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Encyclopedia > Anabolic steroid
Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5α-dihydrotestosterone.
Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5α-dihydrotestosterone.[1]

Anabolic steroids, anabolic-androgenic steroids or AAS, are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair. The word anabolic comes from the Greek: anabole, "to build up", and the word androgenic comes from the Greek: andros, "man" + genein, "to produce". Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Anabolism is the metabolic process that builds larger molecules from smaller ones. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the development of changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Manliness redirects here. ... The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the human larynx. ...


Anabolic steroids were first isolated, identified and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty, and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. Anabolic steroids also produce increases in muscle mass and physical strength, and are consequently used in sport and bodybuilding to enhance strength or physique. Serious health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of anabolic steroids. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage, and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart. Some of these effects can be mitigated by exercise, or by taking supplemental drugs.[2][3] In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... In medical circles, wasting refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to waste away. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ...


Non-medical uses for anabolic steroids are controversial, because of their adverse effects and their use to gain weight and potential advantage in competitive sports. The use of anabolic steroids is banned by all major sporting bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, WWE, ICC, ITF, FIFA, FINA, UEFA, the European Athletic Association, and the Brazilian Football Confederation. Anabolic steroids are controlled substances in many countries, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (U.S.), while in other countries, such as Mexico and Thailand, they are readily available over-the-counter. In countries where the drugs are controlled, there is often a black market in which smuggled or counterfeit drugs are sold to users. The quality of such illegal drugs may be low, and contaminants may cause additional health risks. In countries where anabolic steroids are strictly regulated some have called for less regulation. Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... NBA redirects here. ... NHL redirects here. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE, is a professional wrestling promotion, currently the largest in North America. ... ICC logo The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the governing body for international Test match and One-day International cricket. ... The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 202 national tennis associations. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ... Fina may refer to: Fina is the name of Belgian petroleum company Petrofina. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... The European Athletic Association is the European governing body for the sport of athletics. ... The Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) or Confederação Brasileira de Futebol in Portuguese is the governing body of football in Brazil, and was founded on August 20, 1914 as Confederação Brasileira de Desportos (CBD), meaning Brazilian Sports Confederation. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A counterfeit drug or a counterfeit medicine is a medication which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. ...

Contents

History

Performance enhancing substances have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine by societies around the world, with the aim of promoting vitality and strength.[4] In particular, the use of steroid hormones pre-dates their identification and isolation: medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied.[5] In 1889, the 72-year-old British neurologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard injected himself with an extract of dog and guinea pig testicles, and reported at a scientific meeting that these injections had led to a variety of beneficial effects.[6] The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. ... Charles-Édouard Brown-Sequard (variant Charles Edward), British physiologist and neurologist, was born at Port Louis, Mauritius, on the April 8th 1817. ... For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ...


The development of modern pharmaceutical anabolic steroids can be traced back to 1931 when Adolf Butenandt, a chemist in Marburg, purified 15 milligrams of the male hormone androstenone from tens of thousands of litres of urine. This hormone was synthesized in 1934 by Leopold Ruzicka, a chemist in Zurich. It was already known that the testes contained a more powerful androgen than androstenone, and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.[6][7] Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (March 24, 1903 - January 18, 1995) was a German biochemist. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... , Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... chemical structure of androstenone Androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-4-one) is a steroid found in both male and female sweat and urine. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Lavoslav (Leopold) Ružička (September 13, 1887 - September 26, 1976) was a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, the first one from Croatia. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... A pharmaceutical company is a licensed drug company, licensed to discover, develop, markets and distribute drugs. ...


This testicular hormone was first identified by Karoly Gyula David, E. Dingemanse, J. Freud and Ernst Laqueur in a May 1935 paper "On Crystalline Male Hormone from Testicles (Testosterone)."[8] They named the hormone testosterone, from the stems of testicle and sterol, and the suffix of ketone. The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Hanisch published a paper describing "A Method for Preparing Testosterone from Cholesterol."[9] Only a week later, the third group, Ruzicka and A. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone (Androsten-3-one-17-ol)."[10] Ruzicka and Butenandt were offered the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their work, but the Nazi government forced Butenandt to decline the honor.[6][7] The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyl testosterone or injections of testosterone propionate, began as early as 1937.[6] Testosterone propionate is mentioned in a letter to the editor of Strength and Health magazine in 1938; this is the earliest known reference to an anabolic steroid in a U.S. weightlifting or bodybuilding magazine. In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... -1... Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. ...


During the Second World War, German scientists synthesized other anabolic steroids, and experimented on concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war in an attempt to treat chronic wasting.[6] They also experimented on German soldiers, hoping to increase their aggression. Adolf Hitler himself, according to his physician, was injected with testosterone derivatives to treat various ailments.[11] The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the 1940s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and amateur weight lifters.[12] In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U.S. Olympic Team physician Dr. John Ziegler worked with synthetic chemists to develop an anabolic steroid for American weightlifters, resulting in the production of methandrostenolone (Dianabol).[13] Dianabol, developed by Ciba Pharmaceuticals, was approved for use in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration in 1958. Dianabol had the same strength building properties as testosterone, but with reduced side effects.[14] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Cachexia is loss of weight, muscle wasting, fatigue, weakness and anorexia (not anorexia nervosa) in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. ... Hitler redirects here. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... Methandrostenolone (Dianabol) is an anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1956 by Ciba. ... Dianabol is an anabolic steroid. ... FDA redirects here. ...


