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Encyclopedia > Amtrak
Amtrak
Logo
Reporting marks AMTK, AMTZ
Locale Continental United States, as well as Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal
Dates of operation 1971–present
Track gauge ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Train at Rensselaer, New York station, August 2007.
Train at Rensselaer, New York station, August 2007.
An electric Amtrak train with two AEM-7 locomotives running through New Jersey on the Northeast Corridor.

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak (AAR reporting marks AMTK and AMTZ), is a quasi-governmental corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "American" and "track".[1] Image File history File links Amtrak_Logo. ... Reporting marks on two CP Rail covered hoppers passing Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, June 20, 2004. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Description: Photograph of an Amtrak train. ... Description: Photograph of an Amtrak train. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ... Downtown Brattleboro, as seen looking across the Connecticut River from New Hampshire Brattleboro is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rensselaer is a city in Rensselaer County, New York, located on the Hudson River, directly opposite Albany. ... Image File history File links An Amtrak train on the NEC in NJ, as seen from an NJ transit train. ... Image File history File links An Amtrak train on the NEC in NJ, as seen from an NJ transit train. ... The AEM-7 is a B-B electric locomotive running on the Northeast Corridor of the United States between Washington DC and Boston. ... Amtrak can refer to: Amtrak, an American passenger train system Amtrak, a parcel delivery company in the United Kingdom The Amtrak Wars, a series of novels written by science fiction author Patrick Tilley. ... The phrase doing business as (abbreviated DBA or d/b/a) is a legal term, meaning that the name of the business or operation does not include the legal name of its proprietor, the names of all partners, or the official registered name of the limited partnership or corporation that... Reporting marks on two CP Rail covered hoppers passing Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, June 20, 2004. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Inter-city rail services are express train passenger services which cover longer distances than commuter trains. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...


All of Amtrak's preferred stock is owned by the U.S. federal government. The members of its board of directors are appointed by the President of the United States and are subject to confirmation by the United States Senate. Common stock was issued in 1971 to railroads that contributed capital and equipment; its current holders[2] consider the stock to be worthless but declined a 2002 buy-out offer by Amtrak.[3] Preferred stock, also called preferred shares or preference shares, is typically a higher ranking stock than voting shares, and its terms are negotiated between the corporation and the investor. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


Amtrak employs nearly 19,000 people. It operates passenger service on 21,000 miles (33,800 km) of track primarily owned by other railroads connecting 500 destinations in 46 states.[4] Some routes serve Canada. In fiscal year 2006, Amtrak served 24.3 million passengers, a company record. According to estimates for fiscal year 2007, Amtrak has served over the 25 million passenger mark, a 6% increase from the previous year.[5]

Contents

History

Amtrak's origins are traceable to the sustained decline of private passenger rail services in the United States from about 1920 to 1970. In 1971, in response to the decline, Congress and the President created Amtrak. For its entire existence, the company has been subjected to political cross-winds and insufficiencies of capital resources and owned railway. Recent years have been among Amtrak's brightest; the corporation completed a significant rail project in the northeast in the early 2000s while its major competitors — particularly airlines — were affected by bankruptcies and rising fuel costs. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


Passenger rail service before Amtrak

Amtrak's old logo from 1971 to 2000, the "inverted arrow." On July 6, 2000 Amtrak unveiled "...a new logo whose shape and suggestion of movement convey the comfort and uniqueness of the rail experience."[6]

From the middle 19th century until approximately 1920, travel from one city to another in the United States was almost certainly by rail. By 1910, close to 100 per cent of intercity passenger trips were by railroad.[7] The rails and the trains were owned and operated by private, for-profit organizations. Approximately 65,000 railroad passenger cars operated in 1929.[8] Image File history File links Old original Amtrak Logo pointless arrow used from 1971 - about 2000. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


For a long time after 1920, passenger rail's popularity diminished and there were a series of pullbacks and tentative recoveries. Rail passenger revenues declined dramatically between 1920 and 1934,[7] but in the mid-1930s, railroads reignited popular imagination with service improvements and new, diesel-powered streamliners, such as the gleaming silver Pioneer Zephyr and Flying Yankee.[7] Even with the improvements, on a relative basis, traffic continued to erode and by 1940 railroads held 67 per cent of passenger-miles in the United States.[7] World War II broke the malaise. During the war, troop movements and restrictions on automobile fuel generated a sixfold increase in passenger traffic from the low point of the Depression.[7] After the war, railroads rejuvenated overworked and neglected fleets with fast and often luxurious streamliners — epitomized by the Super Chief and California Zephyr — which inspired the last major resurgence in passenger rail travel. In 1948, Santa Fe CEO Fred Gurley reported a "complete reversal of our passenger traffic picture", with 1947 revenues exceeding those of 1936 by 220%.[citation needed] A streamliner is any vehicle that incorporates streamlining to produce a shape that provides less resistance to air, and is more pleasing to the eye. ... The Pioneer Zephyr as it appeared in 1934. ... The Flying Yankee at Portland, Maine in 1937. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the DC Comics character, for the Major League Baseball pitcher nicknamed Superchief see Allie Reynolds Super-Chief is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics universe. ... Two California Zephyr express trains meet at a railroad siding (Grizzly) in Garfield County, Colorado beside the Colorado River on March 21, 1949. ... Fred G. Gurley (1889 – July 4, 1976) was president and executive committee chairman of Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. ...


The postwar resurgence was short-lived. In 1946, there remained 45 per cent fewer passenger trains than in 1929,[7] and the decline quickened despite railroad optimism. Passengers disappeared and so did trains. Between 1946 and 1964, the annual number of passengers declined from 770 to 298 million.[citation needed] The number of U.S. commuter trains declined by more than 80 per cent, from more than 2,500 in 1954 to fewer than 500 in 1969.[citation needed] Few trains generated profits; most produced losses. Broad-based passenger rail deficits appeared as early as 1948[7] and by the mid-1950s railroads claimed aggregate annual losses on passenger services of more than $700 million (almost $5 billion in 2005 dollars using CPI).[8][9] By 1965, only 10,000 rail passenger cars were in operation, 85% fewer than in 1929.[8] Passenger service was provided on only 75,000 miles of track, a stark decline.[8] Passenger rail service in the United States showed the signs of underinvestment. Rail facilities suffered from decrepit equipment, cavernous and nearly empty stations in dangerous urban centers, and management that seemed intent on driving away the few remaining customers. The 1960s also saw the end of railway post office revenues, which had helped some of the remaining trains break even. CBQ 1926, an RPO preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum. ...


Causes of decline of passenger rail

Snack car in an Amtrak train
Snack car in an Amtrak train

Literature suggests that the causes of the decline of passenger rail were complex. The industry was hobbled by government regulation and labor inflexibility, which undermined passenger rail just as the industry faced an explosion of competition from flexible and subsidized automobile and airplane transportation.[10][11] These for-profit railroads were structured to sell access to elaborate, efficient roads at a profit; they lost in the competition for passengers to parallel, publicly-funded, non-profit turnpikes, air strips, and highways in the sky. This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ...


Government regulation and labor issues

The first interruption in passenger rail's vibrancy coincided with government intervention. From approximately 1910 to 1921, the Federal government introduced a populist rate-setting scheme, followed by nationalization of the rail industry for World War I. Ample railroad profits were erased, growth of the rail system was reversed, and railroads massively underinvested in passenger rail facilities during this time.[11] Meanwhile, labor costs advanced, and with them passenger fares, which discouraged passenger traffic just as automobiles gained a foothold.[11]


The primary regulatory authority affecting rail interest from early twentieth century was the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The ICC played a leading role in rate-setting and intervened in other ways detrimental to passenger rail. In 1947, the ICC ruled that passenger trains could not exceed 79 mph (127 km/h) without in-cab signaling systems; the systems were criticized as being unnecessary and prohibitively expensive; after the regulation, plans to develop intercity high-speed rail services were shelved.[citation needed] In 1958, the ICC was granted authority to allow or reject modifications and eliminations of passenger routes (train-offs).[12] Many routes required beneficial pruning, but the ICC delayed action by an average of eight months and when it did authorize modifications, the ICC insisted that unsuccessful routes be merged with profitable ones. Thus, fast, popular rail service was transformed into slow, unpopular service.[10] The ICC was even more critical of corporate mergers. Many combinations, which railroads sought to compete, were delayed for years and even decades, such as the merger of the New York Central Railroad and Pennsylvania Railroad, into what eventually became Penn Central, and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and Erie Railroad into the Erie Lackawanna Railway. By the time the ICC approved the mergers in the 1960s, disinvestments by the federal government, years of deteriorating equipment and station facilities and the flight of passengers to the air and car had taken their toll and the mergers were unsuccessful. The cab signals in a Chicago L train. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... For the current company, see New York Central Lines LLC. The New York Central Railroad (AAR reporting marks NYC), known simply as the New York Central in its publicity, was a railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American railroad company that operated from 1968 until 1976. ... The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company (DL&W or Lackawanna) (AAR reporting marks DLW) was a railroad connecting Pennsylvanias Lackawanna Valley, rich in anthracite coal, to New York City, Buffalo and Oswego, New York. ... The Erie Railroad (AAR reporting mark ERIE) was a railroad that operated in New York State, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, connecting New York City with Lake Erie, and extending west to Cleveland, Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio and Chicago, Illinois. ... The Erie Lackawanna Railroad (AAR reporting mark EL) was formed from the 1960 merger of the Erie Railroad and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. ...


At the same time, railroads carried a substantial tax burden. A World War II-era excise tax of 15% on passenger rail travel survived until 1962.[13] Local governments, far from providing needed support to passenger rail, viewed rail infrastructure as a ready source for property tax revenues. In one extreme example, in 1959 the Great Northern Railroad, which owned about a third of one percent (.34%) of the land in Lincoln County, Montana, was assessed more than 91% of all school taxes in the county.[10] A Great Northern train pauses for the photographer four miles west of Minot, North Dakota in 1914. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Montana. ...


