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Encyclopedia > Analects of Confucius
Engraving of Confucius. The Chinese characters read "Portrait of the First Teacher, Confucius, Giving a Lecture".
Engraving of Confucius. The Chinese characters read "Portrait of the First Teacher, Confucius, Giving a Lecture".

The Analects (Traditional Chinese: 論語, Simplified Chinese: 论语, pinyin: Lún Yǔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, are a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held. The Chinese title literally means "discussion over [Confucius'] words." Engraving of Confucius This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher...


Written during the Spring and Autumn Period through the Warring States Period (ca. 479 BC - 221 BC), the Analects is the representative work of Confucianism and continues to have a huge influence on Chinese and East Asian thought and values today. The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; Hanyu Pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... 479 pr. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Rúxué [   ], literally The School of the Scholars; or 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Teachings of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ...

Contents

History and versions

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Influence and significance

Since Confucius' time, the Analects has heavily influenced the philosophy and moral values of China and later other East Asian countries as well. Together with the other three volumes of the Four Books, it taught the basic Confucian values including propriety (禮/礼), righteousness (義/义), loyalty (忠) and filial piety (孝), all centered about the central thought of Confucius – humanity (仁). East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... The Four Books, or the Four Classics, are the Chinese classic texts selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as an introduction to Chinese philosophy and Confucianism. ...

For almost two thousand years, the Analects had also been the fundamental course of study for any Chinese scholar, for a man was not considered morally upright or enlightened if he did not study Confucius' works. The imperial examination, started in the Jin Dynasty and eventually abolished with the founding of the Republic of China, emphasized Confucian studies and expected candidates to quote and apply the words of Confucius in their essays. Download high resolution version (968x720, 236 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (968x720, 236 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: kÄ“jÇ”) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ... Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada is an institution that is part of the Correctional Service of Canada. ... China, and should not be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The imperial examinations (Chinese: 科舉; Pinyin: kÄ“jÇ”) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service based on merit and education, which promoted upward mobility among the population for centuries. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared...


The Analects has also been translated into many languages, most notably into English by Arthur Waley and Charles Muller. Portions were translated into Latin by Western Christian missionaries in the 17th century. Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arthur David Waley (August 19, 1889 – June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist. ... Charles Muller is a translator specializing in East Asian philosophical texts. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


A particular point of interest lies in Chapter X of the book, which contains detailed descriptions of Confucius' behaviors in various daily activities. This has been pointed at by Voltaire and Ezra Pound to show how much Confucius was a mere human. Simon Leys, who recently translated the Analects into English and French, said that the book may well have been the first in human history to describe the life of an individual, historic personage. Voltaire at 24 years of age by Nicolas de Largillière. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Pierre Ryckmans (born 28 September 1935, in Brussels, Belgium), who also writes as Simon Leys, is a writer, sinologist, essayist and literary critic. ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Analects

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... In the philosophy of law, virtue jurisprudence is the name given to theories of law related to virtue ethics. ...

External links

  • English Translation of the Analects by Charles Muller
  • Multilingual edition of the Analects in Chinese, English and French
  • An English Translation from the University of Adelaide Library
  • Translations of the Analects in over 20 languages. With footnotes.



The Four Books and Five Classics (四書五經)
The Four Books:

The Great Learning (大學) | The Doctrine of the Mean (中庸) | The Analects (論語) | The Mencius (孟子) The Four Books and Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: 四書五經; Simplified Chinese: 四书五经; pinyin: SìshÅ« WÅ­jÄ«ng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China. ... The Four Books, or the Four Classics, are the Chinese classic texts selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as an introduction to Chinese philosophy and Confucianism. ... The Great Learning (Chinese: 大學, pinyin: Dà Xué) is the first of the Four books which were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty as a foundational introduction to Confucianism. ... The Doctrine of the Mean (Chinese: 中庸; Pinyin: ) is one of the Four Books, part of the Confucian canonical scriptures. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ...

The Five Classics:

Classic of Changes (易經) | Classic of Poetry (詩經) | Classic of Rites (禮記) | Classic of History (書經) | Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋) The Five Classics (五經, WÇ”jÄ«ng) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... ShÄ« JÄ«ng (Chinese: 詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Classic of Rites The Classic of Rites (禮記 Lǐ Jì, or Liki) was one of the Five Classics of Confucianism; it described social forms, ancient rites, and court ceremonies. ... The Classic of History (書經/书经 Shū Jīng) is a collection of documents and speeches alleged to have been written by rulers and officials of the early Zhou period and before. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ...

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