From the 1950s until the 1980s, there were doubts that anabolic steroids produced anything more than a placebo effect. In a 1972 study,[15] participants were informed they would receive injections of anabolic steroids on a daily basis, but instead had actually been given a placebo. They reportedly could not tell the difference, and the perceived performance enhancement was similar to that of subjects taking the real anabolic compounds. According to Geraline Lin, a researcher for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, these results remained unchallenged for 18 years, even though the study used inconsistent controls and insignificant doses.[16] In a 2001 study, the effects of high doses of anabolic steroids were examined, by injecting variable doses (up to 600 mg/week) of testosterone enanthate into muscle tissue for 20 weeks. The results showed a clear increase in muscle mass and decrease in fat mass associated with the testosterone doses.[17] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ...


Pharmacology

Further information: Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor

Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Steroid hormone receptors are intracellular receptors (typically cytoplasmic) that perform signal transduction for steroid hormones. ...

Routes of administration

Anabolic steroids are primarily administered orally (by mouth) or parenterally. Some anabolic steroids may also be administered by topical or transdermal methods; however, not as much is known of these more recently developed routes of administration. The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug. Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of anabolic steroids are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. However, the first-pass metabolism that orally-administered AAS are subjected to has been shown to produce more harmful side effects, particularly liver damage.[18] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ...


Anabolic and androgenic effects

Chemical structure of the natural anabolic hormone testosterone, 17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one.
Chemical structure of the natural anabolic hormone testosterone, 17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one.

As the name suggests, anabolic-androgenic steroids have two different, but overlapping, types of effects. First, they are anabolic, meaning that they promote anabolism (cell growth). Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids, increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow, which increases the production of red blood cells. Image File history File links Testosterone_structure. ... Image File history File links Testosterone_structure. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anabolism is the metabolic process that builds larger molecules from smaller ones. ... Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...


Second, these steroids are androgenic or virilizing, meaning in particular that they affect the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality (especially in fetal development). Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children (the adult penis does not grow even when exposed to high doses of androgens), increased growth of androgen-sensitive hair (pubic, beard, chest, and limb hair), increased vocal cord size, deepening the voice, increased libido, suppression of natural sex hormones, and impaired production of sperm.[19] Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the development of changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Pubic hair is hair in the frontal genital area, the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs; these areas form the pubic region. ... The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the human larynx. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ...


Through a combination of these effects, anabolic steroids stimulate the formation of muscles and hence cause an increase in the size of muscle fibers, leading to increased muscle mass and strength.[20][21][22] This increase in muscle mass is mostly due to larger skeletal muscles, and is caused by both increased production of muscle proteins as well as a decline in the breakdown rate of these proteins. A high testosterone dose also decreases the amount of fat in muscle, while increasing protein content. Anabolic steroids also decrease overall fat. A simplified, global view of a neuromuscular junction: 1. ...


Adverse effects

Anabolic steroids can cause many adverse effects. Most of these side effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure, especially in those with pre-existing hypertension,[23] and harmful changes in cholesterol levels: some steroids cause an increase in LDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.[24] Anabolic steroids such as testosterone also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease[25] or coronary artery disease.[26][27] Acne is fairly common among anabolic steroid users, mostly due to stimulation of the sebaceous glands by increased testosterone levels.[28][29] Conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can accelerate the rate of premature baldness for those who are genetically predisposed. In medicine, an Adverse effect is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as a result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... Grant Salzl has a huge nose full of acne. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... Bald redirects here; for other uses see Bald (disambiguation). ...


Other side effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart, such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, which impairs its contraction and relaxation.[30] Possible effects of these alterations in the heart are hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.[31] These changes are also seen in non-drug using athletes, but steroid use may accelerate this process.[32][33] However, both the connection between changes in the structure of the left ventricle and decreased cardiac function, as well as the connection to steroid use have been disputed.[34][35] The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart. ... Diastolic is the adjective form of diastole referring to relaxation of the heart, between muscle contractions. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... A cardiac arrest is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract effectively during systole. ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ...


High doses of oral anabolic steroid compounds can cause liver damage as the steroids are metabolized (17α-alkylated) in the digestive system to increase their bioavailability and stability.[36] When high doses of such steroids are used for long periods, the liver damage may be severe and lead to liver cancer.[37][38] Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or hepatocarcinogenesis) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ...