Railroads also were saddled with antiquated work rules and an inflexible relationship with trade unions. Work policies did not adapt to technological change.[10] Average train speeds doubled from 1919 to 1959, but unions resisted efforts to modify their existing 100 to 150 mile work days. As a result, railroaders' work days were roughly cut in half, from 5 to 7½ hours in 1919, down to 2½ to 3¾ hours in 1959. Labor rules also perpetuated positions that had been obviated by technology. Between 1947 and 1957, passenger railroad financial efficiency dropped by 42% per mile. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A technological change is a term that is used in economics to describe a change in the set of feasible production possibilities. ...


Subsidized competition

While passenger rail faced internal and governmental pressures, new challenges appeared that undermined the dominance of passenger rail: highways and commercial aviation. The passenger rail industry wilted as government backed these potent upstarts with billions of dollars in construction.


Beginning roughly in the WWI era, cars became more attainable to most Americans. This newfound freedom and individualization of transit became the norm for most Americans because of the increased convenience. Government actively began to respond with funds from its treasury and later with fuel tax funds to build a non-profit network of roads not subject to property taxation[14] that rivaled and then surpassed the for-profit network that the railroads had built in previous generations with corporate capital and government land grants. All told between 1921 and 1955 governmental entities, using taxpayer money and in response to taxpayer demand, financed more than $93 billion worth of pavement, construction, and maintenance.[10]


In the 1950s, a second and more formidable threat appeared: affordable commercial aviation. Government at many levels supported aviation. Governmental entities built sprawling urban and suburban airports, and funded construction of highways to provide access to the airports.

Pennsylvania Railroad Metroliner car, built by Budd, circa 1968
Pennsylvania Railroad Metroliner car, built by Budd, circa 1968

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1079x731, 122 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1079x731, 122 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... Budd Pennsylvania Railroad Metroliner multiple-unit car circa 1968. ...

Rail Passenger Service Act

In the late 1960s, the end of passenger rail in the United States seemed near. First had come the requests for termination of services; now came the bankruptcy filings. The legendary Pullman Company became insolvent 1969, followed by the dominant railroad in the Northeastern United States, the Penn Central, in 1970. It now seemed that passenger rail's financial problems might bring down the railroad industry as a whole. Few in government wanted to be held responsible for the extinction of the passenger train, but another solution was necessary. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... The streamlined Pullman observation-lounge car Coconino, coupled to a heavyweight sleeper painted in two-tone Pullman grey, brings up the rear of the Santa Fe Railways Chief at La Junta, Colorado on February 27, 1938. ... Map of the US northeast. ...


In 1970, Congress passed and, in a surprise, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers (NARP), sought government funding to assure the continuation of passenger trains. They conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (NRPC), a hybrid public-private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Nixon redirects here. ... The US Rail Passenger Service Act (PL 91-518) of 1970 created Amtrak, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation of the United States. ... The National Association of Railroad Passengers (NARP) was founded on May 18, 1967 to lobby for the continuation of passenger trains in the United States. ...

  • Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system.
  • Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses. The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock; in exchange, the railroads received NRPC common stock.
  • Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of service and paid for by NRPC using its federal funds.
  • Railroads that chose not to join the NRPC system were required to continue operating their existing passenger service until 1975 and thenceforth had to pursue the customary Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) approval process for any discontinuance or alteration to the service.

Nearly everyone involved expected the experiment to be short-lived. The Nixon administration and many Washington insiders viewed the NRPC as a politically expedient way for the President and Congress to give passenger trains the one "last hurrah" demanded by the public. They expected Amtrak to quietly disappear as public interest waned.[15] Proponents also hoped that government intervention would be brief, but their view was that Amtrak would soon support itself. Neither view has yet proved correct. Popular support has allowed Amtrak to continue in operation longer than critics imagined while financial results have made infeasible a return to private operation. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...


Early days

Main article: List of railroads eligible to participate in formation of Amtrak

Amtrak began operations May 1, 1971. The corporation was molded from the passenger rail operations of 20 out of 26 major railroads in operation at the time. The railroads contributed rolling stock, equipment, and capital. In return, they received approval to discontinue their passenger services, and at least some acquired common stock in Amtrak. Amtrak received no rail tracks or right-of-way at its inception. Railroads that shed passenger operations were expected to host Amtrak trains on their tracks, for a fee. On May 1, 1971 there were 26 railroads in the United States that were eligible to participate in the formation of Amtrak. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Rolling Stock banner Rolling Stock was a newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado by Ed Dorn and Jennifer Dunbar Dorn. ... Rail tracks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Amtrak #928, a former PRR GG1, speeds through North Elizabeth, New Jersey in December 1975.
Amtrak #928, a former PRR GG1, speeds through North Elizabeth, New Jersey in December 1975.

There was a period of adjustment. All Amtrak's routes were continuations of prior service, although Amtrak pruned about half the passenger rail network. Of the 364 trains operated previously, Amtrak only continued 182. On trains that continued, to the extent possible, schedules were retained with only minor changes from the Official Guide of the Railways. Former names largely were continued. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x598, 332 KB) Summary Amtrak 928 hauling passengers - North Elizabeth NJ - 12-13-75. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x598, 332 KB) Summary Amtrak 928 hauling passengers - North Elizabeth NJ - 12-13-75. ... The Pennsylvania Railroads GG1 class of electric locomotives were built between 1934 to 1943 at the PRR shops in Altoona, Pennsylvania, with a total of 139 units constructed. ... Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... The Official Guide of the Railways, also known as the Official Railway Guide was a monthly listing showing all of the passenger train schedules of railroads in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Central America. ...


Several major corridors became freight-only, including New York Central Railroad's Water Level Route across New York and Ohio and Grand Trunk Western Railroad's Chicago to Detroit service, although service soon returned to the Water Level Route with introduction of the Lake Shore Limited. Reduced passenger train schedules created headaches. A 19-hour layover became necessary for eastbound travel on the James Whitcomb Riley between Chicago and Newport News. For the current company, see New York Central Lines LLC. The New York Central Railroad (AAR reporting marks NYC), known simply as the New York Central in its publicity, was a railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... 1887 map of GTW predecessor railroads Grand Trunk Western Railroad Incorporated (AAR reporting mark GTW) is the American arm of Canadian National (CN; AAR reporting mark CNA) operating in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Detroit redirects here. ... The Lake Shore Limited is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States on routes formally traveled by the famed 20th Century Limited. ... The Cardinal is a 1,147-mile (1,844 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station with Chicago Union Station three days a week via Washington, D.C., Charlottesville, Virginia, Cincinnati, Ohio and Indianapolis, Indiana. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Incorporated 1896 Government  - Mayor Joe Frank Area  - City  119. ...


Amtrak inherited problems with stations, most notably deferred maintenance, and redundant facilities resulting from competing companies that served the same areas. On the day it started, Amtrak was given the responsibility of rerouting passenger trains from the seven train terminals in Chicago (LaSalle, Dearborn, Grand Central, Randolph, Chicago Northwestern Terminal, Central, and Union) into just one, Union Station. In New York Amtrak had to pay to maintain Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal because of the lack of track connections to bring trains from upstate New York into Penn Station, a problem not rectified until the building of the Empire Connection in 1991. In many cases Amtrak had to abandon service into the huge old Union Stations such as Cincinnati, Saint Paul, Buffalo, Detroit, Kansas City, and Saint Louis and route trains into smaller Amtrak-built facilities down the line (although Amtrak has pushed to start reusing some of the old stations, most recently Cincinnati Union Terminal, and Kansas City Union Station). Deferred maintenance is a practice of allowing machinery or infrastructure to deteriorate by postponing prudent but non-essential repairs to save cost, labor and/or material. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as Penn Station) is the major intercity rail station and a major commuter rail hub in New York City. ... The main concourse Grand Central Terminal (GCT, often unofficially called Grand Central Station) is a terminal rail station at 15 Vanderbilt Avenue (42nd Street and Park Avenue) in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. ... The West Side Line, also called the West Side Freight Line, is a railroad line on the west side of Manhattan, New York, USA. North of Penn Station, at 34th Street, the line is used by Amtrak passenger service heading north via Albany. ... // Union station (or terminal) are train stations used by more than one railroad company or line. ... The Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, originally Cincinnati Union Terminal, is a passenger railroad station in the Queensgate neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. ... Kansas City Union Station in Kansas City, Missouri is one of many union stations in the United States. ...


On the other hand, merged operations presented efficiencies such as the combination of three West Coast trains into the Coast Starlight, running from San Diego to Seattle. The Northeast Corridor received an Inland Route via Springfield, Massachusetts, thanks to support from New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The North Coast Hiawatha was implemented as a second Pacific Northwest route. The Milwaukee to St. Louis Abraham Lincoln and Prairie State routes also commenced. The first all-new Amtrak route, not counting the Coast Starlight, was the Vermonter/Washingtonian. That route was inaugurated September 29, 1972, along Boston and Maine Railroad and Canadian National Railway track that had last seen passenger service in 1966. The Coast Starlight at San Luis Obispo, California. ... San Diego redirects here. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... The New Haven-Springfield Line is a railroad line owned by Amtrak from New Haven, Connecticut north to Springfield, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1898 map The Boston and Maine Railroad (AAR reporting marks BM), also known by the abbreviation B&M, was the dominant railroad of the northern New England region of the United States for a century. ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ...


Amtrak soon had the opportunity to acquire railway. Following the bankruptcy of several northeastern railroads in the early 1970s, including Penn Central which owned and operated the Northeast Corridor, Congress passed the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976. A large part was directed to the creation of a Conrail, but in addition the law enabled transfer to Amtrak of the Northeast Corridor railway from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. That track became Amtrak's jewel. In subsequent years, short route segments not needed for freight operations were transferred to Amtrak. Nevertheless, in general, Amtrak remained dependant on freight railroads for access to most of its routes. Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... The United States Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Act of 1976, funded the reorganized bankrupt Northeast and Midwest railroads that formed Conrail in 1975. ... Conrail 6114, a GE Dash 8-40CW, leads a train westbound out of Altoona, Pennsylvania. ... Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Amtrak fell far short of financial independence in its first decade, but it did find modest success rebuilding trade. Outside factors discouraged competing transport, such as fuel shortages which increased costs of automobile and airline travel, and strikes which disrupted airline operations. Investments in Amtrak's track, equipment and information also made Amtrak more relevant to America's transportation needs.[16] Amtrak's ridership increased from 16.6 million in 1972 to 21 million in 1981.[17]


Leaders and political influences

Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington.
Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington.
Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida.
Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida.

