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Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus "re-baptizers"[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. Various groups at various times have been called Anabaptist, but the term is most commonly used to refer to the Anabaptists of 16th century Europe. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Anabaptists believe infant baptism is not valid, because a child cannot commit to a religious faith, and they instead support what is called believer's baptism. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The word anabaptism is used in this article to describe any of the 16th century "radical" dissenters. Today the descendants of the 16th century European movement (particularly the Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites, Church of the Brethren, and Brethren in Christ) are the most common bodies referred to as Anabaptist. This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church of the Brethren is... The Brethren in Christ Church (often called B.I.C. Church) is an evangelical Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. ...

Contents

Origins

Forerunners

Though the majority opinion is that Anabaptists began with the Radical Reformers in the 16th century, certain people and groups may still legitimately be considered their forerunners. Peter Chelcicky, 15th century Bohemian Reformer, taught most of the beliefs considered integral to Anabaptist theology. Medieval antecedents may include the Brethren of the Common Life, the Hussites, Dutch Sacramentists[2][3] and some forms of monasticism. The Waldensians also represent a faith similar to the Anabaptists. Peter Chelcicky¹ (Czech Petr Chelčický) (ca. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Waldensians were followers of Peter Waldo (or Valdes or Vaudes); they called themselves the Poor men of Lyon, the Poor of Lombardy, or the Poor. ...


In the following points Anabaptists resembled the medieval dissenters:

  1. Some followed Menno Simons in teaching that Jesus did not take the flesh from his mother, but either brought his body from heaven or had one made for him by the Word. Some even said that he passed through his mother, as water through a pipe, into the world. In pictures and sculptures of the 15th century and earlier, we often find represented this idea, originated by Marcion in the 2nd century. The Anabaptists were accused of denying the Incarnation of Christ: a charge that Menno Simons repeatedly rejected.
  2. They condemned oaths, and also the reference of disputes between believers to law-courts.
  3. The believer must not bear arms or offer forcible resistance to wrongdoers, nor wield the sword. No Christian has the jus gladii.
  4. Civil government (i.e. "Caesar") belongs to the world. The believer, who belongs to God's kingdom, must not fill any office, nor hold any rank under government, which is to be passively obeyed.
  5. Sinners or unfaithful ones are to be excommunicated, and excluded from the sacraments and from intercourse with believers unless they repent, according to 1 Corinthians 6:1–11 and Matt.18:15 seq. But no force is to be used towards them.

They may have preserved among themselves the primitive manual of conduct called the Didache,[citation needed] for Bishop Longland in England condemned an Anabaptist for repeating one of its maxims "that alms should not be given before they did sweat in a man's hand." This was between 1518 and 1521. Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... In Latin jus gladii literally means the right of the sword, referring to the legal authority of an individual or group to execute someone for a capital offense. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


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Thomas Müntzer was one of the founders of the Anabaptist movement.
Thomas Müntzer was one of the founders of the Anabaptist movement.[4]

Research on the origins of the Anabaptists has been tainted both by the attempts of their enemies to slander them and the attempts of their friends to vindicate them. It was long popular to simply lump all Anabaptists as Munsterites and radicals associated with the Zwickau Prophets, Jan Matthys, John of Leiden (also Jan Bockelson van Leiden, Jan of Leyden), and Thomas Muentzer. Those desiring to correct this error tended to over-correct and deny all connections between the larger Anabaptist movement and this most radical element. Image File history File links from en. ... Image File history File links from en. ... Thomas Müntzer, in a 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem Thomas Muentzer (or Müntzer, Münzer) (1489 or 1490–27 May 1525) was an early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants War. ... The Zwickau Prophets were early sixteenth century Anabaptists in Zwickau in Saxony. ... Jan Matthys (also known as Jan Matthias, Johann Mathyszoon, et al. ... John of Leiden (Dutch: Jan van Leiden, Jan Beukelsz or Jan Beukelszoon; aka John Bockold or John Bockelson) (1509? - 1536) was an Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden. ... Thomas Müntzer, in an 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem. ...


