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Encyclopedia > Amygdala
Brain: Amygdala
Latin corpus amygdaloideum
NeuroNames hier-219
MeSH Amygdala
Dorlands/Elsevier c_56/12260351
Human brain viewed from the underside, with the front of the brain at the top. Amygdalae are shown in dark red.

The amygdalae (Latin, also corpus amygdaloideum, singular amygdala, from Greek αμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil')[1] are almond-shaped groups of neurons located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.[2] Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.[3] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Amygdala is the alias of DC Comics character Aaron Helzinger, who is a sometime opponent of Batman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (539 × 698 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/gif) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; margin:0. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (539 × 698 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/gif) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; margin:0. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Its over and done But the heartache lives on inside And who is the one your clinging to instead of me tonight And where are you now Now that I need you Tears on my pillow Wherever you go Cry me a river that leads to your oceans Youll never... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ...

Contents

Anatomical subdivisions

The regions described as amygdalae encompass several nuclei with distinct functional traits. Among these nuclei are the basolateral complex, the centromedial nucleus and the cortical nucleus. The basolateral complex can be further subdivided into the lateral, the basal and the accessory basal nuclei. [3][4] In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem. ...


Connections

The amygdalae send impulses to the hypothalamus for important activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to the reticular nucleus for increased reflexes, to the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and to the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.[4] The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The ventral tegmentum or the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is part of the midbrain, lying close to the substantia nigra and the red nucleus. ... The Locus ceruleus, also spelled locus coeruleus, (Latin for the blue bit) is a nucleus in the brain stem apparently responsible for the physiological reactions involved in stress and panic. ... The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus is a nucleus situated in the brainstem that sends cholinergic (acetylcholine) projections to many subcortical and cortical structures. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ...

Coronal section of brain through intermediate mass of third ventricle.
Coronal section of brain through intermediate mass of third ventricle.

The cortical nucleus is involved in the sense of smell and pheromone-processing. It receives input from the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex. The lateral amygdalae, which send impulses to the rest of the basolateral complexes and to the centromedial nuclei, receive input from the sensory systems. The centromedial nuclei are the main outputs for the basolateral complexes, and are involved in emotional arousal in rats and cats.[4][5] Image File history File links Gray718. ... Image File history File links Gray718. ... The anatomical planes The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. ... The third ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero to bear + ‘ορμόνη hormone) is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ...


Emotional learning

In complex vertebrates, including humans, the amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events. Research indicates that, during fear conditioning, sensory stimuli reach the basolateral complexes of the amygdalae, particularly the lateral nuclei, where they form associations with memories of the stimuli. The association between stimuli and the aversive events they predict may be mediated by long-term potentiation, a lingering potential for affected synapses to react more readily.[3] Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. ...


Memories of emotional experiences imprinted in reactions of synapses in the lateral nuclei elicit fear behavior through connections with the central nucleus of the amygdalae. The central nuclei are involved in the genesis of many fear responses, including freezing (immobility), tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), increased respiration, and stress-hormone release. Damage to the amygdalae impairs both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a form of classical conditioning of emotional responses.[3] Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... Fear conditioning is the method by which organisms learn to fear new stimuli. ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ...


The amygdalae are also involved in appetitive (positive) conditioning. It seems that distinct neurons respond to positive and negative stimuli, but there is no clustering of these distinct neurons into clear anatomical nuclei.[6]


Different nuclei within the amygdala have different functions in appetitive conditioning.[7]


Memory modulation

The amygdalae also are involved in the modulation of memory consolidation. Following any learning event, the long-term memory for the event is not instantaneously formed. Rather, information regarding the event is slowly assimilated into long-term storage over time (the duration of long-term memory storage can be life-long), a process referred to as memory consolidation, until it reaches a relatively permanent state. The broad definition of memory consolidation is the process by which recent memories are crystallised into long-term memory. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ...


During the consolidation period, the memory can be modulated. In particular, it appears that emotional arousal following the learning event influences the strength of the subsequent memory for that event. Greater emotional arousal following a learning event enhances a person's retention of that event. Experiments have shown [1] that administration of stress hormones to mice immediately after they learn something enhances their retention when they are tested two days later.