Unlike many large businesses, subsequent to its formation Amtrak has had only one active investor: the U.S. government. Like most investors, the Federal government has demanded a degree of accountability. Determination of congressional funding and selection of Amtrak's leadership have been infused with political considerations. As discussed below, funding levels and capital support have varied over time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB) Summary Mike Chapman Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB) Summary Mike Chapman Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon. ... Tilting Amtrak Cascades passenger cars use the Talgo design. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1214, 469 KB) This is Amtrak train 91, the southbound Silver Star. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1214, 469 KB) This is Amtrak train 91, the southbound Silver Star. ... Orlando redirects here. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ...


Some members of Amtrak's board and executive leadership have had little or no experience with railroads. Conversely, Amtrak also has benefited from the interest of highly motivated and politically-oriented public servants. For example, in 1982, former Secretary of the Navy and retired Southern Railway head W. Graham Claytor Jr., brought his naval and railroad experience to the job. Claytor had served briefly as an acting Secretary of Transportation in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter in 1979, and came out of retirement to lead Amtrak after the disastrous financial results during the Carter administration (1977-1981). He was recruited and strongly supported by John H. Riley, an attorney who was the highly skilled head of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) under the Reagan Administration from 1983-1989. Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole also tacitly supported Amtrak. Claytor seemed to enjoy a good relationship with the Congress and was perceived to have done a good job, albeit through extensive use of short-term debt.[18] Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... The Southern Railway (AAR reporting marks SOU) is a former United States railroad. ... Lieutenant Commander Claytor (center) and some crew members in Japan, 1945 William Graham Claytor, Jr. ... Seal of the United States Department of Transportation The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... John H. Riley (January 19, 1947-March 6, 1994) was an American attorney and railroad transportation administrator. ... The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) was created in 1966 as a division of the U.S. Department of Transportation to promote rail transportation and safety. ... Elizabeth Hanford Liddy Dole (born July 29, 1936) is an American politician who served in both the Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush presidential administrations, and currently serves as a United States senator from North Carolina. ...


In the 1990s, Claytor was succeeded at Amtrak's helm by a succession of career public servants. First, Thomas Downs, who had overseen the Union Station project in Washington, DC, which experienced substantial delays and cost overruns, assumed the leadership. In January, 1998, after Amtrak weathered a serious cash shortfall, George Warrington succeeded Downs. Warrington previously led Amtrak's Northeast Corridor Business Unit. Union Station is the grand ceremonial train station designed to be the entrance to Washington, D.C., when it opened in 1907. ... George Warrington is a U.S. transportation official, Since 2002, he was served as Executive Director of NJTransit. ...


Then in April, 2002, David L. Gunn was selected as president. Gunn had a strong reputation as a straightforward and experienced manager. He was not one to shy away from conflict with others. Years earlier (between 1991 and 1994), Gunn's refusal to "do politics" put him at odds with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority board of directors, which included representatives from the District of Columbia and suburban jurisdictions in Maryland and Virginia. Gunn was an accomplished public servant and railroad person and his successes before Amtrak earned him a great deal of credibility, despite a sometimes-rough relationship with politicians and labor unions. ː:For other persons also named David Gunn, see article David Gunn. ... The Jackson Graham Building, where Metro headquarters is located. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Gunn was polite but direct in response to congressional criticism of Amtrak, and his tenure was punctuated by successes in reducing layers of management overhead in Amtrak and streamlining operations. Amtrak's Board of Directors removed Gunn on November 9, 2005; he was succeeded by David Hughes, Amtrak's Chief Engineer.[19] Given Gunn's solid performance, many Amtrak supporters feared that Gunn's departure was Amtrak's death knell, although those fears have not been realized. On August 29, 2006, Alexander Kummant was named as Gunn's permanent replacement effective September 12, 2006. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Kummant was named by Amtrak on August 29, 2006, as the railroad companys new president and CEO effective September 12. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The list of Presidents of Amtrak includes:

Alan Stephenson Boyd (born July 20, 1922) was the first United States Secretary of Transportation, appointed by Lyndon Johnson. ... Lieutenant Commander Claytor (center) and some crew members in Japan, 1945 William Graham Claytor, Jr. ... George Warrington is a U.S. transportation official, Since 2002, he was served as Executive Director of NJTransit. ... ː:For other persons also named David Gunn, see article David Gunn. ... Alexander Kummant was named by Amtrak on August 29, 2006, as the railroad companys new president and CEO effective September 12. ...

Modern history (1980s to present)

A Michigan-bound Amtrak train passes through Porter, Indiana, after departing from Chicago in 1993.
A Michigan-bound Amtrak train passes through Porter, Indiana, after departing from Chicago in 1993.
Acela 2038 tailing Acela 2030 en route to Washington, D.C., at Providence, RI, in 2005
Acela 2038 tailing Acela 2030 en route to Washington, D.C., at Providence, RI, in 2005

Ridership stagnated at roughly 20 million passengers per year amid uncertain government aid from 1981 to about 2000.[17][27] Ridership increased in the 2000s after implementation of capital improvements in the Northeast Corridor and rises in automobile fuel costs. Since 2002, Amtrak has had four consecutive years of record ridership. During fiscal year 2006, Amtrak reported more than 24.3 million passengers, its highest total to date.[28] According to Amtrak, an average of more than 67,000 passengers ride on up to 300 Amtrak trains per day. Download high resolution version (1058x584, 96 KB)Amtrak 345, an EMD F40PH pulls a passenger train through Porter, Indiana. ... Download high resolution version (1058x584, 96 KB)Amtrak 345, an EMD F40PH pulls a passenger train through Porter, Indiana. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Porter is a town in Porter County, Indiana, United States. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (850x638, 68 KB) Summary Acela 2038 tailing Acela 2030 en route to Washington DC from Providence RI. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (850x638, 68 KB) Summary Acela 2038 tailing Acela 2030 en route to Washington DC from Providence RI. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Providence redirects here. ... Northbound Acela Express headed by power unit 2007. ... Northbound Acela Express headed by power unit 2007. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... West Windsor Township highlighted in Mercer County. ...


In the 1990s, Amtrak's stated goal remained operational self-sufficiency. By this time, however, Amtrak had a large overhang of debt from years of underfunding, and in the mid-1990s, Amtrak suffered through a serious cash crunch. To resolve the crisis, Congress issued funding but instituted a glide-path to financial self-sufficiency, excluding railroad retirement tax act payments.[29] Passengers became "guests" and there were expansions into express freight work, but the financial plans failed. Amtrak's inroads in express freight delivery created additional friction with competing freight operators, including the trucking industry. Delivery was delayed of much anticipated high-speed trainsets for the improved Acela Express service, which promised to be a strong source of income and favorable publicity along the Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington DC. Through the late 1990s and early 2000s, Amtrak could not add sufficient express revenue or cut sufficient other services to break even. By 2002 it was clear that Amtrak could not achieve self-sufficiency, but Congress continued to authorize funding and released Amtrak from the requirement.[30] For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ...


Amtrak's leader at the time, David L. Gunn, was polite but direct in response to congressional criticism. In a departure from his predecessors' promises to make Amtrak self-sufficient in the short term, Gunn argued that no form of passenger transportation in the United States is self-sufficient as the economy is currently structured. Highways, airports, and air traffic control all require large government expenditures to build and operate, coming from the Highway Trust Fund and Aviation Trust Fund paid for by user fees, highway fuel and road taxes, and, in the case of the General Fund, by people who own cars and do not.[citation needed] ː:For other persons also named David Gunn, see article David Gunn. ... The United States Highway Trust Fund is a pool of money, established by law in 1956, that is used to finance maintenance of the United States Interstate Highway System and certain other roads. ...


Before a congressional hearing, Gunn answered a demand by leading Amtrak critic Arizona Senator John McCain to eliminate all operating subsidies by asking the Senator if he would also demand the same of the commuter airlines, upon whom the citizens of Arizona are dependent. McCain, usually not at a loss for words when debating Amtrak funding, did not reply.[citation needed] Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... McCain redirects here. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ...


Under Gunn, almost all the controversial express business was eliminated. The practice of tolerating deferred maintenance was reversed to eliminate a safety issue. The policies improved labor relations to some extent, even as Amtrak's ranks of unionized and salaried workers thinned.[citation needed] Deferred maintenance is a practice of allowing machinery or infrastructure to deteriorate by postponing prudent but non-essential repairs to save cost, labor and/or material. ...


Amtrak's current chief, Alexander Kummant, is committed to operating a national rail network, and he does not envision separating the Northeast corridor (the segment from Boston to Richmond) under separate ownership. He has said that shedding the system's long distance routes would amount to selling national assets that are on par with national parks, and that Amtrak's abandonment of these routes would be irreversible. Amtrak is seeking annual congressional funding of $1 billion for ten years. Kummant has stated that the investment is moderate in light of Federal investment in other modes of transportation.[31]


Public funding

Northbound Silver Star heading to New York in Winter Park, Florida.

Amtrak commenced operations in 1971 with $40 million in direct Federal aid, $100 million in Federally insured loans, and a somewhat larger private contribution.[32] Officials expected that Amtrak would break even by 1974, but those expectations proved unrealistic and annual direct Federal aid reached a 17-year high in 1981 of $1.25 billion.[33] During the Reagan administration, appropriations were halved. By 1986, Federal support fell to a decade low of $601 million, almost none of which were capital appropriations.[34] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Congress continued the reductionist trend even while Amtrak expenses held steady or rose. Amtrak was forced to borrow to meet short-term operating needs, and by 1995 Amtrak was on the brink of a cash crisis and was unable to continue to service its debts.[35] In response, in 1997 Congress authorized $5.2 billion for Amtrak over the next five years — largely to complete the Acela capital project — on the condition that Amtrak submit to the ultimatum of self-sufficiency by 2003 or liquidation.[36] Amtrak made financial improvements during the period, but ultimately did not achieve self sufficiency. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1728 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1728 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Silver Service and Palmetto are a group of passenger railway lines operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station to Tampa, Florida and Miami, Florida. ... Winter Park is a city in Orange County, Florida, United States. ... The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, lasted from 1981 until 1989 and was conservative, steadfastly anti-communist, employed a foreign policy of “peace through strength,” and favored tax cuts and smaller government. ...