The modern era of Anabaptist historiography arose with the work of Roman Catholic scholar Carl Adolf Cornelius' publication of Die Geschichte des Münsterischen Aufruhrs in 1855 (The history of the Münster riot). Baptist historian Albert Henry Newman (1852–1933), who Bender said occupied "first position in the field of American Anabaptist Historiography," made a major contribution with his A History of Anti-Pedobaptism. Though a number of theories exist concerning origins, the three main ideas are that,

  1. Anabaptists began in a single expression in Zürich and spread from there (Monogenesis),
  2. Anabaptists began through several independent movements (polygenesis), and
  3. Anabaptists are a continuation of New Testament Christianity (apostolic succession or church perpetuity).

Polygenism is a biblical theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. ...

Monogenesis

Protestantism
The Reformation
History

Pre-Reformation Movements

Waldensians  · Lollards  · Hussites Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Image File history File links 95Thesen. ... Reformation redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ... John Wyclif gives his Bible translation to Lollards Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards from the late 14th century to early in the time of the English Reformation. ... The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ...


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A number of scholars (e.g. Bender, Estep, Friedmann) have seen all the Anabaptists as rising out of the Swiss Brethren movement of Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, et al. The older view among Mennonite historians generally held that Anabaptism had its origins in Zürich, and that the Anabaptism of the Swiss Brethren was transmitted to South Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and North Germany, where it developed into its various branches. The monogenesis theory usually rejects the Münsterites and other radicals from the category of true Anabaptists. In this view the time of origin is January 21, 1525, when Grebel baptized Georg Blaurock, and Blaurock baptized other followers. This remains the most popular single time posited for the establishment of Anabaptism. But in the last quarter of the 20th century, Deppermann, Packull, and others suggested that February 24, 1527 at Schleitheim is the proper date of the origin of Anabaptism. This correlates with the following polygenesis theory. Swiss Brethren were Anabaptists, a group of radical evangelical reformers who initially followed Huldrych Zwingli of Zürich. ... Conrad Grebel (ca. ... An allegorical portrait of Felix Manz, painted in the 20th century. ... Jörg vom Haus Jacob (Georg Cajacob, or George of the House of Jacob), commonly known as George Blaurock¹ (1491-1529), with Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz was co-founder of the Swiss Brethren church in Zürich, and thereby one of the founders of modern Anabaptism. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ...


Polygenesis

James M. Stayer, Werner O. Packull, and Klaus Deppermann disputed the idea of a single origin of Anabaptists in a 1975 essay entitled "From Monogenesis to Polygenesis". That article, emphasizing distinctive characteristics and distinct sources, has become a widely accepted treatment of the plural origins of Anabaptism. According to these authors, South German-Austrian Anabaptism "was a diluted form of Rhineland mysticism," Swiss Anabaptism "arose out of Reformed congregationalism", and Dutch Anabaptism was formed by "Social unrest and the apocalyptic visions of Melchior Hoffman". Pilgram Marpeck's Vermanung of 1542 was deeply influenced by the Bekenntnisse of 1533 by Münster theologian Bernhard Rothmann. The Hutterites used Melchior Hoffman's commentary on the Apocalypse shortly after he wrote it. David Joris, a disciple of Hoffman, was the most important Anabaptist leader in the Netherlands before 1540. Grete Mecenseffy and Walter Klaassen established links between Thomas Müntzer and Hans Hut, and the work of Gottfried Seebaß and Werner Packull clearly showed the influence of Thomas Müntzer on the formation of South German Anabaptism. Steven Ozment's work linked Hans Denck and Hans Hut with Thomas Müntzer, Sebastian Franck, and others. Calvin Pater has shown that Andreas Karlstadt influenced Swiss Anabaptism in areas including his view of Scripture, doctrine of the church, and views on baptism. James M. Stayer (born 1935) is a historian specializing in the German Reformation, particularly the anabaptist movement. ... German Mysticism (Sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism) is the name given to a christian mystical movement in the Late Middle Ages, that was especially prominent in Germany, and in the Dominican order. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Melchior Hoffman or Hofmann (c. ... Pilgram Marpeck (unk-1556) was an important South German Anabaptist leader in the 16th century. ... Bernhard Rothmann, or Bernard Rothmann, (ca. ... David Joris (ca. ... Hans Denck (c. ... Hans Hut (c. ... Sebastian Franck (January 20, 1499 – c. ... Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – December 24, 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt, was a Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. ...