There are also gender-specific side effects of anabolic steroids. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia (which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estrogen), may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estrogen by the enzyme aromatase.[39] Reduced sexual function and temporary infertility can also occur in males.[40][41][42] Another male-specific side effect which can occur is testicular atrophy, caused by the suppression of natural testosterone levels, which inhibits production of sperm (most of the mass of the testes is developing sperm). This side effect is temporary: the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing anabolic steroid use as normal production of sperm resumes.[43] Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair, deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris, and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. When taken during pregnancy, anabolic steroids can affect fetal development by causing the development of male features in the female fetus and female features in the male fetus.[44] Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, pronounced is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement, which can sometimes cause secretion of milk. ... Estriol. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ... Sexual function is a medical term used when assessing sexuality (mainly human sexuality) in clinical context. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by ceasing to function. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ... Hirsutism (from Latin hirsutus = shaggy, hairy) is defined as excessive and increased hair growth in women in locations where the occurrence of terminal hair normally is minimal or absent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age females. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ...


A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use anabolic steroids. For example, the steroids may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones (premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites), resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation, increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. Anabolic steroid use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health.[45] The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bone age is a way of describing the degree of maturation of a childs bones. ... In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ...


Mechanism of action

The human androgen receptor bound to testosterone. The protein is shown as a ribbon diagram in red, green and blue, with the steroid shown in white.
The human androgen receptor bound to testosterone.[46] The protein is shown as a ribbon diagram in red, green and blue, with the steroid shown in white.

The effect of anabolic steroids on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways:[47] first, they increase the production of proteins; second, they reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of stress hormone cortisol on muscle tissue, so that catabolism of muscle is greatly reduced. It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through anabolic steroids inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.[48] Anabolic steroids also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle cells instead.[49] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution (1015 × 718 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure of the human androgen receptor bound to testosterone. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution (1015 × 718 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure of the human androgen receptor bound to testosterone. ... The androgen receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. ... Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... In the center of the diagram are three of the early steps in the development of a mammal. ...


The main way in which steroid hormones interact with cells is by binding to proteins called steroid receptors. When steroids bind to these receptors, the proteins move into the cell nucleus and either alter the expression of genes[50] or activate processes that send signals to other parts of the cell.[51] Steroid hormone receptors are generally intracellular receptors that perform signal transduction for steroid hormones. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...


In the case of anabolic steroids, the receptors involved are called the androgen receptors. The mechanisms of action differ depending on the specific anabolic steroid. Different types of anabolic steroids bind to the androgen receptor with different affinities, depending on their chemical structure.[28] Anabolic steroids such as methandrostenolone bind weakly to this receptor and instead directly affect protein synthesis or glycogenolysis.[52] On the other hand, steroids such as oxandrolone bind tightly to the receptor and act mostly on gene expression. The androgen receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant or an ionization constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant used for reversible reactions or processes. ... Methandrostenolone (Dianabol) is an anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1956 by Ciba. ... Protein biosynthesis (synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Oxandrolone (Oxandrin) is an anabolic steroid created by Searle Laboratories under the trademark Anavar, and introduced into the US in 1964. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the...


Pharmacodynamics

The pharmacodynamics of anabolic steroids are unlike peptide hormones. Peptide hormones cannot penetrate the cell membranes and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells through their interaction with the cell’s surface receptors. Conversely, as steroid hormones, anabolic steroids are membrane permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of anabolic steroids begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the permeable membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the entire receptor-complex moves from the cytoplasm into the nucleus by a process called translocation. Once in the nucleus, the receptor-complex interacts with the DNA by recoding the genetic information to produce more myonuclei, this is known as transcription. After the restructuring of DNA, mRNA sends the new message back into the cytoplasm where specific organelles, such as ribosomes, make new protein. Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. ...


Medical and non-medical uses

Medical uses

Various anabolic steroids and related compounds.
Various anabolic steroids and related compounds.

Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1930s, anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success. Image File history File linksMetadata Anabolicsteroids41. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anabolicsteroids41. ...

For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Hypoplasia is an incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [1]. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as: Underdeveloped breasts during puberty. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Renal failure is when the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. ... Darbepoetin alfa (rINN) (IPA: ) is a synthetic form of erythropoietin. ... Sketch of bone marrow and its cells Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. ... This article is about biological human development. ... Pediatric endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing with variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, as well as diabetes and other disorders of the endocrine glands. ... Growth failure is a medical term for a pattern of a childs growth which is poorer than normal for age, sex, stage of maturation, and genetic height expectation. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Cachexia is loss of weight, muscle wasting, fatigue, weakness and anorexia (not anorexia nervosa) in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Puberty is described as delayed when a boy or girl has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Male Contraceptive Male contraception refers to the process of inhibiting fertilization of the egg with the sperm using methods that deal solely (or primarily) with procedures applied to the male partner. ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... Insulin sensitivity is the opposite of insulin resistance. ... Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... -1... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder which involves a disturbed body image. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. ... Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female at birth based on genital appearance (or, in cases of intersexuality, were later assigned to the female gender) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ...

Non-medical use and abuse

Numerous vials of injectable Anabolic Steroids.
Numerous vials of injectable Anabolic Steroids.