In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, during which Amtrak kept running while airlines were grounded, the value of a national passenger rail service was briefly acknowledged in Washington. But when Congress returned to work following the attacks, the airlines received a $15 billion bailout package, and inattention toward Amtrak resumed.[citation needed] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In 2004, a stalemate in Federal support of Amtrak forced cutbacks in services and routes as well as resumption of deferred maintenance. In fiscal 2004 and 2005, Congress appropriated about $1.2 billion for Amtrak, $300 million more than President George W. Bush had requested. However, the company's board requested $1.8 billion through fiscal 2006, the majority of which (about $1.3 billion) would be used to bring infrastructure, rolling stock, and motive power back to a state of good repair. In Congressional testimony, the Department of Transportation's inspector-general confirmed that Amtrak would need at least $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion in fiscal 2006 and $2 billion in fiscal 2007 just to maintain the status quo. In 2006, Amtrak received just under $1.4 billion, with the condition that Amtrak would reduce (but not eliminate) food and sleeper service losses. Thus, dining service were simplified and now require two fewer on-board service workers. Only Auto Train and Empire Builder services continue regular made onboard meal service. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Auto Train is a scheduled public rail transportation service for both passengers and their personal transportation vehicles operated by Amtrak between Lorton, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.) and Sanford, Florida, near Orlando. ... Empire Builder is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. ...


State governments have partially filled the breach left by reductions in Federal aid. Several states have entered into operating partnerships with Amtrak, notably California, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Michigan, Oregon, Missouri, Washington, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Vermont and New York, as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia, which provides some of the resources for the operation of the Cascades route. This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon. ...


Controversy

Aid to Amtrak by government was controversial from the beginning. Formation of Amtrak in 1971 was criticized as a bailout serving corporate rail interests and union railroaders, not the traveling public. Critics assert that Amtrak has proven incapable of operating as a business and does not provide valuable transportation services meriting public support,[37] a "mobile money-burning machine."[38] They argue that subsidies should be ended, national rail service terminated, and the Northeast Corridor turned over to private interests. "To fund a Nostalgia Limited is not in the public interest."[39] Critics also question Amtrak's energy efficiency.[40] The U.S. Department of Energy considers Amtrak among the most energy-efficient forms of transportation.[41] A Wall Street Journal article made the oft-repeated myth that it would be cheaper if Congress funded free discount airline tickets for each passenger.[42]


Proponents point out that the government heavily subsidizes the Interstate Highway System and many aspects of passenger aviation. Massive government aid of those forms of travel was a primary factor in the decline of passenger service on privately owned railroads in the 1950s and 60s. Meanwhile, Amtrak, through fees to host railroads, pays property taxes that highway users do not pay. Advocates therefore assert that Amtrak should only be expected to be as self-sufficient as those competing modes. Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ...


Critics claim that gasoline taxes amount to use fees that entirely pay for the government subsidies to the highway system and aviation. In fact this is not true: gas taxes cover little if any of the costs for "local" highways and in many states little of the cost for state highways.[43][44] They don't cover the property taxes foregone by building tax-exempt roads. They also don't cover policing costs: Amtrak, like all U.S. railroads, pays for its own security, the Amtrak Police; road policing and the Transportation Security Administration are paid for out of general taxation. The Amtrak Police is a railroad police agency that acts as the security and law enforcement agency of Amtrak, a passenger train system in the United States. ... TSA emblem The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is a U.S. government agency that was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2001. ...


Labor issues

Intractable positions staked out by labor leaders were blamed for part of the decline of passenger rail service in the early to middle 20th century, and labor union clout was widely credited with facilitating the creation of Amtrak in 1971.[citation needed] Many trade union jobs were saved by the bailout. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


In recent times, efforts at reforming passenger rail have addressed labor issues. In 1997 Congress released Amtrak from a prohibition on contracting for labor outside of the corporation (and outside its unions), opening the door to privatization.[45] Since that time, many of Amtrak's employees have been working without a contract. The most recent contract, signed in 1999, was mainly retroactive.


Still, though, the influence of unions is a strong force against change. Amtrak has 14 separate unions to negotiate with, because of the fragmentation of railroad unions by job. And it has 24 separate contracts with those unions.[46] This makes it difficult to make substantial changes, in contrast to a situation where one union negotiates with one employer.


New Amtrak president Kummant seems poised to follow a cooperative posture with Amtrak's trade unions. He has ruled out plans to privatize large parts of Amtrak's unionized workforce.[47]


In late 2007 and early 2008, however, major labor issues came up, a result of a dispute between Amtrak and 16 unions over healthcare, specifically to which employees healthcare should be available to. The dispute was not resolved quickly, and the situation escalated, to the point of President Bush declaring a Presidential Emergency Board to resolve the issues. It was not immediately successful, and a strike was threatened, to begin on January 30th, 2008. In the middle of that month, however, it was announced that Amtrak and the unions had come to terms and January 30th passed without a strike. In late February it was announced that three more unions had worked out their differences, and as of that time it seems unlikely that any more issues will arise in the near future.


Amtrak operations and services

Map of Acela Express service on the Northeast Corridor.
Map of Acela Express service on the Northeast Corridor.
Main articles: List of Amtrak routes and List of busiest Amtrak stations

Amtrak is no longer required by law to operate a national route system, although it nonetheless is encouraged to strive to do so.[48] At the present time, Amtrak has some presence in all but two of the 48 contiguous states (Wyoming and South Dakota).[49] Service on the Northeast Corridor between Boston, Massachusetts and Washington, D.C., as well as between Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania is powered by overhead wires. Across the rest of the system, diesel locomotion is utilized. Frequency of service on routes varies widely, from three trips weekly on the Sunset Limited from Los Angeles, California to New Orleans, Louisiana, to service several times per hour weekdays on the Northeast Corridor from New York City to Washington, D.C.[50] Amtrak also operates a captive bus service, Thruway Motorcoach, that provides connections to train routes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3041x2365, 1754 KB) Summary Amtrak - Acela Express route map Created by Kmf164 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Amtrak Acela Express User:Kmf164 User:Kmf164/Maps ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3041x2365, 1754 KB) Summary Amtrak - Acela Express route map Created by Kmf164 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Amtrak Acela Express User:Kmf164 User:Kmf164/Maps ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... A schematic of the Amtrak routes. ... ^ Amtrak National Facts, Amtrak. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... NOLA redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Categories: Stub ...


The most popular and heavily-used routes are those on the Northeast Corridor, which include the Acela Express, and Regional. Those routes serve Boston, Massachusetts, New York City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Washington, D.C., and many communities in between. Four of the six busiest stations by boardings are located on the corridor: (1) New York (Penn Station); (2) Washington (Union Station); (3) Philadelphia (30th Street Station), and (6) Boston (South Station). The remaining members of the top six are, (4) Chicago (Union Station) and (5) Los Angeles (Union Station). Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... Regional is Amtraks service between Newport News, Virginia and Boston, Massachusetts. ... Boston redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as Penn Station) is the major intercity rail station and a major commuter rail hub in New York City. ... Union Station is the grand ceremonial train station designed to be the entrance to Washington, D.C., when it opened in 1907. ... 30th Street Station is the main railroad station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... South Station front entrance. ... Union Station is a Chicago train station that opened in 1925, replacing an earlier 1881 station, and is now the only intercity rail terminal in Chicago. ... A view of Union Station familiar to many of downtown Los Angeles visitors. ...


Amtrak trains have both names and numbers. Train routes are named to reflect the rich and complex history of the route itself, or of the area traversed by the route. Each individual scheduled run of the route is assigned a number. As a general rule, even-numbered routes run north and east while odd-numbered routes run south and west. Some routes, such as the Pacific Surfliners, use the opposite numbering system, inherited from the previous operators of similar routes, such as the Santa Fe Railroad. // Northbound Pacific Surfliner Cab Car crosses Carlsbad Village Dr. in Carlsbad, Ca. ... The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (AAR reporting marks ATSF), often abbreviated as Santa Fe, was one of the largest railroads in the United States. ...


Some of the more frequently used trains are:

Northeast

Midwest Amtraks Empire Service trains provide frequent daily service between New York City and Niagara Falls in New York, United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Amtraks 195-mile (314 km) Keystone Service provides frequent passenger train service along the Amtrak-owned Keystone Corridor and Northeast Corridor between Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and New York City via Philadelphia. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Downeaster is a 116-mile (187 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting North Station in Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine. ... Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ...

West Coast Hiawatha logo from the Milwaukee Road days Hiawatha (or the Hiawatha Service) is the name of a train route operated by Amtrak on the western shore Lake Michigan, though the name was historically applied to several different routes that extended across the Midwest and out to the Pacific Ocean. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... The Lincoln Service is a 284-mile (457 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that runs between Chicago, Illinois and Saint Louis in Missouri. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Wolverine is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Pontiac is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan named after the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. ...

// Northbound Pacific Surfliner Cab Car crosses Carlsbad Village Dr. in Carlsbad, Ca. ... San Luis Obispo, San Luis, or SLO (Spanish for ) is a city in California. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Barbara Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - Total 41. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... San Diego redirects here. ... Amtrak California system map, with Capitol Corridor in Red The Capitol Corridor is a 172-mile (275 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in California. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... Oakland redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... The San Joaquins refers to a train route operated by Amtrak California in Californias Central Valley. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... Bakersfield redirects here. ... Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Seattle redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Nickname: Motto: The Worlds Greatest City of the Arts & Outdoors Coordinates: , Country State County Lane Founded 1846 Incorporated 1862 Government  - Mayor Kitty Piercy Area  - City 40. ...