Apostolic succession

Another theory is that the 16th century Anabaptists were part of an apostolic succession of churches (or church perpetuity) from the time of Christ. In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ...


The opponents of this theory emphasize that these non-Roman Catholic groups differed from each other, that they held some heretical views, and/or that they had no connection with one another. This view is held by some Baptists, some Mennonites, and a number of "true church" movements.[5] The writings of John T. Christian, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary professor, contain perhaps the best scholarly presentation of this successionist view. Somewhat related to this is the theory that the Anabaptists are of Waldensian origin. Some hold the idea that the Waldenses are part of the apostolic succession, while others simply believe they were an independent group out of whom the Anabaptists arose. Estep asserts "the Waldenses disappeared in Switzerland a century before the rise of the Anabaptist movement." Ludwig Keller, Thomas M. Lindsay, H. C. Vedder, Delbert Grätz, and Thieleman J. van Braght all held, in varying degrees, the position that the Anabaptists were of Waldensian origin. John Taylor Christian (1854–1925) was a Baptist preacher, author and educator. ... The New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary is a private, non-profit institution of higher learning associated with the Southern Baptist Convention, located in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Thieleman J. van Braght was the Anabaptist author of the Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch. ...


Types

It is beneficial to recognize different types among the Anabaptists, although these categorizations tend to vary with the scholar's viewpoint on origins. Estep claims that in order to understand Anabaptism, one must "distinguish between the Anabaptists, inspirationists, and rationalists." He classes the likes of Blaurock, Grebel, Balthasar Hubmaier, Manz, Marpeck, and Simons as Anabaptists. He groups Müntzer, Storch, et al. as inspirationists, and anti-trinitarians such as Michael Servetus, Juan de Valdés, Sebastian Castellio, and Faustus Socinus as rationalists. Mark S. Ritchie follows this line of thought, saying, "The Anabaptists were one of several branches of 'Radical' reformers (i.e. reformers that went further than the mainstream Reformers) to arise out of the Renaissance and Reformation. Two other branches were Spirituals or Inspirationists, who believed that they had received direct revelation from the Spirit, and rationalists or anti-Trinitarians, who rebelled against traditional Christian doctrine, like Michael Servetus." Most of the Anti-Trinitarian Anabaptists were modalistic monarchians and baptized in the shorter formula of the name of Jesus Christ. They also spoke in ecstatic languages and prophecies known as "speaking in tongues." Holiness was a very important doctrine to them. Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ανα and βαπτιζω; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Balthasar Hubmaier (ca. ... Michael Servetus. ... Juan de Valdés (c. ... Sebastian Castellio Sebastian Castellio (also spelled Châtaillon, Castellión and Castello) (1515–December 29, 1563) was a French preacher and theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of freedom of the conscience or freedom of thought. ... Fausto Paolo Sozzini (December 5, 1539 - March 4, 1604), theologian, was a founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism, based on the Latinized spelling of his name. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Those of the polygenesis viewpoint use Anabaptist to define the larger movement, and include the inspirationists and rationalists as true Anabaptists. James M. Stayer used the term Anabaptist for those who rebaptized persons already baptized in infancy. Walter Klaassen was perhaps the first Mennonite scholar to define Anabaptists that way in his 1960 Oxford dissertation. This represents a rejection of the previous standard held by Mennonite scholars such as Bender and Friedmann.


Another method of categorization acknowledges regional variations, such as Swiss Brethren (Grebel, Manz), Dutch and Frisian Anabaptism (Menno Simons, Dirk Philips), and South German Anabaptism (Hübmaier, Marpeck). Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Dirk Philips (1504-1568) was an early Anabaptist writer and theologian. ...


Historians and sociologists have made further distinctions between radical Anabaptists, who were prepared to use violence in their attempts to build a New Jerusalem, and their pacifist brethren, later broadly known as Mennonites. Radical Anabaptist groups included the Münsterites, who occupied and held the German city of Münster in 1534–5, and the Batenburgers, who persisted in various guises as late as the 1570s. For other uses, see New Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Batenburgers. ...


