In chemistry, analogs or analogues are compounds in which one or more individual atoms have been replaced, either with a different atom, or with a different functional group. Another use of the term in chemistry refers to a substance which is similar in structure to another substance. Analogues can sometimes cause complications when they have much differing functions from the compared substance. For instance, a person could have a cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) deficiency, but it may not show up in a blood test if cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) analogues are present. Pharmaceuticals are one area in which a lead compound found to have activity is elaborated by creating a family of analogs. Also transition state analogs are similar to the transition state in an enzyme catalysed reaction, but are not converted to the product themselves. Binding of transition state anologs allows scientists to learn more about the nature of enzyme catalysed reactions. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A lead compound in drug discovery is a chemical compound that has pharmacological or biological activity and whose chemical structure is used as a starting point for chemical modifications in order to improve potency, selectivity, or pharmacokinetic parameters. ...
Homolog: a compound of a series differing only by repeated units
Chemistry is the science of matter, its structure and properties, and the transformations it undergoes.
It is often called "the central science" because it is not concerned with the fundamental energy or forces that hold matter together studied in physics or the consequences and characteristic of complex organisms studied in biology (see physics, biology).
Consequently, chemistry includes the study of microscopic phenomena, such as clusters of atoms and their characteristics on the nanometre scale, and macroscopic phenomena, such as the interaction of proteins and DNA in complex solutions and the properties of new materials.
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