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Encyclopedia > Anachronism
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For the card strategy game, see Anachronism (game).

An anachronism (from the Greek "ανά," "against," and "χρόνος," "time") is anything that is temporally incongruous—that is, it appears in a temporal context in which it seems sufficiently out of place as to be peculiar, incomprehensible or impossible. The item is often an object, but may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a custom, or anything else closely enough bound to a particular period as to seem odd outside it. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Anachronism is a tabletop game with aspects of both miniatures and collectible card genres. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Two types

An anachronist prefers older, often obsolete cultural artifacts over newer ones. For example, a modern-day anachronist might choose to wear a top-hat, use quill pens, or use a type-writer.


This choice may reflect an eccentricity, aesthetic preference, or an ethical acceptance or rejection of the societal role of that artifact. Look up Eccentricity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


Another sort of parachronism arises when a work based on a particular era's state of knowledge is read within the context of a later era with a different state of knowledge. For example, many scientific works that rely heavily on theories that have later been discredited have become anachronistic with the removal of their underpinnings, and works of speculative fiction often find their speculation quickly outstripped by real-world technological development. (see Future anachronism below) Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


A prochronism, on the other hand, occurs when an item appears in a temporal context in which it could not yet be credibly present (the object had not yet been developed, the verbal expression had not been coined, the philosophy had not yet been formulated, the technology had not yet been created). A mild example might be Western movies' tradition of placing firearms not introduced until the 1870s, such as the Winchester 1873 rifle or the Colt Single Action Army, in frontier society of antebellum and Civil War years. Mild prochronisms such as this may not be noticeable to the uninformed, but severe prochronisms are often comic in their effect (e.g., a ninth-century British peasant earnestly explaining his village as an anarcho-syndicalist collective in the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail, or a Beatlesque band called the "Bedbugs" appearing in the American Civil War–era TV comedy F-Troop). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Winchester Model 1894 The Winchester rifle has become synonymous with the word repeating rifle (multishot rifle) which was manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company and was commonly used in the United States during the latter half of the 19th century. ... Rampant Colt - The original logo of Colts Firearms Colts Manufacturing Company was founded in Hartford, Connecticut in 1847 by Samuel Colt in order to produce revolvers, which Colt held the patent on, during the Mexican-American War. ... Colt Single Action Army handgun (Modern Verson) Also known as the Colt Peacemaker or Single Action Army, the Colt Single Action Army handgun is a single action revolver holding 6 rounds of ammunition, that was designed for the US cavalry by Colts Manufacturing Company and adopted in 1875, and... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 film written and performed by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin), and directed by Gilliam and Jones. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... F Troop is a satirical American television sitcom that originally aired from 1965-1967 on ABC. It premiered in the United States on September 14, 1965, ran for two seasons and finished its first run on April 6, 1967, for a total of 65 thirty-minute episodes. ...


Artifacts

An anachronism can be an artifact which appears out of place archaeologically, geologically or temporally. It is sometimes called OOPArt, for "out of place artifact". Anachronisms usually appear more technologically advanced than is expected for their place and period. In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... OOPArt, from the acronym for out-of-place artifact, is a term coined by American zoologist Ivan T. Sanderson for a historical, archaeological or paleontological object found in a very unusual, or even impossible, location. ...


However, an apparent anachronism may reflect our ignorance rather than a genuine chronological anomaly. A popular view of history presents an unfolding of the past in which humanity has a primitive start and progresses toward development of technology. Alleged anachronistic artifacts demonstrate contradictions to this idea. Some archaeologists believe that seeing these artifacts as anachronisms underestimates the technology and creativity available to people at the time, although others believe that these are evidence of alternate or "fringe" timelines of human history (e.g. Antikythera mechanism). For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... An anomaly is something which deviates from the standard or expected. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ...


If one envisions human technological advancement as being roughly parallel to the expansion and decline of human civilizations — that is, progressing in a "three steps forward, two steps back" sort of manner — then at least some (perhaps even many) apparent "anachronisms" are to be expected. A good example of this would be concrete, being used in the past by various ancient cultures only to be forgotten about and then re-invented at a later time by another culture, until the present, at which point the technology is employed globally and unlikely to slip into obscurity again. This article is about the construction material. ...


Art and fiction

Aristotle, a 4th-century-B.C. philosopher, is portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a 15th-century-A.D. scholar.
Aristotle, a 4th-century-B.C. philosopher, is portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a 15th-century-A.D. scholar.