Zwickau prophets and the Peasants' War

On December 27, 1521, three "prophets", influenced by and in turn influencing Thomas Müntzer, appeared in Wittenberg from Zwickau: Thomas Dreschel, Nicolas Storch and Mark Thomas Stübner. The crisis came in the Peasants' War in South Germany in 1525. In its origin a revolt against feudal oppression, it became, under the leadership of Müntzer, a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by revolution an ideal Christian commonwealth, with absolute equality and the community of goods. Thomas Müntzer, in a 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem Thomas Muentzer (or Müntzer, Münzer) (1489 or 1490–27 May 1525) was an early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants War. ... The Zwickau Prophets were early sixteenth century Anabaptists in Zwickau in Saxony. ... Peasants War map. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The Zwickau Prophets were early sixteenth century Anabaptists in Zwickau in Saxony. ... Thomas Müntzer, in a 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem Thomas Muentzer (or Müntzer, Münzer) (1489 or 1490–27 May 1525) was an early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants War. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Zwickau is a city of Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony (Sachsen), situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge, on the left bank of the Zwickauer Mulde, 130 km (82 miles) southwest of Dresden, south of Leipzig and south west of Chemnitz. ...


Münster Rebellion

Main articles: Münster Rebellion and Münster

A second and more determined attempt to establish a theocracy was made at Münster in Westphalia (1532–5), led by Bernhard Rothmann, Bernhard Knipperdolling, Jan Matthys and John of Leiden. The Münster Rebellion was an attempt by radical Anabaptists to establish a theocracy in the German city of Münster. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Bernhard Rothmann, or Bernard Rothmann, (ca. ... Bernhard Knipperdolling (b. ... Jan Matthys (also known as Jan Matthias, Johann Mathyszoon, et al. ... John of Leiden (Dutch: Jan van Leiden, Jan Beukelsz or Jan Beukelszoon; aka John Bockold or John Bockelson) (1509? - 1536) was an Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden. ...


Persecutions and migrations

Dirk Willems saves his pursuer.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer.

Much of the historic Roman Catholic and Protestant literature has represented the Anabaptists as groups who preached false doctrine and led people into apostasy. That negative historiography remained popular for about four centuries. The Roman Catholics and Protestants alike persecuted the Anabaptists, resorted to torture and other types of physical abuse, in attempts both to curb the growth of the movement and bring about the salvation of the heretics (through recantation). The Protestants under Zwingli were the first to persecute the Anabaptists. Felix Manz became the first martyr in 1527. Image File history File links Dirk. ... Image File history File links Dirk. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ...


On May 20, 1527, Roman Catholic authorities executed Michael Sattler. King Ferdinand declared drowning (called the third baptism) "the best antidote to Anabaptism". It has been said that a "16th century man who did not drink to excess, curse, or abuse his workmen or family could be suspected of being an Anabaptist and thus persecuted."[6] Thousands died in Europe in the sixteenth century.[7] The Tudor regime, even those that were Protestant (Edward VI and Elizabeth I) persecuted Anabaptists as they were deemed too radical and therefore a danger to religious stability. The persecution of Anabaptists was condoned by ancient laws of Theodosius and Justinian that were passed against the Donatists which decreed the death penalty for any who practiced rebaptism. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Michael Sattler (1495?-1527) was a monk who left the Roman Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation to become one of the early leaders of the Anabaptist movement. ... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Thieleman J. van Braght's Martyrs Mirror describes the persecution and execution of thousands of Anabaptists, such as Dirk Willems, in Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and other parts of Europe between 1525 and 1660. Continuing persecution in Europe was largely responsible for the mass immigrations to North America by Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites. The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documented the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists. ... Dirk Willems saves his pursuer Dirk Willems (??-1569) was an martyred Anabaptist who is most famous for his successful escape and subsequent reimprisonment after rescuing his pursuer, who had fallen through thin ice while chasing him. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Anabaptist women have also faced martyrdom. An estimated 525 Anabaptist women were martyred, among whom was Maey ken Wens: with her tongue screwed to the inside of her mouth, she was burned at the stake for proclaiming the Gospel of Jesus Christ. [8]