Rail passenger efficiency versus other modes

Bi-level Superliner cars, used on long-distance routes.
Bi-level Superliner cars, used on long-distance routes.
Standard locomotive used for Capitol Corridor and San Joaquins service
Standard locomotive used for Capitol Corridor and San Joaquins service
Standard Pacific Surfliner trainset
Standard Pacific Surfliner trainset

"[B]ased on data from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Amtrak is 18 percent more energy efficient than either commercial airlines or automobiles on a per-passenger-mile basis."[51] Advanced technology can provide even greater efficiencies; regenerative braking on the Acela Express reduces electric energy consumption by 8 percent. Passenger rail is also competitive with other modes in terms of safety per mile. Nevertheless, in the current economic environment challenges remain with respect to cost per mile. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This converted Auto Train lounge shows the typical exterior of Superliner cars. ... Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 449 KB) Amtrak CA bus File links The following pages link to this file: Amtrak California Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 449 KB) Amtrak CA bus File links The following pages link to this file: Amtrak California Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1413x723, 225 KB)Southbound Surfliner crosses Agua Hedionda Lagoon in Carlsbad, Ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1413x723, 225 KB)Southbound Surfliner crosses Agua Hedionda Lagoon in Carlsbad, Ca. ... A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...

Mode Revenue - per passenger mile[52] Energy consumption - per passenger mile[53] Safety - Deaths per 100 million passenger miles[54] Reliability[55]
Domestic airlines 12.0¢ 3,297 BTUs 0.02 deaths 82%
Intercity buses 12.9¢[56] 3,496 BTUs 0.05 deaths N
Amtrak 26.0¢ 2,100 BTUs[57] 0.03 deaths 74%
Autos N/A 3,527 BTUs 0.80 deaths N/A

The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the Power, Steam Generation and Heating and Air Conditioning industry globally. ...

Intermodal connections

Intermodal connections between Amtrak trains and other transportation are available at many stations. With few exceptions, Amtrak rail stations that are located in downtown areas have connections to local public transport. Amtrak also code shares with Continental Airlines, providing service between Newark Liberty International Airport (via its Amtrak station and AirTrain Newark) and Philadelphia 30th St, Wilmington, Stamford, and New Haven. In addition, Amtrak serves airport stations at Milwaukee, Oakland, Burbank and Baltimore. One of the challenges of intermodal transport is changing between modes. ... The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a U.S. certificated air carrier. ... For the massive interchange outside of Newark Liberty International Airport, see Newark Airport Interchange. ... One of the stations Northeast Corridor platforms with a departing NJ Transit train. ... AirTrain tracks AirTrain Monorail entering Newark Airport Rail Station, August 2004. ... 30th Street Station is the main railroad station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ... Union Station is the main railroad passenger station in New Haven, Connecticut. ... “Mitchell Field” redirects here. ... Amtrak Connections AirBART shuttle to Oakland International Airport AC Transit routes 45, 46, 50, 56, 98, 805 (All Nighter) pedestrian walkway to Amtrak Station and McAfee Coliseum Platforms Island (BART); Side (Amtrak) Parking Monthly Reserved, Daily (free), Extended Weekend and Long Term (BART) 35 Spaces (Amtrak) Bicycle facilities Two Lockers... Connections Metrolink Other information Code BUR Bob Hope Airport Train Station is an Amtrak and Metrolink rail station south of Bob Hope Airport in the city of Burbank, California. ... The BWI Airport Rail Station is a train station in Linthicum, Maryland adjacent to Baltimore-Washington International Airport (BWI). ...


Amtrak coordinates Thruway Motorcoach service to extend many of its routes, particularly in California. Categories: Stub ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Gaps in service

Main article: List of major cities in U.S. lacking Amtrak service

Outside the Northeast Corridor, Amtrak is a niche player in passenger transportation. In 2003, Amtrak accounted for just 0.1% of US intercity passenger miles (5,680 million out of 5,280,860 million total, of which private automobile travel makes up the vast majority).[58] In fiscal year 2004, Amtrak routes served over 25 million passengers, while in calendar year 2004 commercial airlines served over 712 million passengers.[59] Several major cities and regional business centers in the United States lack Amtrak service. ...


Amtrak provides some rail service in 46 states. The only states that are not served by Amtrak are Hawaii (which is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean), Alaska (which is served by the Alaska Railroad), and South Dakota (although in years past there was service by the Milwaukee Road to South Dakota, Amtrak has never instituted any service to that state), and Wyoming, which lost rail service in the 1997 cuts, and in early 2008 lost the Denver-Casper motorcoach service. Amtrak serves many states only nominally through stations along borders and/or away from major population areas. Many major cities in the Midwest, West, and South have two or fewer trains per day, such as Atlanta, Denver, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Minneapolis/Saint Paul. This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Alaska Railroad (AAR reporting marks ARR) is a Class II railroad that extends from Seward, in the south of the state of Alaska, in the United States, to Fairbanks, in the interior of that state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Milwaukee Road, officially the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... Minneapolis-Saint Paul is the most populous urban area in the state of Minnesota, United States, and is composed of 188 cities and townships. ...


Amtrak's reliance on freight railroads has also been a cause for its elimination of service. Passenger rail service was entirely discontinued to Phoenix, Arizona in 1997, after the Union Pacific Railroad, which owns the tracks that served Phoenix, announced it was abandoning the right of way. Amtrak did not have the funds to maintain the trackage. Thus, today, the city is only served by Thruway Motorcoach. In 1983, the Palmetto was truncated from St. Petersburg to Tampa because Amtrak was unable to take on the costs of maintaining the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad drawbridge that took the train over Tampa Bay. Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Union Pacific redirects here. ... Palmetto may refer to the following: Two closely related genera of palms: the genus Sabal, containing species such the Dwarf Palmetto and the Sabal palmetto the Saw Palmetto Amtraks Palmetto passenger train. ... For other uses, see St. ... Tampa redirects here. ... Categories: Stub | Defunct companies | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | District of Columbia railroads | Florida railroads | Georgia railroads | North Carolina railroads | South Carolina railroads | Virginia railroads ...


Damage to railroad track caused by Hurricane Katrina interrupted service on the Sunset Limited. Originally the train departed from Orlando, Florida, but the track damage along the Gulf coast caused the train to originate at New Orleans, Louisiana. The track's owner, CSX, completed repairs by early 2006 but Amtrak service has not resumed over one year later, leaving the intermediate stations between Orlando and New Orleans without any Amtrak service. This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... Orlando redirects here. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Railway companies of the United States | Alabama railroads | Connecticut railroads | Delaware railroads | Florida current railroads | Georgia railroads | Illinois railroads | Indiana railroads | Kentucky railroads | Louisiana railroads | Maryland railroads | Massachusetts railroads | Michigan railroads | Mississippi railroads | New Jersey railroads | New York railroads | North Carolina railroads | Ohio railroads | Pennsylvania...


Several significant Amtrak routes have been eliminated because of lack of funding since 1971, creating other gaps. The east-west train feeding Kansas City with New York and Washington D.C. known as the National Limited was cut, leaving the only direct links between the Midwest and East through Chicago. The North Coast Hiawatha between Chicago and Seattle provided only reduced service between Chicago and the Pacific Northwest. The last link with the vaunted Chicago-Florida services of such trains as the City of Miami, the Dixie Flagler, and the South Wind, was broken when the Floridian was discontinued in October 1979. In 1997, the Desert Wind and Pioneer were discontinued, along with service to Las Vegas, Boise, and all of Wyoming. In 2003, Amtrak discontinued the Kentucky Cardinal ending all service to Louisville. In 2005, Three Rivers (a reborn Broadway Limited) was nixed, removing the only direct New York-to-Chicago service through central Pennsylvania. Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... The National Limited was the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads premier train on its route between New York City and St. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Seattle redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... A south wind is a wind that originates in the south and blows north. ... The Floridian is a former Amtrak route running from Chicago directly to Miami. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Desert Wind was a passenger train route operated by Amtrak from 1979 to May 10, 1997. ... Look up Pioneer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Boise redirects here. ... This train operated as a spur line from Indianapolis south to Louisville, KY on the three days that the Cardinal operated. ... Louisville redirects here. ... The Three Rivers is a daily Amtrak train running between New York and Chicago, Illinois. ...


Guest Rewards

Amtrak operates a loyalty program called Guest Rewards, which is similar to the frequent flyer programs offered by many airlines. Guest Rewards members accumulate points by riding Amtrak and through other activities. Members can redeem these points for free or discounted Amtrak tickets and other awards. Membership cards of FFP This article is about airline frequent flyer programs. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ...


Freight

Amtrak Express provides small package and less-than-truckload shipping services between more than 100 cities. Amtrak Express also offers station-to-station shipment of human remains to many express cities. At smaller stations, funeral directors must load and unload the shipment onto and off the train. Amtrak hauled mail for the United States Postal Service and time-sensitive freight, but discontinued these services in October 2004. On most parts of the few lines that Amtrak owns, trackage rights agreements allow freight railroads to use its trackage. Amtrak Express is Amtraks freight and shipping service. ... Railroad companies can interact with and control others in many ways. ...


Commuter services

South Station in Boston, Massachusetts is a major transportation hub for interstate Amtrak trains and for the MBTA commuter rail operated by Amtrak.

Through various commuter services, Amtrak serves an additional 61.1 million passengers per year in conjunction with state and regional authorities in California, Washington, Maryland, Connecticut, and Virginia. Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner (formerly San Diegan), Capitol Corridor, and San Joaquins are mostly funded by a state transit authority, Caltrans, and not the Federal government. South Station front entrance. ... Boston redirects here. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [2] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... A Virginia Railway Express locomotive in push-pull commuter service (www. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... // Northbound Pacific Surfliner Cab Car crosses Carlsbad Village Dr. in Carlsbad, Ca. ... The southbound San Diegan passes through San Clemente with the Pacific Ocean as its backdrop in April 1973. ... Amtrak California system map, with Capitol Corridor in Red The Capitol Corridor is a 172-mile (275 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in California. ... The San Joaquins refers to a train route operated by Amtrak California in Californias Central Valley. ... Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ...


Classes of Service

Amtrak has a variety of cabins that suit a variety of needs. Classes are similar to those used by airlines.


