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Encyclopedia > Amylase
Human salivary amylase. Calcium ion visible in pale khaki; chloride ion in green. From PDB 1SMD.
amylase, alpha 1A; salivary
Identifiers
Symbol AMY1A AMY1
HUGO 474
Entrez 276
OMIM 104700
RefSeq NM_001008221
UniProt P04745
PDB 1SMD
Other data
EC number 3.2.1.1
Locus Chr. 1 p21
Human pancreatic amylase. Calcium ion visible in pale khaki; chloride ion in green. From PDB 1HNY.
amylase, alpha 2A; pancreatic
Identifiers
Symbol AMY2A AMY2
HUGO 477
Entrez 279
OMIM 104650
RefSeq NM_000699
UniProt P04746
PDB 1HNY
Other data
EC number 3.2.1.1
Locus Chr. 1 p21.1
Glucosidase, alpha, acid; lysosomal alpha-glucosidase
Identifiers
Symbol GAA LYAG, MGAM
HUGO [1]
Entrez 2548
OMIM 606800
RefSeq NM_000152
UniProt P10253
Other data
EC number 3.2.1.20
Locus Chr. 17 q25.2-q25.3

Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. Although the amylases are designated by different Greek letters, they all act on α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Under the original name of diastase, amylase was the first enzyme to be found and isolated (by Anselme Payen in 1833). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (738 × 1000 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amylase ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (738 × 1000 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amylase ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases) catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to generate two smaller sugars. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is soluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ... Diastase (from the Greek word for separate) is a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into glucose. ... Anselme Payen ([[January 6], 1795 - May 12, 1871) was a French chemist. ...

Contents

Classification

α-Amylase

(EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS# 9014-71-5) (alternate names: 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase; glycogenase) The α-amylases are calcium metalloenzymes, completely unable to function in the absence of calcium. By acting at random locations along the starch chain, α-amylase breaks down long-chain carbohydrates, ultimately yielding maltotriose and maltose from amylose, or maltose, glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin. Because it can act anywhere on the substrate, α-amylase tends to be faster acting than β-amylase. In animals, it is a major digestive enzyme. The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... In biochemistry, a metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that also contains a metal cofactor. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Maltotriose is a trisaccharide. ... α-Maltose Maltose (also: malt sugar, di-glucose) is a disaccharide with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. ... Animalia redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


β-Amylase

(EC 3.2.1.2 ) (alternate names: 1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase; glycogenase; saccharogen amylase) Another form of amylase, β-amylase is also synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants. Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into sugar, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. Both are present in seeds; β-amylase is present prior to germination whereas α-amylase and proteases appear once germination has begun. Cereal grain amylase is key to the production of malt. Many microbes also produce amylase to degrade extracellular starches. Animal tissues do not contain β-amylase, although it may be present in microrganisms contained within the digestive tract. The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... α-Maltose Maltose (also: malt sugar, di-glucose) is a disaccharide with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Germination rate be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Animalia redirects here. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, alimentary canal, or gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ...


γ-Amylase

(EC 3.2.1.3 ) (alternative names: Glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase; amyloglucosidase; Exo-1,4-α-glucosidase; glucoamylase; lysosomal α-glucosidase; 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase) In addition to cleaving the last α(1-4)glycosidic linkages at the nonreducing end of amylose and amylopectin, yielding glucose, γ-amylase will cleave α(1-6) glycosidic linkages. The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ...


Acid α-glucosidase

Acid α-glucosidase (GAA) (EC 3.2.1.20 ) (alternative names: maltase-glucoamylase, MGAM; acid maltase; glucoinvertase; glucosidosucrase; lysosomal α-glucosidase; maltase) is found in the mammalian intestine has similar enzymatic activity to γ-amylase. Deficiencies of this enzyme result in Pompe Disease. Maltase, drawn from PDB 1OBB. Maltase (EC 3. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Docodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from... In anatomy, the intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... Glycogen storage disease type II (also called Pompe disease or infantile acid maltase deficiency) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is needed to break down glycogen, a stored form of sugar used for energy. ...