Today

Several existing denominational bodies may be legitimately regarded as the successors of the Continental Anabaptists — Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, Mennonites, Bruderhof Communities and Quakers. Some writers prefer to distinguish institutionally lineal descendants (Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites) from the spiritual descendants Brethren, Church of the Brethren, the Bruderhof Communities, and Seventh-day Adventists, Baptists and the many parts of the Emerging Church in the UK, Australia and parts of the US. The Quakers are listed here only because they share the distinction of also being a peace church. Nevertheless, some historical connections have been demonstrated for all of these spiritual descendants, though perhaps not as clearly as the noted institutionally lineal descendants. Although many see the more well-known Anabaptist groups (Amish, Hutterites and Mennonites) as ethnic groups, the Anabaptist bodies of today are no longer comprised mostly of descendants of the Continental Anabaptists. Total worldwide membership of the Mennonite, Brethren in Christ and related churches totals 1,297,716 (as of 2003) with about 60 percent in Africa, Asia and Latin America.[9] This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... For the Jim Roberts religious movement, see The Brethren (cult). ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... The Bruderhof Communities (German: place of brothers) are Christian faith-based communities with branches in New York and Pennsylvania in the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... For the Jim Roberts religious movement, see The Brethren (cult). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church of the Brethren is... The Bruderhof Communities (German: place of brothers) are Christian faith-based communities with branches in New York and Pennsylvania in the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... The emerging church (also known as the emerging church movement) is a controversial[1] 21st-century Protestant Christian movement whose participants seek and to engage postmodern people, especially the unchurched and post-churched. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Peace churches are Christian groups in the pacifist tradition. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... The Brethren in Christ Church (often called B.I.C. Church) is an evangelical Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. ...


In addition, it may be argued that one of the historical Anabaptist doctrines, specifically that one must volitionally, consciously, and personally relate to God, is a likewise found among much of Evangelical Protestantism, even though these churches may not be historically linked to the Anabaptists.


Anabaptism and the 21st century

Today in response to post-modernism, what some theologians are calling 'the end of Christendom' and the global ecological crisis, some churches and theologians are drawing upon Anabaptist traditions as a paradigm for Christian spirituality in the 21st century. This movement, sometimes referred to as 'neo-anabaptism', includes theologians and communities who are from Christian denominations not part of the historic Peace Churches but who see in the 16th century radical reformers an authentic witness of early Christianity and of the life and teachings of Christ. Some such thinkers include Stanley Hauerwas, Nancey Murphy, Glen Stassen, Lee Camp, Marva J. Dawn, Richard B. Hays, Craig A. Carter, James McClendon, and Michael Cartwright. Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Stanley Hauerwas (b. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Glen Harold Stassen is a noted Christian theologian and ethicist. ... Richard B. Hays is the George Washington Ivey Professor of New Testament at Duke Divinity School in Durham, North Carolina. ...


Sojourners Magazine editor Jim Wallis has said that Mennonite Theologian John H. Yoder "inspired a whole generation of Christians to follow the way of Jesus into social action and peacemaking." The neo-Anabaptist communities and theologians are also a direct result of this legacy. Neo-Anabaptist communities are often identifiable by their desire to live as a prophetic alternative to larger society through their commitment to Christ’s Sermon on the Mount as normative for the Christian life when empowered by the Holy Spirit. Outworkings of this spirituality include simple yet joyful lifestyle, peace and justice making, the practice of nonviolence, communal living and the voluntary sharing of goods, particularly with those in need all as an outworking of seeking the kingdom of God. Sojourners Magazine, a bimonthly publication of Sojourners Fellowship, was first published in 1971 under the original title of The Post-American. ... Jim Wallis Reverend Jim Wallis (born June 4, 1948 in Detroit, Michigan) is a Christian writer and political activist, best known as the founder and editor of Sojourners magazine and of the Washington DC based Christian community of the same name. ... John H. Yoder (December 29, 1927-December 30, 1997) was a Mennonite theologian from the United States, best known for arguing that Christianity had serious political and ethical implications. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ...