Anachronism is used especially in works of imagination that rest on a historical basis. Anachronisms may be introduced in many ways, originating, for instance, in disregard of the different modes of life and thought that characterize different periods, or in ignorance of the progress of the arts and sciences and other facts of history. They vary from glaring inconsistencies to scarcely perceptible misrepresentation. It is only since the close of the 18th century that this kind of deviation from historical reality has jarred on a general audience. Anachronisms abound in the works of Raphael and Shakespeare, as well as in those of less celebrated painters and playwrights of earlier times. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1372 × 1904 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1372 × 1904 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Page depicting Constantinople with added hand-colouring The Nuremberg Chronicle, written in Latin and German versions by Hartmann Schedel, is one of the best documented early printed books and, appearing in 1493, is an incunabulum. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This page is about the artist. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In particular, the artists, on the stage and on the canvas, in story and in song, assimilated their characters to their own nationality and their own time. Roman soldiers appear in Renaissance military garb. The Virgin Mary was represented in Italian works with Italian characteristics, and in Flemish works with Flemish ones. Alexander the Great appeared on the French stage in the full costume of Louis XIV of France down to the time of Voltaire; and in England the contemporaries of Joseph Addison found unremarkable (in Pope's words) Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ...

"Cato's long wig, flower'd gown, and lacquer'd chair."

Shakespeare's audience similarly did not ask whether the University of Wittenberg had existed in Hamlet's day, or whether clocks that struck time were available in Julius Caesar's ancient Rome. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Big Ben, the tower clock of the Palace of Westminster in London, is a famous striking clock. ... Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


However, in many works, such anachronisms are not simply the result of ignorance, which would have been corrected had the artist simply had more historical knowledge. Renaissance painters, for example, were well aware of the differences in costume between ancient times and their own, given the renewed attention to ancient art in their time, but they often chose to depict ancient scenes in contemporary garb. Rather, these anachronisms reflect a difference of emphasis from the 19th and 20th century attention to depicting details of former times as they "actually" were. Artists and writers of earlier times were usually more concerned with other aspects of the composition, and the fact that the events depicted took place long in the past was secondary. Such a large number of differences of detail required by historic realism would have been a distraction. (see Accidental & intentional anachronism below) Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Authors sometimes telescope chronology for the sake of making a point. Bolesław Prus does this at several junctures in his 1895 historical novel, Pharaoh. For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Pharaoh (Polish: Faraon) is the fourth and last of the major novels by BolesÅ‚aw Prus. ...


In recent times, the progress of archaeological research and the more scientific spirit of history have encouraged audiences and artists to view anachronism as an offense or mistake.


Yet modern dramatic productions often rely on anachronism for effect. In particular, directors of Shakespeare's plays may use costumes and props not only of Shakespeare's day or their own, but of any era in between or even those of an imagined future. For instance, the musical Return to the Forbidden Planet crosses The Tempest with popular music to create a science fiction musical. Return to the Forbidden Planet is a Jukebox musical by director Bob Carlton based on Shakespeares The Tempest and the 1950s science fiction film Forbidden Planet (which itself drew its plot loosely from The Tempest). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A celebrated 1960 stage production of Hamlet, starring Richard Burton, was set on a bare New York stage in contemporary rehearsal clothes: the audience could have been watching the rehearsal before the dress rehearsal. The point of the staging was apparently that the story of Hamlet is a universal one that was equally credible in the 20th century as in the 17th. [citation needed] For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ...


Other popular adaptations of Shakespeare's plays that relied on anachronisms in props and setting were Titus (1999) and William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (1996). A similar approach was used in the 2001 film Moulin Rouge!, in which a diverse selection of 20th-century music is used over a fin de siècle backdrop. Other films, such as Brazil, A Series of Unfortunate Events, or Richard III may create worlds so full of various conflicting anachronisms as to create a unique stylistic environment that lacks a specific period setting. This use of stylistic anachronism also often appears in children's movies, such as Shrek and Hoodwinked, where it is used for satirical effect. (see Comical anachronism below) Titus (1999) is a 1999 film adaptation of Shakespeares revenge tragedy Titus Andronicus, about the downfall of a Roman general. ... This article is about the year. ... William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet is a 1996 American film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Moulin Rouge is a 2001 Academy Award-winning jukebox musical film directed by Baz Luhrmann. ... Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Richard III is a 1995 film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Richard III, starring Sir Ian McKellen, Annette Bening, Jim Broadbent, Robert Downey Jr. ... For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... Hoodwinked! is an American computer-animated family comedy produced by Blue Yonder Films with Kanbar Entertainment. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...