First Class service is offered on the Acela Express only. First Class passengers have access to Amtrak ClubAcela lounges in Washington DC, Philadelphia, New York and Boston (lounges offer complementary drinks, personal ticketing service, lounge seating, conference areas, computer/internet access and televisions tuned to CNN). At the Philadelphia and Washington DC ClubAcelas, passengers can board their train directly from the ClubAcela (In Philadelphia, passenger use an elevator while in Washington, passengers leave through a side door leading to the tracks). Seats are larger than those of Business Class and come in a variety of seating modes (single, single with table, double, double with table and wheelchair accessible). First Class is located in a separate car than the other classes and each train set contains only one First Class car. First Class includes complimentary meal and beverage service along with free newspapers and hot towel service. First Class seats are set in a 1x2 configuration. There are two attendants per car.


Business Class is the minimum class of service on the Acela Express and is offered as an upgrade on Regional and other short to long distance trains. Business Class seats are larger than those in coach. Business Class passengers have easy access to the cafe car. they also receive complementary non-alcoholic beverages and free newspapers. Business Class seats all have power outlets for electronics. Business Class seats are located in different areas depending on the train. On some trains, Business Class is located at the front of the Cafe Car. These seats are in a 1x2 style and feature leather upholstery, cup holders and leg rests. These seats also recline to a more "sofa recliner style". The other type of Business Class seat is located in an actual Business Class car. These seats are organized in a 2x2 style and feature more legroom than the coach seats in the other cars.


Coach Class is the minimum class of service on Amtrak trains and includes footrests and decent legroom. Coach seats are set in a 2x2 configuration.


Sleeper Service rooms are considered First Class on long distance trains. Rooms are classified into roomettes, bedrooms, family bedrooms and accessible bedrooms. With the price of a room comes complementary meals and attendant service. At night, rooms turn into sleeping areas with fold down beds and fresh linens. Complementary bottled water, newspapers and turn down service is included as well. Sleeper car passengers have access to the entire train. Sleeper passengers also have access to the Club Acela lounges in stations along the Northeast Corridor and access to the Metropolitan Lounges in Chicago, Miami, New Orleans, and Minneapolis/Saint Paul.


Trains and tracks

Most tracks on which Amtrak operates are owned by freight railroads. Amtrak operates over all seven Class I railroads in the United States, as well as several short lines: the Pan Am Railways, New England Central Railroad, and Vermont Railway. Other sections are owned by terminal railroads jointly controlled by freight companies or by commuter rail agencies. The arrangement has two notable impacts on Amtrak operations. The host railroad is responsible for maintenance and occasionally Amtrak has suffered service disruptions from untimely track rehabilitation. When host railroads have simply refused to maintain their tracks to Amtrak's needs, Amtrak occasionally has been compelled to pay the host to maintain the tracks. Also, Amtrak enjoys priority over the host's freight traffic only for a specified window of time. When a passenger train misses that window, host railroads may (and frequently do) direct passenger trains to follow lumbering freight traffic, severely exacerbating even minor delays. A Class I railroad in the United States, or a Class I railway (also Class I rail carrier) in Canada, is one of the largest freight railroads, as classified based on operating revenue. ... A short line is an independent railroad company that operates over a relatively short distance. ... Pan Am Railways boxcar at Rigby Yard, South Portland, ME, August 2006. ... The New England Central Railroad is a subsidiary of RailAmerica. ... The Vermont Railway operates the section of the former Rutland Railroad from Burlington to Bennington, Vermont under the direction of the State of Vermont, which owns the line. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ...


Tracks owned by Amtrak

Along the Northeast Corridor and in several other areas, Amtrak owns 730 route-miles of track (1175 km), including 17 tunnels consisting of 29.7 miles of track (47.8 km), and 1,186 bridges (including the famous Hell Gate Bridge) consisting of 42.5 miles (68.4 km) of track. Amtrak owns and operates the following lines:[60] The Hell Gate Bridge (originally the New York Connecting Railroad Bridge) is a 1,017-foot (310 m) steel arch railroad bridge between Astoria in the borough of Queens and Randalls and Wards Islands (which are now joined into one island and are politically part of Manhattan) in New York...


Northeast Corridor

Main article: Northeast Corridor

The Northeast Corridor between Washington, D.C. and Boston via Baltimore, Philadelphia, Newark and New York is largely owned by Amtrak, working cooperatively with several state and regional commuter agencies. Amtrak's portion was acquired in 1976 as a result of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act. Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Boston redirects here. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... The transportation system of New York City is an unparalleled cooperation of unique, complex, and grandiose systems of infrastructure. ... The United States Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Act of 1976, funded the reorganized bankrupt Northeast and Midwest railroads that formed Conrail in 1975. ...

The part of the line from New Haven to the New York/Connecticut border (Port Chester/Greenwich) is owned by the state of Connecticut, while the portion from Port Chester to New Rochelle is owned by the state of New York. The Connecticut Department of Transportation and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority operate this line through Metro-North Railroad. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New Haven redirects here. ... New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with... Port Chester is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1640 Joined Connecticut 1656 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - First selectman Peter Tesei  - Town administrator Edward Gomeau  - Town meeting moderator Thomas J. Byrne Area  - Total 174. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the state. ... The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) is responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways and aviation facilities in the U.S. state of Connecticut. ... The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the State of New York. ... The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or, more commonly, Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service that is run and managed by an authority of New York State, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or, more simply, the MTA. Metro-North runs service between New York...


Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line

This line runs from Philadelphia to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. As a result of an investment partnership with the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, signal and track improvements were completed in October 2006, and now allow all-electric service with a top speed of 110 mph (about 175 km/h) to run along the corridor. The Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line is a rail line owned and operated by Amtrak in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ...

The Pennsylvanian was a daytime Amtrak train running between New York, New York and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania via Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Amtraks 195-mile (314 km) Keystone Service provides frequent passenger train service along the Amtrak-owned Keystone Corridor and Northeast Corridor between Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and New York City via Philadelphia. ...

Empire Corridor

Main article: Empire Corridor

The Empire Corridor is a term used to refer to the approximately 300-mile corridor between Buffalo and Albany, New York, including the cities Rochester, Syracuse, Utica, and Schenectady. ... Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as Penn Station) is the major intercity rail station and a major commuter rail hub in New York City. ... Spuyten Duyvil (pronounced SPITE-uhn DYE-vuhl) is the name of a subsection of the Riverdale section of the Bronx in New York City. ... Stuyvesant is a town located in Columbia County, New York. ... Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Railway companies of the United States | Alabama railroads | Connecticut railroads | Delaware railroads | Florida current railroads | Georgia railroads | Illinois railroads | Indiana railroads | Kentucky railroads | Louisiana railroads | Maryland railroads | Massachusetts railroads | Michigan railroads | Mississippi railroads | New Jersey railroads | New York railroads | North Carolina railroads | Ohio railroads | Pennsylvania...

New Haven-Springfield Line

Main article: New Haven-Springfield Line

The New Haven-Springfield Line is a railroad line owned by Amtrak from New Haven, Connecticut north to Springfield, Massachusetts. ... New Haven redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Regional is Amtraks service between Newport News, Virginia and Boston, Massachusetts. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ...

Other tracks

Amtrak also owns station and yard tracks in Chicago; Hialeah (near Miami, Florida) (leased from the State of Florida); Los Angeles; New Orleans; New York City; Oakland (Kirkham Street Yard); Orlando; Portland, Oregon; Saint Paul, Minnesota; Seattle; and Washington, D.C. Porter is a town in Porter County, Indiana, United States. ... Kalamazoo redirects here. ... Wolverine is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. ... The Post Road Branch is a railroad line owned and operated by Amtrak in the U.S. state of New York. ... Rensselaer is a city in Rensselaer County, New York, located on the Hudson River, directly opposite Albany. ... The Lake Shore Limited is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States on routes formally traveled by the famed 20th Century Limited. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida. ... Miami redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... NOLA redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Orlando redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... Seattle redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Amtrak owns the Chicago Union Station Company (Chicago Union Station) and Penn Station Leasing (New York Penn Station). It has a 99.7% interest in the Washington Terminal Company[61] (tracks around Washington Union Station) and 99% of 30th Street Limited (Philadelphia 30th Street Station). Also owned by Amtrak is Passenger Railroad Insurance.[62] The Chicago Union Station Company (AAR reporting mark CUST) owns Chicagos Union Station and the approach tracks. ... Union Station is a Chicago train station that opened in 1925, replacing an earlier 1881 station, and is now the only intercity rail terminal in Chicago. ... Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as Penn Station) is the major intercity rail station and a major commuter rail hub in New York City. ... The Washington Terminal Comapny (AAR Reporting Mark: WATC) operates about 5 miles of track in Washington, DC around the Washington Union Station. ... Union Station is the grand ceremonial train station designed to be the entrance to Washington, D.C., when it opened in 1907. ... 30th Street Station is the main railroad station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


Other infrastructure:

Often, the artwork is centered under the light giving the space the feeling of a chapel or great cathedral. ... The Livingston Avenue Railroad Bridge was constructed in the early 1900s between Albany, New York and Rensselaer, New York by the Hudson River Bridge Company. ... The Morrisville-Trenton Railroad Bridge carries the Amtrak Northeast Corridor and SEPTA R7 Trenton rail lines across the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey. ... The New York Tunnel Extension (also New York Improvement and Tunnel Extension), owned by the Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad, was an important part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system, comprising the tunnels and approaches from New Jersey and Long Island to New York Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan. ... The North River Tunnels carry Amtraks Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines under to Hudson River between Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York. ... Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor (SEHSR) is a passenger rail transportation project in the United States to connect with existing high speed rail corridor from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, DC known as the Northeast Corridor (served by Amtraks Acela Express and Regional services and many commuter railroads) and extend... Sunnyside Yard is a large railroad yard in Sunnyside, Queens in New York City. ...