It is difficult to determine what percent of the population in general have actually used anabolic steroids, but the number seems to be fairly low. Studies in the United States have shown anabolic steroid users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes.[69] Another study found that non-medical use of AAS among college students was at or less than 1%.[70] According to a recent survey, 78.4% of steroid users were noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes while about 13% reported unsafe injection practices such as reusing needles, sharing needles, and sharing multidose vials,[71] though a 2007 study found that sharing of needles was extremely uncommon among individuals using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes, less than 1%.[72] Anabolic steroid users often are stereotyped as uneducated "muscle heads" by popular media and culture; however, a 1998 study on steroid users showed them to be the most educated drug users out of all users of controlled substances.[73] Another 2007 study found that 74% of non-medical anabolic steroid users had secondary college degrees and more had completed college and less had failed to complete high school than is expected from the general populace.[72] The same study found that individuals using Anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes had a higher employment rate and a higher household income than the general population.[72] Anabolic steroid users also tend to research the drugs they are taking more than any other group of users of controlled substances. Moreover, anabolic steroid users tend to be disillusioned by the portrayal of anabolic steroids as deadly in the media and in politics.[74] According to one study, AAS users also distrust their physicians and in the sample 56% had not disclosed their AAS use to their physicians.[75] Another 2007 study had similar findings, showing that while 66% of individuals using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes were willing to seek medical supervision for their steroid use, 58% lacked trust in their physicians, 92% felt that the medical communities knowledge of non-medical anabolic steroid use was lacking and 99% felt that the public has an exaggerated view of the side effects of anabolic steroid use.[72] A recent study has also shown that long term AAS users were more likely to have symptoms of muscle dysmorphia and also showed stronger endorsement of more conventional male roles.[76] Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... This article is about the statistical concept. ... Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder in which an individual becomes obsessed that they are not muscular enough. ...


Anabolic steroids have been used by men and women in many different kinds of professional sports (cricket, track and field, weightlifting, bodybuilding, shot put, cycling, baseball, wrestling, mixed martial arts, boxing, football, etc.) to attain a competitive edge or to assist in recovery from injury. Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of many sports. Anabolic steroid use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. It has been suggested that the prevalence of use among high-school students in the U.S. may be as high as 2.7%.[77] Male students used anabolic steroids more frequently than female students and, on average, those who participated in sports used steroids more often than those who did not. This article is about the sport. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... -1... Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. ... Shot put The shot put is an athletics (track and field) event involving putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball (called the shot) as far as possible. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Administration

A vial of the injectable anabolic steroid, depo-testosterone cypionate
A vial of the injectable anabolic steroid, depo-testosterone cypionate

There are three common forms in which anabolic steroids are administered: oral pills, injectable steroids, and skin patches. Oral administration is most convenient, but the steroid must be chemically modified so that the liver cannot break it down before it reaches the systemic circulation; these formulations can cause liver damage in high doses.[78] Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscle, not into the vein, to avoid sudden changes in the amount of the drug in the bloodstream. Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes.[72] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x2800, 3389 KB) 10 ml vial of depo-testosterone, source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x2800, 3389 KB) 10 ml vial of depo-testosterone, source: http://www. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ...


Minimization of side effects

Further information: Steroid cycle, Post-cycle therapy

Various methods of minimizing the adverse effects of anabolic steroids have been implemented by those using them either for medical or other reasons. For example, users may increase their cardiovascular exercise level to help to counter the effects of changes in the left ventricle.[79] Some androgens are converted by the body into estrogen, a process, known as aromatisation, which has potential adverse effects described previously. Consequently, during a steroid cycle, users may also take drugs to prevent aromatisation (called aromatase inhibitors) or drugs which affect estrogen receptor binding (called selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs): for example, the SERM tamoxifen prevents binding to the estrogen receptor in the breast, and so it can be used to reduce the risk of gynecomastia.[2] A steriod cycle is a term commonly used to describe a peroid in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. ... Post-cycle therapy (PCT) is a drug/diet regimen used by anabolic steroid users to counteract and minimize post-steroid hypogonadism. ... Aerobic exercise is a type of exercise in which muscles draw on oxygen in the blood as well as fats and glucose, that increase cardiovascular endurance. ... Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... Estriol. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ... A steriod cycle is a term commonly used to describe a peroid in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. ... Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in post- menopausal women. ... The estrogen receptor is a receptor for estradiol (the main endogenous estrogen); it is located intracellularly, in parallel with other steroid hormone receptors. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Tamoxifen is an orally active selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which is used in the treatment of breast cancer and is currently the worlds largest selling drug for this indication. ... Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, pronounced is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement, which can sometimes cause secretion of milk. ...


To combat the natural testosterone suppression and to restore proper function of numerous glands involved, what is known as "post-cycle therapy" or PCT is sometimes used. PCT takes place after each cycle of anabolic steroid use and typically consists of a combination of the following drugs, depending on which protocol is used: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ...