Sometimes a director may use anachronisms to offer a "fresh" angle on an already established story. Thus Andrew Lloyd Webber created two popular musicals, Jesus Christ Superstar and Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, which filled traditional biblical stories with modern-day sensibilities; and on a similar note, Catherine Hardwicke's The Nativity Story shows a field of maize-corn in a Nazareth farming scene. Maize-corn is native to Mesoamerica; until the late 15th century it was grown only in the Americas. Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... This article is about the rock opera. ... Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat is the second musical theatre show written by the team of Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, and their first performed. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Catherine Hardwicke(born Helen Catherine Hardwicke[1] on October 21, 1955) is an American production designer and film director. ... The Nativity Story, previously titled Nativity, is a 2006 film starring Keisha Castle-Hughes, the Oscar-nominated actress of The Whale Rider and Shohreh Aghdashloo, the Oscar-nominated supporting actress of House of Sand and Fog. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Comical anachronism

Comedic works of fiction set in the past may use anachronism for a humorous effect. One of the first major films to use anachronism was Buster Keaton's The Three Ages, which included the invention of Stone Age baseball and modern traffic problems in classical Rome. Mel Brooks' 1974 film Blazing Saddles, set in the Wild West in 1874, contains many blatant anachronisms from the 1970s, including a stylish Gucci costume for the sheriff, an automobile, a scene at Grauman's Chinese Theater, and frequent references to Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000). The cartoon The Flintstones depicts many modern appliances in a prehistoric setting—and depicts a dinosaur as a household pet, even though the last dinosaur died 65 million years ago, and the earliest humans date to 7 million years ago; the Stone Age is usually dated between 1,000,000 and 5,000 years ago. (Some scientists regard birds as late dinosaurs, but they don't resemble Dino.) The Disney movie Aladdin, in particular, featured many brief jokes where the Genie briefly changed into caricatures of many famous people from all across time, including many twentieth-century figures and comedians, for the purpose of quoting lines to make jokes at the film. Series 3 of The Micallef Program included a sketch by the name of 'Billy Anachronism' in which a janitor was sent back to multiple time periods before returning to the 70's with several items of clothing depicting the places he had been. A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... See also: 1973 in film 1974 1975 in film 1970s in film years in film film // Events February 7 - Blazing Saddles is released in USA May 1 - George Lucas creates the first draft of what would eventually become Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ... Alex Karras as Mongo in Blazing Saddles Blazing Saddles (1974) is a comedy directed by Mel Brooks and starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, and released by Warner Brothers. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Guccio Gucci and Gucci, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Hedy Lamarr (November 9, 1913 – January 19, 2000) was an Austrian/Jewish-American actress and communications technology innovator. ... The Flintstones is an American animated television series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) is the animation studio that makes up a key element of The Walt Disney Company. ... This article is about the Disney film. ... The Micallef Program (also known as The Micallef Programme in its second season, The Micallef Pogram in its third season, and The Micallef P(r)ogram(me) as an umbrella title for the DVDs) was an Australian sketch comedy TV series hosted by Shaun Micallef that ran from 1998 to...


Future anachronism

Even with careful research, science fiction writers risk anachronism as their works age. For example, many books nominally set in the mid-21st century depict the continued existence of the Soviet Union. Futuristic movies, such as A Clockwork Orange, sometimes have anachronisms, such as the fact that in that movie a 1960's Volkswagen Beetle is run off the road, and listening to microcassettes in a movie set deep into the 21st Century. This can happen another way as well: William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy depicts a cyberpunk world of fantastically advanced technology in which personal mobile phones do not exist and characters rely extensively on pay phones or exotic satellite-based communication. (Mobile phones already existed at the time of the works, but they were big, clunky, and expensive; and Gibson did not foresee their miniaturization and ubiquity. He probably knew Moore's Law but didn't follow it to its conclusions.) A more subtle example may be found in the 1989 film Back to the Future II, where it is assumed that fax machines are ubiquitous as of 2015 instead of email. (If the film had been set in Japan, this would have been more credible, because fax machines were more widely used than computers in the 1980's, because of the pictographic nature of Japanese writing. Computers can now cope with Japanese, thanks to Unicode, but email is still mostly ASCII-bound.) Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... 20XX redirects here. ... This article is about the film. ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... 20XX redirects here. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... The Sprawl-trilogy, of which Neuromancer is the first part. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ... Back to the Future Part II Video cover Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and is the second part of a trilogy, coming after Back to the Future and followed by Back to the Future Part III. It was directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...