Neo-Anabaptism

The Neo-Anabaptist movement is also refered to as Emerging Peace Churches [10] or Open Anabaptism[11]. This model of the emerging church[12] stresses the non-conformist tendencies of Jesus, and thus the church should follow in his footsteps through non-violence, love of enemy and caring for the poor. Parts of this movement in the U.S. are known as New Monasticism. While there are people from the various peace churches involved in this movement, there are also people from a variety of traditions who are seeking to contextualize the Gospel within this culture. This group does not accept any one style of culture as being good, thus their non-conformist attitude is directed at modernity and postmodernity alike. They see Jesus (and his incarnation) as their primary model for engaging culture. They are influenced by Wittgenstein, Barth, Bonhoeffer, John H. Yoder, N.T. Wright, McClendon and Nancey Murphy[13]. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The emerging church (also known as the emerging church movement) is a controversial[1] 21st-century Protestant Christian movement whose participants seek and to engage postmodern people, especially the unchurched and post-churched. ... New Monasticism, or Neomonasticism, is a modern day iteration of a long tradition of Christian monasticism which has recently developed within certain communities associated with Protestant Evangelicalism. ... Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), pictured here in 1930, made influential contributions to Logic and the philosophy of language, critically examining the task of conventional philosophy and its relation to the nature of language. ... Barth can mean: Barth (Pomerania), a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany Barth (name), a Germanic family name Barth (character), a character from the television show You Cant Do That On Television. Edgar Barth (1917-1965), a German race car driver Fredrik Barth (1928- ), a Norwegian anthropologist Heinrich Barth... Dietrich Bonhoeffer (February 4, 1906 — April 9, 1945) was a German religious leader and participant in the resistance movement against Nazism. ... John H. Yoder (December 29, 1927-December 30, 1997) was a Mennonite theologian from the United States, best known for arguing that Christianity had serious political and ethical implications. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


In this group you will find people like Jarrod McKenna and the Peace Tree community[14], Shane Claiborne and the Simple Way, Rob Bell’s Mars Hill, some Mennonites, Submergent, Jesus Radicals, convergent Friends, and Wess Daniels to name a few. This group see's themselves as an alternative to Christendom, and unlike some other parts of the emerging church, would see contextualization as important only up to the point that it remains ultimately an extension of Jesus' ministry and message[15]. Rob Bell, Everything is Spiritual tour, Cleveland, Ohio; Photograph: Virgil Vaduva Robert Rob Bell (born August 23, 1970) is an author, Christian speaker, and the founding pastor of Mars Hill Bible Church located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... The emerging church (also known as the emerging church movement) is a controversial[1] 21st-century Protestant Christian movement whose participants seek and to engage postmodern people, especially the unchurched and post-churched. ...


Another strain of Neo-Anabaptism recently grew out of the work of a young Swiss American minister/teacher, The Reverend Brother Jacob C. Moak[16]. It stands against contextualizing the Gospel within modern American society, and seeks to restore the Hebraic Roots of the Christian religion while holding fast to traditional Christian practices and values. Elements from Methodism, Baptism, and Celtic Christianity have been incorporated into the framework of this group's doctrine and practice, alongside more traditional Anabaptist elements. Unlike many other Hebrew Roots movements within Christendom, Hebraic Anabaptism boldly asserts its non-Jewishness, and does not subscribe to Two House Theology or Replacement Theology. This group is embodied by the Isaric Anabaptist Church (IAC)[17]. The IAC is founded upon the notion that gentiles who desire to be part of Israel and observe the customs and commands of the Torah can do so, and that these people comprise a distinct ethnic group within Israel called "Isars", hence the term "Isaric" for the church. They apparently practice a more liberal form of pacifism, allowing for self-defense in certain situations, but generally emphasis is placed upon "shalom" (peace). The premise of Two House Theology is found in the Hebrew Scriptures and primarily focuses on the division of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah (See History of ancient Israel and Judah). ... Supersessionism is the traditional Christian belief that Christianity is the fulfillment of Biblical Judaism, and therefore that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah fall short of their calling as Gods Chosen people. ... The Hebrew word for Shalom Look up Shalom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Heritage

The Anabaptists were early promoters of a free church and freedom of religion (sometimes associated with separation of church and state).[18] When it was introduced by the Anabaptists in the 15th and 16th centuries, religious freedom independent of the state was unthinkable to both clerical and governmental leaders. Religious liberty was equated with anarchy; Kropotkin[19] traces the birth of anarchist thought in Europe to these early Anabaptist communities. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The priesthood of all believers is a Christian doctrine based on several passages of the New Testament. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


According to Estep,[20]

Where men believe in the freedom of religion, supported by a guarantee of separation of church and state, they have entered into that heritage. Where men have caught the Anabaptist vision of discipleship, they have become worthy of that heritage. Where corporate discipleship submits itself to the New Testament pattern of the church, the heir has then entered full possession of his legacy.