The amygdalae, especially the basolateral nuclei, are involved in mediating the effects of emotional arousal on the strength of the memory for the event, as shown by many laboratories including that of James McGaugh. These laboratories have trained animals on a variety of learning tasks and found that drugs injected into the amygdala after training affect the animals' subsequent retention of the task. These tasks include basic classical conditioning tasks such as inhibitory avoidance, where a rat learns to associate a mild footshock with a particular compartment of an apparatus, and more complex tasks such as spatial or cued water maze, where a rat learns to swim to a platform to escape the water. If a drug that activates the amygdalae is injected into the amygdalae, the animals had better memory for the training in the task.[8] If a drug that inactivates the amygdalae is injected, the animals had impaired memory for the task. James L. McGaugh, Ph. ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ...


Despite the importance of the amygdalae in modulating memory consolidation, however, learning can occur without it, though such learning appears to be impaired, as in fear conditioning impairments following amygdalar damage.[9]


Evidence from work with humans indicates that the amygdala plays a similar role. Amygdala activity at the time of encoding information correlates with retention for that information. However, this correlation depends on the relative "emotionalness" of the information. More emotionally-arousing information increases amygdalar activity, and that activity correlates with retention.[citation needed]


Neuropsychological correlates of amygdala activity

Early research on primates provided explanations as to the functions of the amygdala, as well as a basis for further research. As early as 1888, rhesus monkeys with a lesioned temporal cortex (including the amygdala) were observed to have significant social and emotional deficits.[10] Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy later expanded upon this same observation by showing that large lesions to the anterior temporal lobe produced noticeable changes, including overreaction to all objects, hypoemotionality, loss of fear, hypersexuality, and hyperorality, a condition in which inappropriate objects are placed in the mouth. Some monkeys also displayed an inability to recognize familiar objects and would approach animate and inanimate objects indiscriminately, exhibiting a loss of fear towards the experimenters. This behavioral disorder was later named Klüver-Bucy syndrome accordingly.[11] Later studies served to focus on the amygdala specifically, as the temporal cortex encompasses a broad set of brain structures, making it difficult to find which ones specifically may have correlated with certain symptoms. Monkey mothers who had amygdala damage showed a reduction in maternal behaviors towards their infants, often physically abusing or neglecting them.[12] In 1981, researchers found that selective radio frequency lesions of the whole amygdala caused Klüver-Bucy Syndrome.[13] Heinrich Kluver (May 25, 1897 - February 8, 1979) was a notable figure in the fields of animal behavior and Gestalt psychology, largely credited with introducing the latter to the United States in the early twentieth century. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Visual agnosia is the inability of the brain to make sense of or make use of some part of otherwise normal visual stimulus, and is typified by the inability to recognize familiar objects or faces. ... Klüver-Bucy syndrome is a behavioral disorder that occurs when both the right and left medial temporal lobes of the brain malfunction. ...


With advances in neuroimaging technology such as MRI, neuroscientists have made significant findings concerning the amygdala in the human brain. Consensus of data shows the amygdala has a substantial role in mental states, and is related to many psychological disorders. In a 2003 study, subjects with Borderline Personality Disorder showed significantly greater left amygdala activity than normal control subjects. Some borderline patients even had difficulties classifying neutral faces or saw them as threatening.[14] In 2006, researchers observed hyperactivity in the amygdala when patients were shown threatening faces or confronted with frightening situations. Patients with more severe social phobia showed a correlation with increased response in the amygdala.[15] Similarly, depressed patients showed exaggerated left amygdala activity when interpreting emotions for all faces, and especially for fearful faces. Interestingly, this hyperactivity was normalized when patients went on antidepressants.[16] By contrast, the amygdala has been observed to relate differently in people with Bipolar Disorder. A 2003 study found that adult and adolescent bipolar patients tended to have considerably smaller amygdala volumes and somewhat smaller hippocampal volumes.[17] Many studies have focused on the connections between the amygdala and autism.[18] The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... Hyperactivity can be described as a state in which a person is abnormally easily excitable and exuberant. ... Social phobia (DSM-IV 300. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that normal subjects exposed to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will show increased activity of the amygdala, even if that exposure is subliminal.[19][20] A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another object, designed to pass below the normal limits of perception. ...