The aim of PCT is to return the body's endogenous hormonal balance to its original state within the shortest period of time. People prone to the premature hair loss exacerbated by steroid use have been known to take the prescription drug finasteride for prolonged periods of time. Finasteride reduces the conversion of testosterone to DHT, the latter having much higher potency for alopecia. Finasteride is useless in the cases when steroid is not converted into a more androgenic derivative.[81] Since anabolic steroids can be toxic to the liver or can cause increases in blood pressure or cholesterol, many users consider it ideal to get frequent blood work tests and blood pressure tests to make sure their blood pressure or cholesterol are still within normal levels. Categories: Stub | Selective estrogen receptor modulators ... Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ... Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in post- menopausal women. ... Anastrozole (Arimidex) is a drug used to treat breast cancer in post-menopausal women. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Finasteride (marketed as Proscar, Propecia, Fincar, Finpecia, Finax, Finast, Finara, Finalo, Prosteride, Gefina, Finasterid IVAX) is an antiandrogen which acts by inhibiting type II 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Alopecia is a set of disorders ranging from male and female pattern alopecia (alopecia androgenetica), to alopecia areata, which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head, alopecia totalis, which involves the loss of all head hair, to the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the...


Controversies

Anabolic steroids, like other drugs, have been the subject of controversy. Although anabolic steroids have been frequently linked in the media to dangerous side effects and high mortality rates,[82] they are used widely in medicine with an accepted side effect profile, providing patients are monitored for possible complications.[83][84][85][86] Former assistant professor at the University of Toronto and World Wrestling Entertainment athletic physician Mauro Di Pasquale has stated, "As used by most people, including athletes, the adverse effects of anabolic steroids appear to be minimal."[87] Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Mauro G. Di Pasquale, B.Sc. ...


In 1992, NFL football player Lyle Alzado died from brain cancer, which he attributed to the use of anabolic steroids.[88] However, although steroids have been known to cause liver cancer,[89] there is no published evidence that anabolic steroids cause either brain cancer or the specific type of T-cell lymphoma that caused his death.[90][88] Alzado's doctors stated that anabolic steroids did not contribute to his death.[91] NFL redirects here. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Lyle Alzado (April 3, 1949 – May 14, 1992) was a NFL football player most famous for his intense and intimidating style of play. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ...


Other purported side effects include the idea that anabolic steroids have caused many teenagers to commit suicide.[92] While lower levels of testosterone have been known to cause depression, and ending a steroid cycle temporarily lowers testosterone levels, the hypothesis that anabolic steroids are responsible for suicides among teenagers remains unproven. Although teen bodybuilders have been using steroids since at least the early 1960s, there have been few studies examining a possible link between steroids and suicide in the medical literature.[93] For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... A steriod cycle is a term commonly used to describe a peroid in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. ...


Arnold Schwarzenegger has admitted to using anabolic steroids during his bodybuilding career for many years before they were made illegal,[94] and in 1997 he underwent surgery to correct a defect relating to his heart. Some have assumed this was due to anabolic steroids.[95] Although anabolic steroid use can sometimes cause enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, Schwarzenegger was born with a congenital genetic defect in which his heart had a bicuspid aortic valve; a condition that rendered his aortic valve with two cusps instead of three, which can occasionally cause problems later in life.[96] Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart condition that is usually due to a congenital deformity. ...


"Roid rage"

Another condition that is frequently discussed as a possible side effect of anabolic steroids is known as "roid rage"; however there is no consensus in the medical literature as to whether such a condition actually exists. Testosterone levels are indeed associated with aggression and hypomania, but the link between other anabolic steroids and aggression remains unclear.[97] While some studies have shown a correlation between manic symptoms and anabolic steroid use,[98] later studies have questioned these conclusions.[99] Currently, three blind studies have demonstrated a link between aggression and steroid use, but with estimates of over one million past or current steroid users in the United States, an extremely small percentage of those using steroids appear to have experienced mental disturbance severe enough to result in clinical treatments or medical case reports.[100][101] Individual studies vary in their findings, with some reporting no increase in aggression or hostility with anabolic steroid use, and others finding a correlation.[102][103] Including a study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used anabolic steroids and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.[104] Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ...


It has previously been theorized that some studies showing a correlation between angry behavior and steroid use are confounded by the fact that steroid users are likely to demonstrate cluster B personality disorders prior to administering steroids.[105] In addition, many case studies have concluded anabolic steroids have little or no real effect on increased aggressive behavior.[99][83][106][107] Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ...


Legal and sport restrictions

Legal status

A large bag of anabolic steroid pills seized during a DEA raid.
A large bag of anabolic steroid pills seized during a DEA raid.

The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country: some have stricter controls on their use or prescription than others. In the U.S., anabolic steroids are currently listed as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act, which makes the possession of such substances without a prescription a federal crime punishable by up to seven years in prison.[108] In Canada, anabolic steroids and their derivatives are part of the Controlled drugs and substances act and are Schedule IV substances, meaning that it is illegal to obtain or sell them without a prescription; however, possession is not punishable, a consequence reserved for schedule I, II or III substances. Those guilty of buying or selling anabolic steroids in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. Import and export also carry similar penalties.[109] Anabolic steroids are also illegal without prescription in Australia,[110] Argentina, Brazil and Portugal,[111] and are listed as Schedule 4 Controlled Drugs in the United Kingdom. On the other hand, anabolic steroids are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The United Kingdom Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 aimed to control the possession and supply of numerous listed drugs and drug-like substances. ...