Another work where anachronisms are annoying but not fatal to credibility is David Brin's 1990 novel Earth. Brin foresees the ubiquity of the computer networks (but not the term Internet), but he was writing the year before the World Wide Web was introduced. He therefore refers to documents that are readily available to computer users but called by clumsy numeric identifiers, rather than URL's. He also imagines that personal video recorders, like camcorders, would influence civil liberties by making it possible for ordinary citizens to film crimes committed by police, as well as by hooligans. He doesn't foresee the ways in which both still photographs and video can be transmitted, making it possible for amateur reporters to cover breaking news stories and get their stories televised. [citation needed] Glen David Brin, Ph. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as earl), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


Accidental and intentional anachronism

With the detail required for a modern historical movie it is easy to introduce anachronisms. The 1995 hit film Apollo 13 contains numerous errors, including the use of the incorrect NASA logo and the appearance of The Beatles' Let It Be album a month before it was actually released. Another example is the film Grounding, about the collapse of the airline Swissair. The film is set in September 2001, yet computers are shown using Windows XP, which didn't come for another month and some VW Phaetons are being used, despite the fact that they weren't released for another year.[1] This article is about motion pictures. ... The year 1995 in film involved some significant events. ... Apollo 13 is a 1995 film portrayal of the ill-fated Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... “Let It Be” redirects here. ... Grounding - Die letzten Tage der Swissair is a film about the collapse in 2001 of Swissair, Switzerlands national airline, by Michael Steiner and Tobias Fueter, presented in January 2006. ... Swissair (Swiss Air Transport Company Limited) was the former national airline of Switzerland. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... The Volkswagen Phaeton (pronounced fay-ton) is a large luxury sedan manufactured by Volkswagen. ...


Sometimes movie anachronisms are intentional, while appearing accidental. An example is the musical score of the Best-Picture-winning film The Sting. The ragtime piano music by Scott Joplin was composed in the 1890s and 1900s, while the setting of the movie was the 1930s Great Depression. Although Joplin's music is not contemporary with the 1930s, its use in The Sting evokes a 1930s gangster film, The Public Enemy, which had also used Scott Joplin theme music. The presence of Joplin's music might give the impression that the movie's backdrop and music are from the same period or, conversely, be mistaken as an unintentional anachronism by viewers unaware of the allusion to the earlier film. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... This article is about the 1973 film involving con artists. ... Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868[1]; died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1931 film. ...


Anachronisms can show up when filming on location, since buildings or natural features may be present that would not have been at the time the film was set (think of movies that have already been filmed, that are set in the future and contain footage of the World Trade Center in New York), or may be missing in the film while they existed at the time the movie was set. For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In the case of films made in the past but set in the future, a building or feature may be seen that is known to no longer exist. Especially with regards to historical items and vehicles, anachronisms can stem from convenience, for example a historically accurate item might be replaced with a later but fairly similar item, especially if a historically accurate item cannot be sourced. In the case of replicas, signs of modern construction techniques may be visible. In some cases, though, due to technological entrenchment, anachronisms cannot be helped, such as in the British television show Life on Mars (set in the 1970s), where removing present-day public amenities like park benches and satellite dishes in outdoor scenes would be impossible or absurd. Life on Mars is a BAFTA and International Emmy award-winning British television drama series, which was first shown on BBC One in January and February 2006. ...


There are directors who have made valiant and generally successful efforts to recreate the past. For example, Francis Ford Coppola's Godfather movies have scenes set in New York City in the first two decades of the 20th century. In the 1970's, Coppola took over several blocks in Manhattan, covering storefronts with period replicas, replacing streetlamps, and keeping inhabitants from their homes and businesses for weeks at a time. It would have been much easier to use a Hollywood back lot, but there would have been visible differences; so his team (and the local inhabitants) went to unprecedented lengths for realism. (He explains his methods in detail in the Bonus Materials DVD of the Godfather DVD Collection boxed set.) Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Look up godfather in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Those computerized adventure games in which a player moves about on a computer screen solving puzzles that are set at a given historical date often have brazen technological anachronisms. The reason for this is that mechanisms, such as instant-message pagers and GPS devices from which one's coordinates on the globe can be instantly read out, are handy devices to hang the gameplay on, and the players could be expected to have heard of them, so an equivalent based on antiquated media is often hypothesized.[citation needed] The backdrop and style of the items are considered just a sort of "local color". This is an article about the computer and video game genre. ... GPS redirects here. ...


