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Encyclopedia > Amun

Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu[citation needed]) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. Amun may refer to: Amun, an Egyptian god. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ...

Amun
in hieroglyphs

Contents

It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ...

Origin of name

Amun's name is first recorded in Egyptian records as ỉmn, meaning "The hidden (one)". Since vowels were not written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptologists have reconstructed the name to have been pronounced *Yamānu (/jamaːnu/) originally. The name survived in Coptic as Ⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ, Amoun. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Creator

Amun and Mut
Amun and Mut

Gradually, as god of air, he came to be associated with the breath of life, which created the ba, particularly in Thebes. By the First Intermediate Period this had led to him being thought of, in these areas, as the creator god, titled father of the gods, preceding the Ogdoad, although also part of it. As he became more significant, he was assigned a wife (Amunet being his own female aspect, more than a distinct wife), and since he was the creator, his wife was considered the divine mother from which the cosmos emerged, who in the areas where Amun was worshipped was, by this time, Mut. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x1336, 79 KB) Description Source http://runeberg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x1336, 79 KB) Description Source http://runeberg. ... Akh redirects here. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ...


Amun became depicted in human form, seated on a throne, wearing on his head a plain deep circlet from which rise two straight parallel plumes, possibly symbolic of the tail feathers of a bird, a reference to his earlier status as a wind god. This article is about modern humans. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


Having become more important than Menthu, the local war god of Thebes, Menthu's authority became said to exist because he was the son of Amun. However, as Mut was infertile, it was believed that she, and thus Amun, had adopted Menthu instead. In later years, due to the shape of a pool outside the sacred temple of Mut at Thebes, Menthu was replaced, as their adopted son, by Chons, the moon god. In Egyptian mythology, Menthu was a hawk-god, of war. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Chons In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is an ancient lunar deity, from before formal structure was given to a pantheon. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon: see moon (mythology). ...


King

Bas-relief depicting Amun as king.
Amun-Min
Amun-Min

When the armies of the Eighteenth dynasty evicted the Hyksos rulers from Egypt, the victors' city of origin, Thebes, now held the mantle of the most important city in Egypt. Therefore, Amun became nationally important. The Pharaohs attributed all their successful enterprises to Amun, and they lavished much of their wealth and captured spoil on the construction of his temples. Image File history File links Amun5. ... Image File history File links Amun5. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Because of the adoration now given to Amun, visiting Greek travelers to Egypt would report back that Amun, king of the Egyptian gods, was one and the same (and therefore became identified) with the Greek king of the gods, Zeus. Likewise, Amun's consort Mut become associated with Zeus's consort Hera. Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ...


As the Egyptians considered themselves oppressed during the period of Hyksos' rule, the victory under the supreme god Amun was seen as his championing of the less fortunate. Consequently, Amun was viewed as upholding the rights of justice to th]] of the poor. By aiding those who traveled in his name, he became the Protector of the road. Since he upheld Ma'at, those who prayed to Amun were required first to demonstrate that they were worthy by confessing their sins. Underdog Underdog was an American animated television series that debuted on October 3, 1964, on the NBC network and continued in sydnication until 1973 for a run of approximately 120 episodes over NBC, and occasionally, CBS. // In 1960, handling the General Mills account as an account executive with the Dancer... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ...


Fertility God

When, subsequently, Egypt conquered Kush, they identified the chief deity of the Kushites as Amun. This deity was depicted as Ram headed, more specifically a woolly Ram with curved horns, and so Amun started becoming associated with the Ram. Indeed, due to the aged appearance of it, they came to believe that this had been the original form of Amun, and that Kush was where he had been born. This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the most common species of the sheep genus (Ovis), is a woolly ruminant quadruped which probably descends from the wild mouflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...


However, since rams, due to their rutting, were considered a symbol of virility, Amun also became thought of as a fertility deity, and so started to absorb the identity of Min, becoming Amun-Min. This association with virility led to Amun-Min gaining the epithet Kamutef, meaning Bull of his mother, in which form he was often found depicted on the walls of Karnak, ithyphallic, and with a scourge. Rut is a period of time, occurring once each year, during which mammals are sexually excited and mate. ... Virility is part of the traditional idealized male gender role. ... The Egyptian God Min This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Comparison between flaccid and erect states of an uncircumcised penis. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ...


Sun God

Amun-Ra
in hieroglyphs


Amun-Ra
Amun-Ra

As Amun's cult grew bigger, Amun rapidly became identified with the chief God that was worshipped in other areas, Ra-Herakhty, the merged identities of Ra, and Horus. This identification led to a merger of identities, with Amun becoming Amun-Ra. As Ra had been the father of Shu, and Tefnut, and the remainder of the Ennead, so Amun-Ra was likewise identified as their father. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 314 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (679 × 1297 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 314 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (679 × 1297 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Shu (meaning dryness and he who rises up) is one of the primordial gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut is a goddess of water and fertility, indeed her name means moist waters (i. ... The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ...


Ra-Herakhty had been a sun god, and so this became true of Amun-Ra as well, Amun becoming considered the hidden aspect of the sun (e.g. during the night), in contrast to Ra-Herakhty as the visible aspect, since Amun clearly meant the one who is hidden. This complexity over the sun led to a gradual movement towards the support of a more pure form of deity. The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ...