Motive power and rolling stock

Main article: Amtrak rolling stock

Amtrak Auto Train dining car awaits passengers next to auto carrier that will join it at the rear of the train (Lorton, VA, 2000). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Rail Companies of Interest Amtrak, the national passenger train service in the United States, has colored its trains differently over the years. ... Amtraks Arrow Reservation System is used nationally by Amtrak employees to take reservations, check train status, and monitor Amtrak equipment throughout the 30,000 miles of the Amtrak network. ... The Amtrak Police is a railroad police agency that acts as the security and law enforcement agency of Amtrak, a passenger train system in the United States. ... Amtrak California is a brand name used by Caltrans Division of Rail on all state supported and Amtrak operated rail routes within the State of California. ... Caltrans logo The soaring ramps in the stack interchanges favored by Caltrans often provide stunning views. ... Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon. ... The Washington State Department of Transportation, or WSDOT, led by a Secretary and overseen by the Governor, is a Washington governmental agency that constructs, maintains, and regulates the use of the states transportation infrastructure. ... The Oregon Department of Transportation (otherwise known as the ODOT) is a department of the Oregon state government responsible for systems of transportation. ... This is a list of station locations used by Amtrak in order by station name. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Railway Museum of Greater Cincinnati owns and maintains a large collection of historic railroad equipment located on a four-acre site in Covington, Kentucky. ... This converted Auto Train lounge shows the typical exterior of Superliner cars. ... Categories: Stub ...

Rail Disasters This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Auto-Train Corporation (AAR reporting mark: AUT) was a privately-owned railroad which used its own rolling stock, and traveled on rails leased from major railroads along the route of its trains. ... Auto Train is a scheduled public rail transportation service for both passengers and their personal transportation vehicles operated by Amtrak between Lorton, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.) and Sanford, Florida, near Orlando. ... Mid America Railcar Leasing is a limited liability company that leases private passenger railroad cars, most of which are able to be pulled on the end of Amtrak trains. ... VIA Rails trains travelling by Highway 401 near Brockville, Ontario. ...

The 1995 Palo Verde derailment happened on October 9, 1995, an Amtrak Sunset Limited train derailed near Palo Verde, Arizona. ... Aerial view (looking south) of the derailed train. ... The Chase, Maryland, train wreck occurred at 1:04 p. ... The Big Bayou Canot train disaster of September 22, 1993 is the worst train wreck in the history of the United States passenger railroad company Amtrak. ...

References

  1. ^ National Fact Sheet. Amtrak. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  2. ^ Web archive of U.S. House of Representatives report
  3. ^ The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service, sec. 4 n.21 (Sept. 2003).
  4. ^ Amtrak Fact Sheet.
  5. ^ Crowds Heed Amtrak's 'All Aboard'. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on August 24, 2007.
  6. ^ RailNews Story: New Amtrak logo. Retrieved on November 23, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Schafer, Mike. The American Passenger Train, St. Paul, MN: MBI Publ'g, p. 20, 97, 99-102, 104, 106, 112, 119 (2001).
  8. ^ a b c d Carper, Robert S., American Railroads in Transition; The passing of the steam locomotives. A.S. Barnes & Co.:New York, NY, p.112-113 (1968).
  9. ^ Historical value of the dollar. See also the Hosmer Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission (1958).
  10. ^ a b c d e Morgan, David P. Who Shot the Passenger Train? Trains, p.14-15, 20-21 (April, 1959)
  11. ^ a b c Slason Thompson, A Short History of American Railways, Books for Libraries Press: Freeport, NY (1925, reprinted 1971), p. 324-391, 405.
  12. ^ Shafer, Mike, supra at 125. Previously, individual states made those judgments, and the reform that came about with the Transportation Act of 1958 was intended to streamline the process.
  13. ^ Brief History of the U.S. Passenger Rail Industry.
  14. ^ Wikipedia article on History of Interstate Highways
  15. ^ Luberoff, David. Amtrak and the States. Governing Magazine. p.85 (Nov. 1996).
  16. ^ Jones, William. Americans Rediscover Trains; Trains are rediscovered. The Washington Post, p.D8 (May 12, 1979). Yemma, John. Years Later, Amtrak is Keeping Riders Won in Gas Pinch. The Christian Science Monitor, p.4 (July 21, 1980).
  17. ^ a b Nice, David C. Amtrak; The History and Politics of a National Railroad. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Pubs. p.24. (1998).
  18. ^ Fortune : Still chugging. (W. Graham Claytor Jr.) (Fortune People) (column) @ HighBeam Research. Retrieved on November 23, 2005.
  19. ^ Amtrak (November 9, 2005), Amtrak Board Releases Gunn. Retrieved November 9, 2005.
  20. ^ Amtrak (1971-05-19). "ATK-4". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  21. ^ Southeast Chapter. Railway and Locomotive Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  22. ^ Today in Florida History for January. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  23. ^ "Ax for Amtrak" (1979-03-19). Time. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. 
  24. ^ Amtrak (2005-11-09). "Amtrak Board Releases Gunn". Press release. Retrieved on 2005-11-09.
  25. ^ Amtrak (2006-08-29). "Veteran Rail and Industrial Executive Alexander Kummant Appointed Amtrak President and CEO". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
  26. ^ "Amtrak names a new president" (September 2006). Railway Age: p. 26. Simmons-Boardman Publishing. ISSN 0033-8826. 
  27. ^ Amtrak, 1999 Annual Report.
  28. ^ Amtrak, 2006 Annual Report Available online. accessed July, 2007.
  29. ^ United States General Accounting Office. Intercity Passenger Rail; Amtrak Faces Challenges in Improving its Financial Condition. Report GAO/T-RCED-00-30 (Oct. 28, 1999).
  30. ^ Alan Wirzbicki, Senate votes to increase funding for Amtrak service, Boston Globe (Oct. 31, 2007)
  31. ^ NY Times article by Matthew Wald and John Philips, "Surprising Forecast for Amtrak," New York Times, December 23, 2006.
  32. ^ Phillips, Don. Railpax Rescue. in Journey to Amtrak; The year history rode the passenger train. Ed. Harold A. Edmonson. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Pub. Co., pp. 8-11 (1972).
  33. ^ $709 million of the 1981 aid package was for operations. The remainder was capital appropriations. Vranich, Joseph. Derailed; What Went Wrong and What to Do About America's Passenger Trains. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, p. 37 (1997).
  34. ^ National Railroad Passenger Corp. Statistical Appendix to Amtrak FY1995 Annual Report, 1995 Annual Report, p.1.
  35. ^ National Railroad Passenger Corp. 1999 Annual Report, p.41.
  36. ^ Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997. 105th Cong. (Jan. 7, 1997). Congressional Budget Office. S. 738 Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act (July 22, 1997), in 104th Cong. Senate Report 105-85 (Sept. 24, 1997).
  37. ^ Vranich, Joseph. End of the Line; The Failure of Amtrak Reform and the Future of America's Passenger Trains (2004).
  38. ^ Wicker, Tom. In the Nation; Young David's Tantrum. The New York Times, p.A31 (May 3, 1985)
  39. ^ Frailey, Fred W.. Can Amtrak Survive the Budget Cutters?, U.S. News and World Report, p.52 (April 13, 1981).
  40. ^ Congress Should Link Amtrak's Generous Subsidy to Improved Performance, Ronald D. Utt Ph.D., Hertiage.org September 20, 2007
  41. ^ Amtrak - Inside Amtrak - News & Media - Energy Efficient Travel
  42. ^ THE LITTLE ENGINE THAT SHOULDN'T | National Center for Policy Analysis
  43. ^ Midwest High Speed Rail Association
  44. ^ http://studentbusadvocates.rso.wisc.edu/articles/1kFriendsRoadsFundingMar07.pdf
  45. ^ Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997. 105th Cong. (Jan. 7, 1997).
  46. ^ Sidetracked Negotiations: The Contract for Nearly 10,000 Unionized Amtrak Employees Expired on Dec. 31, 1999. Since Then, Talks Have Failed to Make Much Headway - Business - redOrbit
  47. ^ Matthew Wald and John Philips. "Surprising Forecast for Amtrak", New York Times, 2006-12-23. 
  48. ^ Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997. 105th Cong., Senate Report 105-85 (Sept. 24, 1997).
  49. ^ PDF route map.
  50. ^ Amtrak schedule list.
  51. ^ Alex Kummant, "Welcome Aboard!", Arrive: The Magazine for Northeast Business Travelers, p. 8 (Sept./Oct. 2007).
  52. ^ Except where noted, figures are from 2004. Table 3-16: Average Passenger Revenue per Passenger-Mile. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  53. ^ Except where noted, figures are from 2003. Table 4-20: Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  54. ^ Figures are from 2000. Frequently Asked Questions. National Safety Council. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  55. ^ Figures from 2003. Table 1-67: Amtrak On-Time Performance Trends and Hours of Delay by Cause. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.; Table 1-60: Flight Operations Arriving On Time by the Largest U.S. Air Carriers. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  56. ^ Figures from 2001, latest available
  57. ^ Figures from 2001, latest available
  58. ^ Table 1-37: U.S. Passenger-Miles. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  59. ^ 2005 Total Airline System Passenger Traffic Up 4.6 Percent From 2004. Bureau of Transportation Statistics (April 27, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  60. ^ Trains.com - Amtrak's Track. Retrieved on November 23, 2005.
  61. ^ SEC Info - A/P I Deposit Corp · S-3 · On 1/11/02
  62. ^ Email FS - FY02.xls. Retrieved on November 23, 2005.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other Sources

  • Amtrak System Timetable, Fall 2004/Winter 2005
  • Solomon, Brian (2004). Amtrak. MBI Publishing Company, St. Paul, MN. ISBN 0-7603-1765-8. 
  • Edmonson, Harold A. (1972). Journey to Amtrak - The year history rode the passenger train. Kalmbach Books, Milwaukee, WI. ISBN 0-89024-023-X. 
  • Zimmermann, Karl R. (1981). Amtrak at Milepost 10. PTJ Publishing (Passenger Train Journal), Park Forest. ISBN 0-937658-06-5. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trains is a monthly magazine dedicated to trains and railroading and is the flagship publication of Kalmbach Publishing. ... Trains is a monthly magazine dedicated to trains and railroading and is the flagship publication of Kalmbach Publishing. ...