The history of the U.S. legislation on anabolic steroids goes back to the late 1980s, when the U.S. Congress considered placing anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substances Act following the controversy over Ben Johnson's victory at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. During deliberations, the AMA, DEA, FDA as well as the NIDA all opposed listing anabolic steroids as controlled substances, citing the fact that use of these hormones does not lead to the physical or psychological dependence required for such scheduling under the Controlled Substance Act. Nevertheless, anabolic steroids were added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990.[112] The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of anabolic steroids and human growth hormone. By the early 1990s, after anabolic steroids were scheduled in the U.S., several pharmaceutical companies stopped manufacturing or marketing the products in the U.S., including Ciba, Searle, Syntex and others. In the Controlled Substances Act, anabolic steroids are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004, which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances, with effect from January 20, 2005.[108] The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Benjamin Sinclair Ben Johnson CM (born December 30, 1961) is a former Canadian sprinter who enjoyed a high-profile career during most of the 1980s, winning two Olympic Bronze medals, and an Olympic Gold which was subsequently rescinded. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games celebrated in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... FDA redirects here. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ... Estriol. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A large stash of anabolic steroid vials confiscated during "Operation Raw Deal" undertaken by the Drug Enforcement Administration which ended in September of 2007.
A large stash of anabolic steroid vials confiscated during "Operation Raw Deal" undertaken by the Drug Enforcement Administration which ended in September of 2007.

In September 2007 the DEA wrapped up an 18-month international investigation of illicit anabolic steroid use in which 124 arrests were made and which targeted over 25 Chinese companies which produced raw materials for producing steroids and human growth hormone. The investigation, dubbed "Operation Raw Deal," was the largest anabolic steroid operation in United States history and involved China, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Germany and Thailand among other countries. The investigation also focused on online message boards where advice was given on how to use anabolic steroids and the DEA also intercepted hundreds of thousands of e-mails. The DEA has also stated that the e-mails intercepted were compiled into a massive database of names which could lead to months or years of future arrests of steroid users.[113][114][115] The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...


Status in sports

See also: Doping (sport)

Anabolic steroids are banned by all major sports bodies including the Olympics,[116] the NBA,[117] the NHL,[118] as well as the NFL.[119] The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) maintains the list of performance-enhancing substances used by many major sports bodies and includes all anabolic agents, which includes all anabolic steroids and precursors as well as all hormones and related substances.[120][121] Spain has passed an anti-doping law creating a national anti-doping agency.[122] Italy passed a law in 2000 where penalties range up to three years in prison if an athlete has tested positive for banned substances.[123] In 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law ratification of the International Convention Against Doping in Sport which would encourage cooperation with WADA. Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting anabolic steroids in sports including Denmark,[124] France,[125] the Netherlands[126] and Sweden.[127] In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... NBA redirects here. ... NHL redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


Illegal trade in anabolic steroids

Several large buckets of tens of thousands of Anabolic steroid vials confiscated during a DEA raid.
Several large buckets of tens of thousands of Anabolic steroid vials confiscated during a DEA raid.

In countries where anabolic steroids are illegal or controlled, the majority of steroids are obtained illegally through black market trade.[128][129] These steroids are usually manufactured in other countries, and therefore must be smuggled across international borders. Like most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. Smuggling of anabolic steroids often occurs in conjunction with other illegal drugs, although in comparison with the trade in psychoactive recreational drugs such as cannabis and heroin, there have not been many high profile cases of individual smugglers of anabolic steroids being caught. The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


In addition to smuggling, illegal trade in counterfeit drugs has emerged rapidly in recent years, as computers and scanning technology have made it easy to copy the label design of genuine products. Consequently, the market has been flooded with products containing anything from vegetable oil to toxic substances. These products have been bought and injected by unsuspecting users, some of whom have died as a result of blood poisoning, methanol poisoning, or subcutaneous abscess.[130] A counterfeit drug or a counterfeit medicine is a medication which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... The distribution of the bloodvessels in the skin of the sole of the foot. ...


Production

Anabolic steroids need sophisticated pharmaceutical processes and equipment to produce, so they are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical companies or by underground laboratories with large overheads. Common problems associated with illegal drug trades, such as chemical substitutions, cutting, and diluting, affect illegal anabolic steroids as well, so that when they reach the distribution level, the quality may be compromised and the drugs may be dangerous. In the 1990s, most U.S. producers such as Ciba, Searle and Syntex stopped making and marketing anabolic steroids within the U.S. However, in many other regions, particularly Eastern Europe, they are still produced in quantity. European anabolic steroids are the source of most medical grade anabolic steroids sold illegally in North America. However, anabolic steroids are still in wider use for veterinary purposes, and many illegal anabolic steroids are actually veterinary grade.[131] These can also be dangerous, as they may have been produced and handled in cruder and less sterile environments.[132][133] Ciba Specialty Chemicals is a chemical company based in and near Basel, Switzerland. ... G.D. Searle & Company was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ... Laboratorios Syntex SA was a pharmaceutical company formed in Mexico City in 1944 by Russell Marker to manufacture therapeutic steroids from the Mexican yam. ...