Recent research suggests that parasites, in particular toxoplasma, form cysts in the brain, often taking up residence in the amygdala. This may provide clues as to how specific parasites manipulate behavior and may contribute to the development of disorders, including paranoia.[21] Binomial name Toxoplasma gondi (Nicolle & Manceaux), 1908 Toxoplasma gondii is a species of parasitic protozoa, belonging to the Apicomplexa, that can cause the disease toxoplasmosis in humans. ...


See also

// medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental...

References

  1. ^ amygdala - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  2. ^ University of Idaho College of Science (2004). amygdala. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  3. ^ a b c d Amunts K, Kedo O, Kindler M, Pieperhoff P, Mohlberg H, Shah N, Habel U, Schneider F, Zilles K (2005). "Cytoarchitectonic mapping of the human amygdala, hippocampal region and entorhinal cortex: intersubject variability and probability maps". Anat Embryol (Berl) 210 (5-6): 343-52. PMID 16208455. 
  4. ^ a b c Ben Best (2004). The Amygdala and the Emotions. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  5. ^ Michael McDannald, Erin Kerfoot, Michela Gallagher, and Peter C. Holland, John Hopkins University (2005). Amygdala central nucleus function is necessary for learning but not expression of conditioned visual orienting. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  6. ^ Paton, Joseph; et Al. (25 November 2005). "The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning". Nature 439: 865-870. doi:10.1038/nature04490. 
  7. ^ See recent TINS article by Balleine and Killcross (2006)
  8. ^ Ferry B, Roozendaal B, McGaugh J (1999). "Role of norepinephrine in mediating stress hormone regulation of long-term memory storage: a critical involvement of the amygdala". Biol Psychiatry 46 (9): 1140-52. PMID 10560021. 
  9. ^ Killcross S, Robbins T, Everitt B (1997). "Different types of fear-conditioned behaviour mediated by separate nuclei within amygdala". Nature 388 (6640): 377-80. PMID 9237754. 
  10. ^ Brown, S. & Shafer, E. (1888). "An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the monkey's brain.". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences 179: 303-327. 
  11. ^ Kluver, H. & Bucy, P. (1939). "Preliminary analysis of function of the temporal lobe in monkeys.". Archives of Neurology 42: 979-1000. 
  12. ^ Bucher, K., Myersn, R., Southwick, C. (1970). "Anterior temporal cortex and maternal behaviour in monkey.". Neurology 20: 415. 
  13. ^ Aggleton, JP. & Passingham, RE. (1981). "Syndrome produced by lesions of the amygdala in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 95: 961-977. 
  14. ^ Donegan et al. (2003). "Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional dysregulation.". Biological Psychiatry 54 (11): 1284-1293. 
  15. ^ Studying Brain Activity Could Aid Diagnosis Of Social Phobia. Monash University. January 19, 2006.
  16. ^ Sheline et al. (2001). "Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: an fMRI study.". Biological Psychiatry 50 (9): 651-658. 
  17. ^ Blumberg et al. (2003). "Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder". Arch Gen Psychiatry 60 (12): 1201-8. PMID 14662552. 
  18. ^ Schultz RT (2005). "Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area". Int J Dev Neurosci 23 (2–3): 125–41. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2004.12.012. PMID 15749240. 
  19. ^ Williams, Leanne M.; Belinda J. Liddell, Andrew H. Kemp, Richard A. Bryant, Russell A. Meares, Anthony S. Peduto, Evian Gordon (2006). "Amygdala-prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear". Human Brain Mapping 27 (8): 652-661. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. 
  20. ^ Brain Activity Reflects Complexity Of Responses To Other-race Faces, Science Daily, 14 December 2004
  21. ^ Vyas et al. (2007). "Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (15): 6442-7. PMID 17404235. 