External links

Pro-Amtrak Advocacy
National

Regional

Amtrak Criticism

  • All Aboard? - via http://CSMonitor.com

Current Information

  • Amtrak.com
    • Amtrak Route Atlas
    • Amtrak Cascades Corridor
    • Amtrak Capitol Corridor
    • Amtrak California
    • Amtrak Michigan Services
  • Amtrak Guest Rewards
  • Check Amtrak Delays
  • Amtrak News
  • Amtrak route ownership
  • Current Amtrak route photos
  • Amtrak Radio Frequencies (includes information on the owners of the tracks)
  • Rail Critic
  • Amtrak Coupons, Discounts & Promotions
  • Amtrak Routes on Google Maps

History

  • Amtrak Historical Society
  • Amtrak Photo Archives
  • Amtrak's beginnings - via http://Trains.com
  • Trains Operating on the Eve of Amtrak (1971-04-30)[dead link]
  • Amtrak's First Trains & Routes (1971-05-01)
  • Amtrak timetable, 1971-11-14
  • Amtrak Reform Council an archived website hosted by the UNT Libraries Cyber Cemetery
A schematic of the Amtrak routes. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Two California Zephyr express trains meet at a railroad siding (Grizzly) in Garfield County, Colorado beside the Colorado River on March 21, 1949. ... Amtrak California system map, with Capitol Corridor in Red The Capitol Corridor is a 172-mile (275 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in California. ... The Coast Starlight at San Luis Obispo, California. ... // Northbound Pacific Surfliner Cab Car crosses Carlsbad Village Dr. in Carlsbad, Ca. ... The San Joaquins refers to a train route operated by Amtrak California in Californias Central Valley. ... The Southwest Chief snaking through Apache Canyon, NM The Southwest Chief (formerly the Southwest Limited) is a passenger train operated by Amtrak along a 2256-mile (3631-km) route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. ... Midwest States (United States of America, ND to OH) The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Ann Rutledge is a 567-mile (912 km) passenger train service operated by Amtrak running between Chicago, Illinois and Kansas City, Missouri. ... Blue Water is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. ... Two California Zephyr express trains meet at a railroad siding (Grizzly) in Garfield County, Colorado beside the Colorado River on March 21, 1949. ... Amtraks Capitol Limited is one of the two routes connecting Washington, DC to Chicago, running via Cleveland, Ohio (the other is the Cardinal via Cincinnati). ... The Cardinal is a 1,147-mile (1,844 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station with Chicago Union Station three days a week via Washington, D.C., Charlottesville, Virginia, Cincinnati, Ohio and Indianapolis, Indiana. ... The Carl Sandburg is a 258-mile (415 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that runs between Chicago and Quincy, Illinois. ... Amtraks City of New Orleans stops at the Memphis, Tennessee station in 2005. ... Empire Builder is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. ... Hiawatha logo from the Milwaukee Road days Hiawatha (or the Hiawatha Service) is the name of a train route operated by Amtrak on the western shore Lake Michigan, though the name was historically applied to several different routes that extended across the Midwest and out to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Hoosier State is a passenger train that provides service on a 196-mile (315 km) route from Chicago to Indianapolis. ... The Illini is a 310-mile (499 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that runs between Chicago and Carbondale, Illinois. ... The Illinois Zephyr is a 258-mile (415 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that runs between Chicago and Quincy, Illinois. ... The Lake Shore Limited is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States on routes formally traveled by the famed 20th Century Limited. ... The Lincoln Service is a 284-mile (457 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that runs between Chicago, Illinois and Saint Louis in Missouri. ... The Kansas City Mule and St. ... Pere Marquette is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. ... The Saluki is a 310-mile (499 km) passenger train operated by Amtrak that will run between Chicago and Carbondale, Illinois, starting October 30, 2006. ... The Southwest Chief snaking through Apache Canyon, NM The Southwest Chief (formerly the Southwest Limited) is a passenger train operated by Amtrak along a 2256-mile (3631-km) route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. ... The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. ... Wolverine is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak as part of its Michigan Services. ... The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... The Adirondack is a 381-mile (613 km) passenger train operated daily by Amtrak between New York City and Montreal, Quebec via Albany, New York. ... Auto Train is a scheduled public rail transportation service for both passengers and their personal transportation vehicles operated by Amtrak between Lorton, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.) and Sanford, Florida, near Orlando. ... Amtraks Capitol Limited is one of the two routes connecting Washington, DC to Chicago, running via Cleveland, Ohio (the other is the Cardinal via Cincinnati). ... The Cardinal is a 1,147-mile (1,844 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station with Chicago Union Station three days a week via Washington, D.C., Charlottesville, Virginia, Cincinnati, Ohio and Indianapolis, Indiana. ... The Carolinian is a train running daily between Charlotte, North Carolina and New York, New York. ... The Crescent is a passenger train operated by Amtrak in the eastern part of the United States. ... The Downeaster is a 116-mile (187 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak, connecting North Station in Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine. ... Amtraks Empire Service trains provide frequent daily service between New York City and Niagara Falls in New York, United States. ... The Ethan Allen Express is an Amtrak train between New York, New York and Rutland, Vermont via Albany, New York. ... Amtraks 195-mile (314 km) Keystone Service provides frequent passenger train service along the Amtrak-owned Keystone Corridor and Northeast Corridor between Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and New York City via Philadelphia. ... The Lake Shore Limited is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States on routes formally traveled by the famed 20th Century Limited. ... The Maple Leaf is a 544-mile (875 km) passenger train operated jointly by VIA Rail and Amtrak from New Yorks Pennsylvania Station to Toronto via Albany, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo. ... The Palmetto is a 829-mile (1334 km) passenger train service operated by Amtrak from New York City south to Savannah, Georgia via the Northeast Corridor to Washington, DC, then via Richmond, Virginia, Fayetteville, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina. ... The Pennsylvanian was a daytime Amtrak train running between New York, New York and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania via Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Silver Service and Palmetto are a group of passenger railway lines operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station to Tampa, Florida and Miami, Florida. ... The Silver Service and Palmetto are a group of passenger railway lines operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station to Tampa, Florida and Miami, Florida. ... Amtraks Vermonter is a 606-mile (975 km) passenger train service between St. ... The Northwestern United States is comprised of the Pacific Northwest and the western Great Plains and generally includes, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. ... Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon. ... The Coast Starlight at San Luis Obispo, California. ... Empire Builder is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Auto Train is a scheduled public rail transportation service for both passengers and their personal transportation vehicles operated by Amtrak between Lorton, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.) and Sanford, Florida, near Orlando. ... The Carolinian is a train running daily between Charlotte, North Carolina and New York, New York. ... Amtraks City of New Orleans stops at the Memphis, Tennessee station in 2005. ... The Crescent is a passenger train operated by Amtrak in the eastern part of the United States. ... The Palmetto is a 829-mile (1334 km) passenger train service operated by Amtrak from New York City south to Savannah, Georgia via the Northeast Corridor to Washington, DC, then via Richmond, Virginia, Fayetteville, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina. ... The Carolinian is a train running daily between Charlotte, North Carolina and New York, New York. ... Amtraks Heartland Flyer is a daily train that follows a 206-mile (332-km) route between Fort Worth, Texas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... The Silver Service and Palmetto are a group of passenger railway lines operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station to Tampa, Florida and Miami, Florida. ... The Silver Service and Palmetto are a group of passenger railway lines operated by Amtrak, connecting New York Penn Station to Tampa, Florida and Miami, Florida. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Two California Zephyr express trains meet at a railroad siding (Grizzly) in Garfield County, Colorado beside the Colorado River on March 21, 1949. ... Empire Builder is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northwestern United States. ... The Southwest Chief snaking through Apache Canyon, NM The Southwest Chief (formerly the Southwest Limited) is a passenger train operated by Amtrak along a 2256-mile (3631-km) route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. ... Amtraks eastbound Sunset Limited at the Houston Amtrak station. ... The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. ... A Class I railroad in the United States, or a Class I railway (also Class I rail carrier) in Canada, is one of the largest freight railroads, as classified based on operating revenue. ... North American redirects here. ... The BNSF Railway (AAR reporting marks BNSF), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in North America (only one competitor, the Union Pacific Railroad, is larger in size). ... Union Pacific redirects here. ... CSX redirects here. ... Norfolk Southern Headquarters Norfolk, Virginia. ... The Grand Trunk Corporation is the holding company for the Canadian National Railways properties in the United States, but the Association of American Railroads has considered it to be a Class I railroad since fiscal year 2002. ... The Kansas City Southern Railway (AAR reporting mark KCS) is a United States-based Class I railroad operating over 3,130 track miles in 10 central and southeastern states. ... Categories: Rail stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Illinois railroads | Michigan railroads | Minnesota railroads | North Dakota railroads | South Dakota railroads | Wisconsin railroads ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... VIA Rails trains travelling by Highway 401 near Brockville, Ontario. ... Ferromex, a contraction of Ferrocarril Mexico or Mexican Railroad, is a private rail consortium that operates the largest railroad by mileage in Mexico. ... Kansas City Southern de México (KCSM), formerly Transportación Ferroviaria Mexicana (Mexican Rail Transportation), is the name of a company dedicated to freight transportation using rail in the North Eastern part of Mexico. ... The Kansas City Southern Railway (AAR reporting mark KCS) is a United States-based Class I railroad operating over 3,130 track miles in 10 central and southeastern states. ... As of 2004 a Class I railroad in the United States has an operating revenue exceeding $277. ... As of 2004, a Class II railroad in the United States has an operating revenue greater than $20. ... The Buckingham Branch Railroad is a typical example of a Class III shortline in Virginia. ... A short line is an independent railroad company that operates over a relatively short distance. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... This is an incomplete list. ... ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amtrak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6061 words)
The members of Amtrak's board of directors are appointed by the President of the United States, and are subject to confirmation by the United States Senate.
Amtrak's portion was acquired in 1976 as a result of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act.
Amtrak operates 425 locomotives (351 diesel and 74 electric).
Welcome to Amtrak, the home delivery specialists (177 words)
Amtrak is a dynamic and innovative express parcel carrier supplying quality-driven overnight delivery and collection solutions throughout the UK and abroad.
Amtrak is the specialist in the delivery of goods to home addresses and has quickly established itself as one of the leading carriers in this exciting market.
Amtrak remains focused and determined to provide a quality service that is simply second to none.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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