During the eighteenth dynasty, the pharaoh Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) introduced the worship of the Aten, a god whose power was manifested both literally and symbolically in the sun's disc. He defaced the symbols of the old gods and based his new religion upon one new god: the Aten. However, this abrupt change was very unpopular, particularly with the previous temple priests, who now found themselves without any of their former power. Consequently, when Akhenaten died, his name was striken from the Egyptian records, and all of his changes were swiftly undone. It was almost as if this monotheistic sect had never occurred. Worship of the Aten was replaced and worship of Amun-Ra was restored. The priests persuaded the new underage pharaoh Tutankhaten, whose name meant "the living image of Aten", to change his name to Tutankhamun, "the living image of Amun". The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... A portrait of the young Tutankhamun by Winifred Brunton. ... King Tut redirects here. ...


Decline

After the Twentieth dynasty moved the center of power back to Thebes, the powerbase of Amun's cult had been revivified, and the authority of Aten began to weaken. Under the Twenty-first dynasty the secondary line of priest kings of Thebes upheld his dignity to the best of their power, and the Twenty-second favoured Thebes. The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ...

The sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra cerca 1000 B.C.E at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.
The sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra cerca 1000 B.C.E at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.

As the sovereignty weakened, the division between Upper and Lower Egypt asserted itself; thereafter, Thebes would have rapidly decayed had it not been for the piety of the kings of Nubia towards Amun, whose worship had long prevailed in their country. Thebes was at first their Egyptian capital, and they honoured Amun greatly, although neither their wealth nor culture were sufficient to affect much change. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture of the sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra, cerca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture of the sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra, cerca. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ...


However, in the rest of Egypt, the popularity of his cult was rapidly overtaken by the less divisive cult of the Legend of Osiris and Isis, which had not been associated with the heretical Akhenaten. And so there, his identity became first subsumed into Ra (Ra-Herakhty), who still remained an identifiable figure in the Osiris cult, but ultimately, became merely an aspect of Horus. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ...


In areas outside of Egypt where the Egyptians had previously brought the worship of Amun, his fate was not as dreadful. In Nubia, where his name was pronounced Amane, he remained the national god, with his priests at Meroe and Nobatia, via an oracle, regulating the whole government of the country, choosing the king, and directing his military expeditions. According to Diodorus Siculus, they were even able to compel kings to commit suicide, although this behaviour stopped when Arkamane, in the 3rd century BC, slew them. Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ... Nobatia was a kingdom in Christian Lower Nubia. ... This article is about prophetic oracles in various cultures. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Likewise, in Libya there remained a solitary oracle of Amun in the Libyan Desert at the oasis of Siwa. Such was its reputation among the Greeks that Alexander the Great journeyed there after the battle of Issus and during his occupation of Egypt in order to be acknowledged the son of Amun. Even during this occupation, Amun, identified as a form of Zeus, continued to be the great god of Thebes throughout its decay. Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Derived terms

Several words derive from Amun via the Greek form Ammon: ammonia and ammonite. The Romans called the ammonium chloride deposits they collected from near the Temple of Jupiter Amun in ancient Libya 'sal ammoniacus' (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple[1]. Ammonia, as well as being the chemical, is a genus name in the foraminifera. Both these foraminiferans (shelled Protozoa) and ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopods) have/had spiral shells resembling a ram's, and Ammon's, horns. The regions of the hippocampus in the brain are called the cornu ammonis – literally "Amun's Horns", due to the horned appearance of the dark and light bands of cellular layers. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Ancient Map from Herodotus Ancient Libya was the region in the west of the Nile valley and ancient Egypt. ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Daigram of hippocampal regions. ...


References

  1. ^ Ammonia. h2g2 Eponyms. BBB.CO.UK (January 11, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Adolf Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Religion (London, 1907)
  • David Klotz, Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (New Haven, 2006)
  • Ed. Meyer, article "Ammon" in W. H. Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie
  • Pietschmann, articles "Ammon" and "Ammoneion" in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie.

Johann Peter Adolf Erman (October 31, 1854 – June 26, 1937) was a renowned Egyptologist and lexicographer; born in Berlin, the son of Georg Adolf Erman and grandson of Paul Erman. ... Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (12 February 1845, Göttingen-9 March 1923, Dresden) was a German classical scholar. ... Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amun - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1594 words)
Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity.
Amun became depicted in human form, seated on a throne, wearing on his head a plain deep circlet from which rise two straight parallel plumes, possibly symbolic of the tail feathers of a bird, a reference to his earlier status as a wind god.
Consequently, Amun was viewed as upholding the rights to justice of the poor, being titled Vizier of the poor, and aiding those who travelled in his name,as the Protector of the road.
Amun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1570 words)
As the Egyptians considered themselves oppressed during the period of Hyksos rule, the victory under the supreme god Amun, was seen as his championing of the underdog.
Consequently, Amun was viewed as upholding the rights to justice of the poor, being titled Vizier of the poor, and aiding those who travelled in his name, as the Protector of the road.
Amun-Ra As Amun's cult grew bigger, Amun rapidly became identified with the chief God that was worshipped in other areas, Ra-Herakhty, the merged identities of Ra, and Horus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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