECAM, though, uses a different modulation approach than PAL or NTSC. NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ...


Digital switchover

Many countries have, or have decided to, cease analog transmissions to switch to digital broadcasting.


Switch-off completed

Notice on Finnish analog TV, telling people about the shutdown.
Notice on Finnish analog TV, telling people about the shutdown.
  • The Netherlands moved to digital broadcasting on 11 December 2006. The switch-off was helped greatly by the fact that about 90% of the households have cable that continues to use analog distribution.

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Switch-off in progress

  • Sweden began the switch-off in late 2005, region by region. By January 2007 half of the analogue transmitters had been switched off. The switch-off is expected to be completed by 1 February 2008.
  • Germany started the switch-off at different times in different regions. The first was the Berlin area, where the switch-off began on 1 November 2002 and was completed on 4 August 2003. Most other regions have followed, and in most populous areas the switch-off is completed, but a number of regions have not yet started. The switch-off is planned to be completed by the end of 2008.

is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland, and almost entirely Italian-speaking (except the German-speaking municipality of Bosco/Gurin). ... Lej da Segl and Lej da Silvaplauna, Upper Engadin Piz Roseg and Vadret da Roseg as seen from Fuorcla Surlej The Engadine (German: Engadin, Romansch: Engiadina) is a long mountain valley located in the canton of Graubünden in southeast of Switzerland. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Switch-off time announced

  • In Australia, the government originally planned a switch-off in 2008. This has now been delayed to a "to be determined" date in 2010-2012. Until that time, free-to-air stations will be simulcast, along with digital only channels like ABC2. Government Legislation states that all locally-made free-to-air television shows must be in 16:9 Widescreen format since 1999 (the first in the world). Cable Television Networks are already being broadcasted in simulcast since 2004 and analogue cable services were switched-off in April 2007.
  • Belgium will switch to digital broadcasting completely in 2008. It will happen gradually.
  • In Brazil, the free-to-air digital transmissions will start on July 2008 at São Paulo, but broadcasting companies must beam signals in both analogue and digital formats until 2016.
  • In Canada, the main FTA broadcasters (CBC, CTV, and Global) have launched HD streams of their programming. Currently, analogue and digital broadcasts co-exist, with virtually the only way to receive digital TV via cable or satellite TV. However, in some urban areas like Toronto, it's also possible to pick up DTV. Canadian broadcasters must switch to digital over-the air signals by 31 August 2011, although exceptions may be made where analog transmissions will not cause interference (e.g. remote areas). [1]
  • In China, the switch-off is scheduled to be in 2015.
  • In Denmark, digital transmission has started and the analogue net will be closed at the end of October 2009.
  • In Ireland DVB-T trials are being held but the digital switch-over, which was intended to begin in 2008 has been postponed indefinitely.
  • In Japan, analogue transmissions will be terminated nationwide in July 2011.
  • In Malaysia, Information Ministry was planning to shut down the country's analogue television system in phases beginning from 2009 and set to convert to full digital TV in 2015.
  • In Norway, the switch-off will start in late 2007 and finish by 2009.
  • In the United Kingdom, the switch-off of all analogue terrestrial TV broadcasts is scheduled to begin on 17 October 2007 with Whitehaven in Cumbria[2] and proceed region by region. The last regions will be switched off in 2012. There is a free-to-air Digital Terrestrial replacement called Freeview that complies with the DVB-T standard. A set-top box can be bought to enable analogue television sets to receive Freeview.
  • In the United States by no later than February 17, 2009, all U.S. television broadcasts will be exclusively digital, by order of the Federal Communications Commission, with legislation setting this deadline signed into law in early 2006.[3] Furthermore, starting March 1, 2007, new television sets that receive signals over-the-air, including pocket sized portable televisions, must include digital or HDTV tuners for digital broadcasts.[4] Currently, most U.S. broadcasters are beaming their signals in both analog and digital formats; a few are digital-only. Citing the bandwidth efficiency of digital TV, after the analog switch-off the FCC will auction off channels 52–59 (the lower half of the 700 MHz band) for other communications traffic[5], completing the reallocation of broadcast channels 52–69 that began in the late 1990s. The analog switch-off ruling, which so far has met little opposition from consumers or manufacturers, would render all non-digital televisions dark and obsolete within 2 years. The FCC has determined that an external tuning device can simply be added to non-digital televisions to lengthen their useful lifespan. (However, as of March 2007, external tuning devices are not widely available, are relatively expensive, and require bulky AC power supplies.) Currently, even the earliest televisions continue to work with present broadcast standards. This mandate was designed to help provide a painless transition to the new standards. On September 12, 2007, the FCC voted 5-0 on requiring cable operators to make local broadcasts available to their users, even those with analog television. This requirement lasts until 2012, when the FCC will review the case again.

2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Australian television channel. ... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city. ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... This article is about the Broadcast Television Network CTV, for the broadcasting television company see CTVglobemedia. ... Global Television and Global TV redirect here. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United Kingdom digital terrestrial television service. ... This article is about the United Kingdom digital terrestrial television service. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Common analog television systems

NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Mexico, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for Sequential Color with Memory), is an analog color television system first used in France. ... SSTV transmissions often include station call signs, RST reception reports, and radio amateur jargon. ... Narrow-bandwidth television (NBTV) is a type of television designed to fit into a low-bandwidth channel, in the extreme case using amateur radio voice frequency channels that only range up to a few kilohertz (though channels ranging into a few tens of kilohertz and beyond can also be used). ...

References

  1. ^ Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2007-53: Determinations regarding certain aspects of the regulatory framework for over-the-air television. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (2007-05-17). Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  2. ^ First digital TV switch date set. BBC News (2007-03-15). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  3. ^ Section 3002 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-171, 120 Stat. 4 (February 8, 2006), amending the Communications Act of 1934, section 309(j)(14), codified at 47 U.S.C. § 309(j)(14).
  4. ^ FCC rule requires all new TVs to be digital. The Boston Globe (2007-02-26). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  5. ^ FCC: Wireless Services: Lower 700 MHz. Federal Communications Commission (2004-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.

The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Pub. ... The Communications Act of 1934 was a United States federal law enacted as Public Law Number 416, Act of June 19, 1934, ch. ... Title 47 of the United States Code outlines the role of telegraphy in the United States Code. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The FCCs official seal. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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