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Encyclopedia > Amu Darya
Amu Darya
Amu Darya Delta from space, November 1994
Origin Pamir Mountains
Mouth Aral Sea
Basin countries Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Length 2,400 km (1,500 mi)
Source elevation ~6,000 m (15,000 ft)
Avg. discharge 1,400 m³/s (4,500 ft³/s)
Basin area 534,739 km² (206,500 mi²)
Map of area around the Aral Sea. Aral Sea boundaries are circa 1960. Countries at least partially in the Aral Sea watershed are in yellow.
Map of area around the Aral Sea. Aral Sea boundaries are circa 1960. Countries at least partially in the Aral Sea watershed are in yellow.

The Amu Darya - Amudarya (Tajik: Омударё or дарёи Ому - Omudaryo or daryoi Omu; Persian: آمودریا - Âmudaryâ; Uzbek: Amudaryo, with darya (Pahlavi) meaning sea or a very large river), is the longest river in Central Asia. Image File history File links Amu Darya Delta, Uzbekistan - November 1994 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... [[ == Headline text == This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі (Aral Tengizi), Uzbek: , Russian Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... [[ == Headline text == This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... Image File history File links Aral_map. ... Image File history File links Aral_map. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Sea as seen from jetty in Frankston, Australia Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Amu is said to have come from the city of Āmul, now known as Türkmenabat. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers. Many local people refer to the river as Jayhoun (جيحون) which was thought to be a derivative of Gihon, the biblical name for one of the four rivers of the Garden of Eden or paradise. [1] The river is also known by this name to most of the medieval Islamic writers. Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Turkmen: Түркменабат; formerly Chardzhou, also spelled as Chardjui, Charjou, Chardzhev, Chärjew or Charjew; Cyrillic Turkmen: Чәрҗев; Russian: Чарджоу) is a town in Turkmenistan, capital of the Lebap Province. ... The Vakhsh River, also known as the Surkhob (in north-central Tajikistan) and the Kyzyl-Suu (in Kyrgyzstan) is a Central Asian river, and one of the main rivers of the nation of Tajikistan. ... The Panj River also called the Pyandzh River is a tributary of the Amu Darya, in Afghanistan. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן ) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived after they were created by God. ... Paradise, by Jan Bruegel The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. ...


The river is navigable for over 1450 km (800 miles). Its total length is 2400 km (1500 miles) and its drainage basin totals 534.739 km² in area, providing a mean discharge of around 55 cubic kilometres of water per year, all of which comes from the high mountains in the south where annual precipitation can be over 1000 mm. Even before large-scale irrigation began, high summer evaporation meant that not all of this discharge reached the Aral Sea - though there is some evidence the large Pamir glaciers provided enough meltwater for the Aral to overflow during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries A.D. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі (Aral Tengizi), Uzbek: , Russian Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ...


In classical antiquity, the river was known as the Oxus in Greek--a clear derivative of Vakhsh—the name of the largest tributary of the Amu. It was known as Jayhun or Gihun in ancient Arabic sources. Jayhun was likely influenced by Dgihun, the traditional name given to it by the people who inhabited its surrounding region.[2] Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ...


In Vayu Purana and Matsya Purana, the Oxus is mentioned as the river Chakshu, flowing through the countries of Tusharas (Rishikas?), Lampakas, Pahlavas, Paradas and Shakas etc. The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... ... There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... The Paradas are a people mentionned in ancient Indian writings from the beginning of our era, such as the Manu Smriti. ... A cataphract-style parade armour from gold scales of Sakas King found in Issyk in Kazakhstan in 1970[1] The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the...


One source of the Amu Darya is the Pamir River, which emerges from Lake Zorkul/Victoria, flowing east until Ishtragh, where it turns north and then east north-west through the Hindu Kush as the Panj, forming the border of Afghanistan and Tajikistan where it passes the Tajik-Afghan Friendship Bridge, and subsequently the border of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan for about 200 km, passing Termez and the Afghanistan-Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge. It follows the border of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan for another 100 km before it flows into Turkmenistan at Kerki. As Amudarya, it flows across Turkmenistan south to north, passing Turkmenabat, and forms the border of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan from Khalkabad. It is then split into many waterways that used to form the river delta joining the Aral Sea, passing Urgench, Dashoguz and other cities, but it does not reach what is left of the sea anymore and is lost in the desert. Zorkul (37°27′ N 73°42′ E) is a lake in the Pamir Mountains, Hindu Kush. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Panj River also called the Pyandzh River is a tributary of the Amu Darya, in Afghanistan. ... The Tajik-Afghan Friendship Bridge connects the two banks of Darvaz across the Amu Darya river separating Tajikistan and Afghanistan. ... Termez (Termiz in Uzbek; Termes in German) is a city in southern Uzbekistan near the border with Afghanistan. ... The Afghanistan-Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge is a bridge built over the river Amu Darya connecting the Uzbek city of Termez with the city of Jeyretan in the province of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. ... Türkmenabat (formerly Chardjui, Чарджоу, Чәрҗев, Charjou, Chardzhou, Chardzhev, Chärjew or Charjew, 39°5′N 63°34′E) is a town in Turkmenistan, capital of the Lebap Province. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ... DaÅŸoguz (also Dashkhovuz, Dashhowuz, Dashoguz, Dasoguz, Дашогуз) is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of DaÅŸoguz Province. ...


Another claimed source of the Amu Darya is an ice cave at the end of the Waghjir Valley, located in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, on the border with Pakistan. A glacier turns into the Wakhan river and joins the Pamir River about 50 km downstream. A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ...


Use of water from the Amu Darya for irrigation has been a major contributing factor in the shrinking of the Aral Sea since the late 1950s. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historical records state that in different periods the river flowed into the Aral Sea (from the south), the Caspian Sea (from the east) or both, similar to the Syr Darya (Jaxartes, in Ancient Greek). The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Amu Darya

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...

References

  • Curzon, George Nathaniel. 1896. The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. Royal Geographical Society, London. Reprint: Elibron Classics Series, Adamant Media Corporation. 2005. ISBN 1-4021-5983-8 (pbk; ISBN 1-4021-3090-2 (hbk).
  • Gordon, T. E. 1876. The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint by Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company. Taipei. 1971.
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. 1961. Between Oxus and Jumna. London. Oxford University Press.
  • Wood, John, 1872. A Journey to the Source of the River Oxus. With an essay on the Geography of the Valley of the Oxus by Colonel Henry Yule. London: John Murray.

The Royal Geographical Society is a learned society, founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Joseph Banks in... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Notes

  1. ^ William C. Brice. 1981. Historical Atlas of Islam (Hardcover). Leiden with support and patronage from Encyclopaedia of Islam. ISBN 90-04-06116-9.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Amu Darya

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amu Darya - MSN Encarta (456 words)
The Amu Darya is formed by the junction of the Pandj and Vakhsh rivers in the Pamirs mountain region, on Tajikistan's southwestern border.
The Amu Darya’s main tributaries are the Panj and Vakhsh rivers, which both rise in the Pamirs.
The largest single cause of the decline in the Amu Darya’s water level is the Garagum Canal, the longest canal in the former Soviet Union and one of the longest in the world.
Amu Darya — FactMonster.com (285 words)
The Kara Kum Canal (c.500 mi/800 km long) carries water from the Amu Darya near Kelif across S Turkmenistan to Ashgabat and supplements the flow of the Tejen and Murgab rivers.
The Amu Darya is paralleled by the Trans-Caspian RR, which has lessened the river's importance as a transport route.
In ancient times the Amu Darya was called the Oxus and figured importantly in the history of Persia and in the campaigns of Alexander the Great.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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