Popular culture

In Joseph Heller's novel Catch-22, the character of Chaplain Tappman identifies himself as an Anabaptist. He states that for this reason, it is not necessary to call him "Father". Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Chaplain Captain Albert T. Tappman (A.T. Tappman) (usually simply referred to as The Chaplain) is one of the main characters in Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22. ...


Voltaire's novel, Candide, features a character named James, who identifies himself as an Anabaptist and helps the eponymous protagonist and his teacher Pangloss but later drowns in Lisbon harbor. For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


See also

Abecedarians were a 16th-century German sect of Anabaptists who affected an absolute disdain for all human knowledge, contending that God would enlighten his elect interiorly and give them knowledge of necessary truths by visions and ecstasies (with which human learning would interfere). ... Ambrosians was the name given to several religious brotherhoods which at various times since the 14th century have sprung up in and around Milan; they have about as much connection with Saint Ambrose as the Jeromites who were found chiefly in upper Italy and Spain have with their patron saint. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... The Anabaptist Association of Australia and New Zealand (AAANZ) is an association of individuals in Australia and New Zealand that has been influenced by progressive anabaptism and supports Anabaptism. ... The Apostolic Christian Church is a religious body in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan that originates from the anabaptist movement. ... The Brethren in Christ Church (often called B.I.C. Church) is an evangelical Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) is an international organization set up to support teams of peace workers in conflict areas around the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Mennonite Central Committee logo. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... The Schleitheim Confession was a declaration of Swiss Anabaptist belief, endorsed unanimously by a meeting of Swiss Anabaptists in 1527 in Schleitheim (Switzerland). ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... The Upside-Down Kingdom is a book written by Donald B. Kraybill. ...

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Anabaptist at answers.com
  2. ^ van der Zijpp, Nanne. Sacramentists. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  3. ^ Fontaine, Piet F.M. (2006), The Light and the Dark A cultural history of dualism, vol. XXIII Postlutheran Reformation Chapter I - part 1 Radical Reformation - Dutch Sacramentists, Utrecht: Gopher Publishers, <http://home.wanadoo.nl/piet.fontaine/volumes/overview.htm>
  4. ^ Hans-Jürgen Goertz. Thomas Müntzer: Apocalyptic Mystic and Revolutionary. ISBN 0-567-09606-8. 
  5. ^ A "true church" movement is a part of the Protestant or Reformed group of Christianity that claims to represent the true faith and order of New Testament Christianity. Most only assert this in relation to their church doctrines, polity, and practice (e.g., the ordinances), while a few hold they are the only true Christians. Some examples of Anabaptistic true church movements are the Landmark Baptists and the Church of God in Christ, Mennonite. The Church of God (Charleston, Tennessee), the Stone-Campbell restoration movement, and others represent a variation in which the "true church" apostatized and was restored, in distinction to this idea of apostolic or church succession. These groups trace their "true church" status through means other than those generally accepted by Roman Catholicism or Orthodox Christianity, both of which likewise claim to represent the true faith and order of New Testament Christianity.
  6. ^ Did You Know?. Christianity Today Library (1985). Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  7. ^ Estep
  8. ^ Maeyken Wens, And Some Of Her Fellow-believers, Burnt For The Testimony Of Jesus Christ At. Antwerp, A. D. 1573
  9. ^ Mennonite World Conference 2003 Mennonite & Brethren in Christ World Membership
  10. ^ Weblog » Emergent Village » Four Types of Emerging Churches and Their Thinkers
  11. ^ Four Models of Emerging Churches
  12. ^ http://tallskinnykiwi.typepad.com/tallskinnykiwi/2007/05/anabaptism_and_.html/
  13. ^ Four Models of Emerging Churches
  14. ^ Encounter - 17June2007 - The Anabaptist Vision
  15. ^ Four Models of Emerging Churches
  16. ^ - February2008 - IAC Bishopric
  17. ^ - February2008 - Isaric Anabaptist Church
  18. ^ The origins of religious freedom in the USA is traced back to the Anabaptists in Verduin, Leonard That First Amendment and The Remnant published by The Christian Hymnary Publishers (1998) ISBN 1-890050-17-2
  19. ^ "Anarchism" from The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910 By Peter Kropotkin.
  20. ^ The Anabaptist Story – see Bibliography.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Though numerous churches and some organizations use the terms Landmark and Landmark Baptist in their name, there is no identifiable sub-group of Baptists known as the Landmark Baptist Church. ... Church of God in Christ, Mennonite is a Christian group of Anabaptist heritage; a 19th century offshot of the Old Order Mennonite Church. ... The Church of God (Charleston, Tennessee) is a pentecostal holiness body of Christians with roots in the holiness movement among Baptists in the late 19th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mennonite World Conference (MWC) is a body that attempts to bring fellowship and communication to diverse Anabaptist bodies across the world. ...