Distribution

In the U.S., Canada and Europe, steroids are purchased just like any other illegal drug, through dealers who are able to obtain the drugs from a number of sources. Instead, illegal anabolic steroids are sold at gyms, competitions, and through the mail. For the most part, these substances are smuggled, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians.[134][135] In addition, a significant number of counterfeit products are sold as anabolic steroids, particularly via mail order from websites posing as overseas pharmacies. Individuals also produce fake steroids and attempt to sell them over the Internet, causing a wide variety of health concerns. In the U.S., black market importation continues from Mexico, Thailand, and other countries where steroids are more easily available or not illegal at all.[136] Pharmacists are health professionals who practice pharmacy. ... In American and Canadian English, a veterinarian (from Latin veterinae, draught animals) is an animal doctor, a practitioner of veterinary medicine. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ...


Movement for decriminalization

After the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 listed anabolic steroids as Schedule III controlled substances in the U.S., a small movement has arisen that is highly critical of current laws concerning anabolic steroids. On June 21, 2005, Real Sports aired a segment discussing the legality and prohibition of anabolic steroids in America.[137] The show featured Gary I. Wadler, M.D., chairman of the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency and a prominent anti-steroid activist. When pressed for scientific evidence by correspondent Armen Keteyian that anabolic steroids are as "highly fatal" as is often claimed, Wadler admitted there was no evidence. Bryant Gumbel concluded the "hoopla" concerning the dangers of anabolic steroids in the media was "all smoke and no fire".[137] The show also featured John Romano, a pro-steroid activist who writes "The Romano Factor", a pro-steroid column for bodybuilding magazine Muscular Development. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Real Sports with Bryant Gumble is a monthly magazine on HBO that started on April 2, 1995. ... Gary I. Wadler, M.D. is an internist with special expertise in the field of drug use in sports. ... Armen Keteyian (b. ... Muscular Development Victor Martinez on the cover of Muscular Development magazine Muscular Development is an American fitness and bodybuilding magazine first published in 1964. ...


In July 2005, Philip Sweitzer, an attorney and author, published an open letter to the Members of the House Committee on Government Reform, and the Senate Committee on Commerce et al. In it he criticized lawmakers' actions in scheduling anabolic steroids, as well as criticized their "disregard of scientific reality for symbolic effect". He also pleaded for the consideration of the decriminalization of anabolic steroids and asked for a new policy direction.[138] Several other legal reviewers have criticized controlled substance status for anabolic steroids, including lawyer Rick Collins whose book, Legal Muscle, details published resources on anabolic steroids and the law. Collins opposes non-medical teen steroid use or steroid use to cheat in sports, but advocates wider discretion for physicians in the case of mature adults. In 2006, he argued at PUMPED, a steroid seminar in Manhattan, that the reporting of the risks associated with anabolic steroids in the media is biased and misinformed. He also argues that anabolic steroid criminalization increases the risks associated with anabolic steroids due to impurities in black market products.[139][140] However, the U.S. government's position since the late 1980s has been and continues to be that the risks of steroid use are too great to allow them to be decriminalized or unregulated.


See also

A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ... A steroid stack is a slang term used to describe the combination of two or more anabolic steroids used ideally in synergy for a period commonly ranging from 2 to 10 weeks or even more (see steroid cycle). ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ...

References

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  2. ^ a b Medraś M, Tworowska U (2001). "Treatment strategies of withdrawal from long-term use of anabolic-androgenic steroids". Pol Merkur Lekarski 11 (66): 535–8. PMID 11899857. 
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  138. ^ Sweitzer, Esq, Philip (July 2005). An Open Letter to the Members of the House Committee on Government Reform, and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, on the Recent Hearings and Legislation relating to the use of Anabolic Steroids in Sports. MESO-Rx.. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  139. ^ Collins, Rick (2006). PUMPED: A Truth-Enhancing Seminar on Steroid Use and the Law (PDF). drugpolicy.org. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  140. ^ Collins, Rick (2006). PUMPED:(Audio). drugpolicy.org. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bryant Charles Gumbel (born September 29, 1948), is an American television personality for news and sports programs. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Collins, Rick (December 1, 2002). Legal Muscle: Anabolics in America. Legal Muscle Publishing Inc., 430. ISBN 0-9726384-0-7. 
  • D. Kochakian, Charles. Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Human Kinetics. 
  • Daniels, R. C. (February 1, 2003). The Anabolic Steroid Handbook. Richard C Daniels, 80. ISBN 0-9548227-0-6. 
  • Gallaway, Steve (January 15, 1997). The Steroid Bible. Belle Intl; 3rd Sprl edition, 125. ISBN 1-890342-00-9. 
  • Llewellyn, William (January 28, 2007). ANABOLICS 2007 : Anabolic Steroid Reference Manual (6th Ed.). Body of Science, 988. ISBN 978-0967930466. 
  • Roberts, Anthony; Brian Clapp (January 2006). Anabolic Steroids: Ultimate Research Guide. Anabolic Books, LLC, 394. ISBN 1-59975-100-3. 
  • Roberts, Anthony (May 2006). Beyond Steroids. EF Publishing Inc., 250. 
  • Taylor, William N (January 1, 2002). Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. McFarland & Company, 373. ISBN 0-7864-1128-7. 
  • Yesalis, Charles E. (July 2000). Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2nd edition, 493. ISBN 0-88011-786-9. 