Amylase in human physiology

Although found in many tissues, amylase is most prominent in pancreatic juice and urine which each have their own isoform of human α-amylase. They behave differently on isoelectric focusing, and can also be separated in testing by using specific monoclonal antibodies. In humans, all amylase isoforms link to chromosome 1p21. The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system (of vertebrates[2]). It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


Salivary amylase (ptyalin)

Amylase is found in saliva and breaks starch down into maltose and dextrin. This form is also called ptyalin. Ptyalin will break large, insoluble starch molecules into soluble starches(amylodextrin,erythrodextrin,achrodextrin) producing successively smaller starches and ultimately maltose. Ptyalin acts on linear α(1,4) glucosidic linkages, but compound hydrolysis requires an enzyme which acts on branched products. Salivary amylase is inactivated in the stomach by gastric acid.

α-Maltose Maltose (also: malt sugar, di-glucose) is a disaccharide with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ...

Optimum conditions for ptyalin

Optimum pH - 5.6–6.9
Human body temperature - 37 degrees Celsius
Presence of certain anions and activators:
Chlorine and bromine - most effective
Iodine - less effective
Sulfate and phosphate - least effective

The correct title of this article is . ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ...

Pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic α-amylase randomly cleaves the α(1-4)glycosidic linkages of amylose to yield dextrin, maltose or glucose molecules. It adopts a double displacement mechanism with retention of anomeric configuration.

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ...

Amylase in human pathology

Pompe disease

Deficiencies in γ-amylase function result in accumulation of intracellular material. The enzyme is also call acid lysosomal α-glucosidase or acid maltase to reflect the enzyme's intracellular function. The condition is known principally as glycogen storage disease, type II or Pompe Disease. In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... Organelles. ... Glycogen storage disease type II (also called Pompe disease or infantile acid maltase deficiency) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is needed to break down glycogen, a stored form of sugar used for energy. ...


Pancreatitis

Detection

The test for amylase is easier to perform than lipase, making it the primary test used to test for and monitor pancreatitis. Labs will usually measure either pancreatic amylase, or total amylase. If only pancreatic amylase is measured, an increase will not be noted with mumps or other salivary gland trauma. A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water–insoluble, lipid substrates. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ...


Unfortunately, because of the small amount present, timing is critical when sampling blood for this measurement. Blood should preferably be taken soon after a bout of pancreatitis pain, otherwise it is excreted rapidly by the kidneys. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ...


Interpretation

Increased plasma levels in humans are found in:

Total amylase readings of over 10X the upper limit of normal (ULN) are suggestive of pancreatitis. 5-10x times the ULN may indicate ileus or duodenal disease or renal failure, and lower elevations are commonly found in salivary gland disease. The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Ileus refers to limited or absent intestinal passage. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ...


References

Burtis, Carl A.; Ashwood, Edward R. (1999). Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 3rd ed.. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 689-698, 1318. ISBN 0-7216-5610-2. 


Uses

Amylase enzymes are used extensively in bread making to break down complex sugars such as starch (found in flour) into simple sugars. Yeast then feeds on these simple sugars and converts it into the waste products of alcohol and CO2. This imparts flavour and causes the bread to rise. While Amylase enzymes are found naturally in yeast cells, it takes time for the yeast to produce enough of these enzymes to break down significant quantities of starch in the bread. This is the reason for long fermented doughs such as sour dough. Modern bread making techniques have included amyalse enzymes into bread improver thereby making the bread making process faster and more practical for commercial use. Bread improver has been a common ingredient in bread since the early 1950s used to speed up bread production. ...


Bacilliary amylase is also used in detergents to dissolve starches from fabrics. Laundry detergents are just only one of many possibilities of use of the detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


Workers in factories that work with amylase for any of the above uses are at increased risk of asthma ("occupational asthma"). 5-9% of bakers have a positive skin test, and a fourth to a third of bakers with breathing problems are hypersensitive to amylase.[1]


References

  1. ^ Mapp CE. Agents, old and new, causing occupational asthma. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:354-60. PMID 11303086.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amylase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (442 words)
Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) (CAS# 9014-71-5) is a digestive enzyme classified as a saccharidase (an enzyme that cleaves polysaccharides).
Amylase is also synthesized by many plants during the ripening of fruit and during the germination of cereal grains.
Ptyalin is the name given to the amylase found in saliva that breaks starch down into maltose and dextrin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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