Bibliography

  • A History of Anti-Pedobaptism, From the Rise of Pedobaptism to A. D. 1609, by Albert H. Newman ISBN 1-57978-536-0
  • Anabaptists and the Sword, by James M. Stayer ISBN 0-87291-081-4
  • An Introduction to Mennonite History, by Cornelius J. Dyck ISBN 0-8361-3620-9
  • Covenant and Community: the Life and Writing of Pilgram Marpeck, by William Klassen
  • Encyclopedia of American Religions, by J. Gordon Melton ISBN 0-8103-6904-4
  • German Peasants' War & Anabaptist Community of Goods, by James M. Stayer ISBN 0-7735-0842-2
  • Hutterite Beginnings: Communitarian Experiments During the Reformation, by Werner O. Packull ISBN 0-8018-5048-7
  • In Editha's Days. A Tale of Religious Liberty, by Mary E. Bamford LCCN 06006296 (republished as The Bible Makes Us Baptists, Larry Harrison, ed.)
  • Mennonite Encyclopedia, Harold S. Bender, Cornelius J. Dyck, Dennis D. Martin, Henry C. Smith, et al., editors ISBN 0-8361-1018-8
  • Revelation & Revolution: Basic Writings of Thomas Muntzer, by Michael G. Baylor ISBN 0-934223-16-5
  • The Anabaptist Story, by William R. Estep; ISBN 0-8028-1594-4
  • The Anabaptist Vision, by Harold S. Bender; ISBN 0-8361-1305-5
  • The Bloody Theater or Martyrs Mirror, by Thieleman J. van Braght; ISBN 0-8361-1390-X
  • The Pursuit of the Millennium, by Norman Cohn; ISBN 0-19-500456-6
  • The Reformers and their Stepchildren, by Leonard Verduin; ISBN 0-8010-9284-1
  • The Anatomy of a Hybrid : a Study in Church-State Relationships by Leonard Verduin; ISBN 0-8028-1615-0
  • The Tailor King: The Rise and Fall of the Anabaptist Kingdom of Munster, by Anthony Arthur ISBN 0-312-20515-5
  • Anabaptist Bibliography 1520-1630, by Hans Hillerbrand ISBN 0-910345-03-1

James M. Stayer (born 1935) is a historian specializing in the German Reformation, particularly the anabaptist movement. ... Dr. John Gordon Melton is the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is a research specialist with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... James M. Stayer (born 1935) is a historian specializing in the German Reformation, particularly the anabaptist movement. ... Mary Ellen Bamford is an American author from Healdsburg, California. ...

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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anabaptists (1356 words)
The name Anabaptists, etymologically applicable, and sometimes applied to Christian denominations that practise re-baptism is, in general historical usage, restricted to those who, denying the validity of infant baptism, became prominent during the great reform movement of the sixteenth century.
Anabaptists in lower Germany and the Netherlands must largely be ascribed to the activity of Melchior Hofmann, a widely travelled furrier.
Anabaptist movement, of which John Matthys or Matthiessen, a former baker, and John Bockelsohn or Bockold, a Dutch tailor (more generally known as John of Leyden), became two great local representatives.
Anabaptist Church, Pacifism and disciples of Jesus Christ (1558 words)
They initially called themselves Brothers in Christ but later came to also accept the common name of Anabaptists, a term used by their opponents that meant to be baptized again; however, since they came to realize that their infant baptism was of no value, they did not consider that they were baptized again.
The first Anabaptist congregation was organized by Conrad Grebel, George Blaurock and Felix Manz in Zollikon, Switzerland in 1525.
The term Anabaptist was used negatively by their opponents and later adopted for their own name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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