is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

  • Steroids news page – Alcohol and Drugs History Society
  • Steroidmediawatch – Anabolic Steroids in the media
  • Steroidlaw by Rick Collins – Law concerning Anabolic Steroids (Mostly Relevant to the United States of America)
  • Association against Steroid Abuse
  • Mesomorphosis steroid articles – Articles on Steroids
  • Dmoz Directory of websites on anabolic steroids
The Alcohol and Drugs History Society is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A14A Anabolic steroids A14AA Androstan derivatives A14AA01 Androstanolone A14AA02 Stanozolol A14AA03 Metandienone A14AA04 Metenolone A14AA05 Oxymetholone A14AA06 Quinbolone A14AA07 Prasterone A14AA08 Oxandrolone A14AA09 Norethandrolone A14AB Estren derivatives A14AB01 Nandrolone A14AB02 Ethylestrenol A14AB03 Oxabolone cipionate A14B Other... The chemical structure of androstadienone Androstadienone, also known as androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one, is a chemical compounds that has been described as having pheromone-like activities in humans. ... Boldenone (1,4-androstadiene-3-one-17β-ol, available as the undecylenate ester), also known under the trade names Equipoise, Ganabol, Equigan and Ultragan, is an anabolic steroid developed for veterinary use, mostly for treatment of horses. ... // Turinabol by Thai Phoenix Pharmaceuticals Co. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Desoxymethyltestosterone (Madol) is an anabolic steroid. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... Drostanolone propionate (trade name Masteron) is an anabolic steroid. ... Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin) is an androgenic steroid that is only useful to a small select group of athletes who seeks very specific goals. ... Pharmaceutical Name: Furazabol Chemical structure: 17-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-androsta-2,3-furazan,17b-ol Molecular weight of base: 330. ... Methandrostenolone (Dianabol) is an anabolic steroid originally developed by John Ziegler and released in the US in 1956 by Ciba. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Methenolone Enanthate is a DHT based anabolic steroid. ... Mesterolone is an orally applicable androgen, and DHT derivative. ... Mestanolone is the 17a-methylated version of dihydrotestosterone(DHT). ... Norethandrolone is an anabolic steroid. ... Oxandrolone (Oxandrin) is an anabolic steroid created by Searle Laboratories under the trademark Anavar, and introduced into the US in 1964. ... Oxymetholone (Anadrol), is a synthetic anabolic steroid developed by Syntex in 1960. ... Oxymetholone (Anadrol), is a synthetic anabolic steroid developed by Syntex in 1960. ... Quinbolone (Anabolicum Vister) is an anabolic steroid with weak androgenic effects. ... Stanozolol, commonly sold under the name Winstrol (oral) and Winstrol Depot (intra-muscular), was developed by Winthrop Laboratories in 1962. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Ethylestrenol (Maxibolin®) is an anabolic steroid with some progesterone-like activity, and little androgenic activity. ... Mibolerone is a Anabolic steroid which is very androgenic. ... Nandrolone is an anabolic steroid occurring naturally in the human body, albeit in small quantities. ... Norbolethone (Genabol) is an anabolic steroid. ... Oxabolone cipionate (or oxabolone cypionate) is an anabolic steroid. ... Tetrahydrogestrinone (often referred to as THG or the clear) is an anabolic steroid. ... Trenbolone is a steroid used by veterinarians on livestock to increase muscle growth and appetite. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
anabolic steroid - HighBeam Encyclopedia (424 words)
ANABOLIC STEROID [anabolic steroid] or androgenic steroid, any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote muscle and bone growth.
Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to elevated cholesterol levels, liver disease, blood clots leading to heart attack or stroke, increased aggressiveness and irritability, and, in adolescents, permanent stunting of growth.
Anabolic Steroids Are Easily Purchased Without a Prescription and Present Significant Challenges to Law Enforcement Officials.
Anabolic Steroids: Mechanisms and Effects (1200 words)
The use of anabolic steroids in the "real world" is considerably different from that in rigidly controlled, double-blind experiments (in a double blind study, neither the subject nor experimenter knows who is taking the drug).
Anabolic steroids have been manufactured to enhance the anabolic properties (tissue building) of the androgens and minimize the androgenic (sex-linked) properties.
Anabolic steroids may block the effects of hormones such as cortisol involved in tissue breakdown during and after exercise.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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