Language anachronism

Language anachronisms in films are quite common. They can be intentional or unintentional. Intentional anachronisms let us understand more readily a film set in the past. Language changes so fast that most modern people (even many scholars) would not easily be able to understand a film set anywhere in the English-speaking world of the 18th century; thus, we willingly accept characters speaking an updated language. Unintentional anachronisms include putting modern slang and figures of speech into the mouths of characters from the past. Modern audiences want to understand George Washington when he speaks, but if he starts talking about "the bottom line" (a figure of speech that did not come into popular language until almost least two centuries after Washington's time), that is an unintentional anachronism. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ...


Other anachronisms

Other possible anachronisms include:

  • 1. References to places that did not exist at the time of the story. Amsterdam, Prague, Munich and Madrid might be large cities today, but in a story set in Imperial Rome, references to any of them would be anachronisms because those cities were not founded until after the Roman Empire had been toppled.
  • 2. Juxtapositions of people who could not have ever met, for example Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. The anachronism could include people of the wrong age; for example a meeting between Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, the latter as an adult, would be inappropriate because Albert Einstein died when Stephen Hawking was twelve years old.
  • 4. Indirect evidence of technologies then not in existence occasionally appears in film. Vapor trails from jet aircraft occasionally appear in films set long before the time of jet aircraft. Tracks from modern automobile or truck tires would be inappropriate at any time before about 1900. Aluminum objects, often objects of inexpensive trade in the latter part of the 20th century, would be prohibitively expensive for common commerce before the 20th century. An ATM receipt as trash picked up in 1965 (when automated teller machines did not exist) might not be as blatant as an ATM itself, but it would be evidence of cinematic carelessness.

Sometimes a lack of understanding of language differences can lead the reader to detect a false anachronism. For example, the Oxford World Classics translation of Julius Caesar's Commentaries on the Civil War mentions the 'corn situation' in Rome. To North American ears this might sound anachronistic (since American corn or maize did not reach Europe until over 1,500 years after Caesar's death), but in British English the word corn is a synonym of the word grain and normally refers to wheat. For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... For other persons named Jesse James, see Jesse James (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For the book used at the United States Air Force Academy, see Contrails (Air Force Academy). ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Cash machine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Commentarii de Bello Civile (literally Commentaries on the Civil War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his war against Pompey the Great. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


Scholarship

In academic writing, there is no place for deliberate anachronism, and here anachronism is regarded as an error of scholarly method. For example, we now know that the concept of Translatio imperii was first formulated in the 12th century. To use it to interpret 10th century literature, as early 20th century scholarship did, is anachronistic, an error which (once we see it) is obvious as such. Other examples are less obvious: to refer to the Holy Roman Empire as "the First Reich" is to view medieval history through National Socialist glasses and as such is anachronistic. However, the boundaries are often difficult to draw. Some would suggest that Marxist, feminist, or Freudian approaches to literature written before these philosophies were developed are necessarily anachronistic; others argue that modern insights on the human condition are applicable to all times and cultures. Translatio imperii, Latin for transfer of rule, is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing history as a linear development: a succession of transfers of power from one supreme ruler (emperor) to the next. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... This article is about the German word Reich, and in particular to its historical and political implications. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


A common example is the critique of ancient science:


"Writings about fossils, gems, earthquakes, and volcanoes date back to the Greeks, more than 2300 years ago. Certainly, the most influential Greek philosopher was Aristotle. Unfortunately, Aristotle's explanations of the natural world were not derived from keen observations and experiments, as in modern science. Instead, they were arbitrary pronouncements based on the limited knowledge of his day."


Indeed, Aristotle stated many things in conflict with both modern science and the findings of pre-Socratic philosophers like Democritus, as Carl Sagan observed in Episode 7 of Cosmos: A Personal Voyage and in Chapter 7 of Cosmos (book). Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... The cover For the TV series, see Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. ...


See also

An anatopism (from the Greek ana, against, and topos, place) is something that is out of its proper place. ... // Paintings from Val Camonica, Italy, c. ... The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... The British sitcom, Blackadder, takes place in several historical eras. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... History Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. ... In the arts, the word nonlinear is used to describe events portrayed in a non-chronological manner. ... Parachrony or Parachronie: It is a figurative or metaphorical singularity or inaccuracy of chronology, that consists of presuming that an event happens later than when in fact occurred on the basis of narrator’s faculty to alter reality with fictional or allegorical purpose. ... SORAS or Soap Opera Rapid Aging Syndrome (less commonly called simply rapid aging) is a term for when an infant or young child in a soap opera is aged very quickly by the writers. ... The Society for Creative Anachronism (usually shortened to SCA) is a historical reenactment and living history group approximating mainly pre-17th century Western European history and culture. ... For the comic book, see Steampunk (comics). ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0449959/goofs

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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