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External links

Look up Amygdala in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... BrainMaps is an NIH-funded interactive zoomable high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on more than 10 million megapixels (30 terabytes) of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying... A human brain. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Archicortex is basically categorized under allocortex. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... The alveus of the hippocampus borders the wall of the lateral ventricle and is composed of white, myelinated fibers. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... A sulcus (pl. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ... The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... Only a small part of the Parietoöccipital Fissure (or parieto-occipital sulcus) is seen on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, its chief part being on the medial surface. ... The calcarine fissure (or calcarine sulcus) is an anatomical landmark located at the very caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The callosal sulcus is a sulcus between the cingulate gyrus and corpus callosum, below the longitudinal cerebral fissure. ... The collateral fissure (or sulcus) is on the tentorial surface of the hemisphere and extends from near the occipital pole to within a short distance of the temporal pole. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The term Brodmann area 12 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the posterior central gyrus above the end of the sulcus; behind it is the lateral part of the parietoöccipital fissure, around the end of which it is joined... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district or lobule) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is cleft by a well-marked furrow, the intraparietal sulcus of Turner, which consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion. ... The marginal sulcus is the portion of the cingulate sulcus adjacent to the paracentral lobule and the precuneus. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... The lingual gyrus of the occipital lobe lies between the calcarine fissure and the posterior part of the collateral fissure; behind, it reaches the occipital pole; in front, it is continued on to the tentorial surface of the temporal lobe, and joins the hippocampal gyrus. ... In the occipital lobe, the lateral occipital sulcus extends from behind forward, and divides the lateral surface of the occipital lobe into a superior and an inferior gyrus, which are continuous in front with the parietal and temporal lobes. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... // Guenon The term Brodmann area 28 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The retrosplenial region is a brain area part of the cingular cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... The supracallosal gyrus (indusium griseum; gyrus epicallosus) consists of a thin layer of gray substance in contact with the upper surface of the corpus callosum and continuous laterally with the gray substance of the cingulate gyrus. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... The posterior end of the corpus callosum is the thickest part, and is termed the splenium. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... On either side of the corpus collosum, the fibers radiate in the white substance and pass to the various parts of the cerebral cortex; those curving forward from the genu into the frontal lobe constitute the forceps anterior, and those curving backward into the occipital lobe, the forceps posterior. ... The septum pellucidum, also called the septum lucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane that separates the lateral ventricles of the brain. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The olfactory tract is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward. ... The fornix is also the name of part of the cervix (fornix vaginae). ... The Anterior Commissure (precommissure) is a bundle of white fibers, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the middle line, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix. ... The posterior commissure is a rounded band of white fibers crossing the middle line on the dorsal aspect of the upper end of the cerebral aqueduct. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The superior longitudinal fasciculus (also called the superior longitudinal fascicle or SLF) is a pair of long bi-directional bundles of neurons connecting the front and the back of the cerebrum. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects the temporal lobe and occipital lobe, running along the lateral walls of the inferior and posterior cornua of the lateral ventricle. ... The uncinate fasciculus passes across the bottom of the lateral fissure, and unites the gyri of the frontal lobe with the anterior end of the temporal lobe. ... The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ... The occipitofrontal fasciculus passes backward from the frontal lobe, along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus, and on the mesial aspect of the corona radiata; its fibers radiate in a fan-like manner and pass into the occipital and temporal lobes lateral to the posterior and inferior cornua. ... Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The anterior olfactory nucleus is a cranial nucleus for the olfactory nerve. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... In the lateral part of the tuber cinereum is a nucleus of nerve cells, the basal optic nucleus of Meynert. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ...

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THE AMYGDALA AND THE EMOTIONS (2579 words)
The centromedial amygdala projects through the stria terminalis primarily to the hypothalamus and through the ventral amygdalofugal tract to the brain stem, where it can influence hormonal and somatomotor aspects of behavior and emotional states (eg, eating, drinking and sex).
In general, the lateral portion of the amygdala is regarded as inhibitory and reflective of the external environment, whereas the medial amygdala is regarded as facilitatory and reflective of the internal environment.
Amygdala outputs tend to originate in the central nucleus, the most peptide-rich region of the brain, and are carried by peptide-containing fibers in the stria terminalis and ventral amygdalofugal pathway.
Amygdala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1361 words)
The amygdalae send impulses to the hypothalamus for activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to the reticular nucleus for increased reflexes, to the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and to the ventral tegmental area, locus ceruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
The cortical nucleus is involved in the sense of smell and pheromone-processing.
Removal of the amygdala results in Kluver-Bucy syndrome, a condition consisting of a blunting or elimination of annxiety and anger, as the amygdala triggers the fight or flight response.
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