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Encyclopedia > Amsterdam Island (Svalbard)
Svalbard
Governor of Svalbard Coat
Image:LocationSvalbard.png
Official language Norwegian
Capital Longyearbyen
King Harald V
Governor Per Sefland
Area
 - Total
Ranked 122nd
62,049 km²
Population
 - Total (2004)
 - Density
Ranked 230th
2,756
0.04/km²
Currency Norwegian krone
Time zone
 - in summer
CET (UTC+1)
CEST (UTC+2)
National anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet
Internet TLD .no (.sj allocated but not used [1])
Calling Code 47

Svalbard is the name of an archipelago lying in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe, about midway between Norway and the North Pole. It consists of a group of islands ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East. The archipelago is the northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway. Three islands are populated: Spitsbergen, Bjørnøya and Hopen. The Svalbard Treaty recognises Norwegian sovereignty over Svalbard. With the 1925 Svalbard Act, Norway chose to make Svalbard a part of the Kingdom, and not a dependent area. Image File history File links Sysselmannen. ... Location map for Svalbard - created for Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Categories: Country locator maps | Svalbard | GFDL images ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in a country, state, or other territory. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 1,700 inhabitants, most of them Norwegians and some Russians. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Harald V, styled His Majesty The King (born February 21, 1937), acceded to the throne as Norwegian Monarch upon his fathers death January 17, 1991. ... The governor of Svalbard represents the Norwegian government in exercising its limited sovereign authority over the archipelago. ... -1... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, estimated for the year 2005. ... Krone is the name of the currency used in Norway. ... Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Daylight saving time (also called DST) is the North American term for a system intended to save daylight (the British observe summer time, and likewise the Europeans). ... Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of UTC+1 time zone, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time or Z, is an atomic realization of Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich Mean Time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time or Z, is an atomic realization of Universal Time (UT) or Greenwich Mean Time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their official national song. ... Listen to anthem (MIDI) (audio help) Ja, vi elsker dette landet is the national anthem of Norway. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of an Internet domain name; that is, the letters which follow the final dot of any URL. For example, in the domain name wikipedia. ... .no is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Norway. ... .sj is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands. ... // At a glance In depth Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area nanpa. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... The North Pole is the northernmost point on any planet. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North Spitsbergen (or Spitzbergen in German; formerly known as West Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen) is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, which is situated in the Arctic Ocean and administered by Norway. ... Location of Bjørnøya north of mainland Norway Bjørnøya (Norwegian for Bear Island) is an arctic island of Norway that forms the southernmost part of Svalbard. ... Hopen is an island in the southeastern part of the Svalbard archipelago (Norway). ... The Traité concernant le Spitsberg of February 1920 placed the arctic islands of Spitsbergen as an overseas part of Kingdom of Norway (article I). ... ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of Svalbard

Vikings and Russians may have discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. Traditional Norse accounts exist of a land known as Svalbarði — literally "cold edge". But the Dutchman Willem Barents made the first indisputable discovery of Svalbard in 1596. From 1612 to 1720 whaling took place off the western coast of Spitsbergen, by Danish, Dutch, English, French and Norwegian ships. It is estimated that the Dutch alone took 60,000 whales from their base Smeerenburg. They also provided the headquarters for many Arctic exploration expeditions. Comprehensive geological mapping of the archipelago was conducted by teams from Cambridge and other universities, led primarily by W. Brian Harland from the 1940s to 1980s. Vikings and/or Russians may have discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. ... The name Viking is a loanword from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (French for I will maintain) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassauwe Capital The Hague(seat of government) Amsterdam(constitutional capital) Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch, Frisian 1 Government Queen Prime minister Dem. ... Willem Barents (b. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... The settlement of Smeerenburg on Amsterdam Island in north-west Svalbard, originated with Dutch whalers before 1620: one of Europes northernmost outposts. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the u area around the Earths North Pole. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... W. Brian Harland (1917 - 2003) was an eminent geologist at Cambridge University, England. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...


The largest island in the archipelago is called Spitsbergen (Dutch for "Jagged peaks"); this name was formerly used to refer to the entire archipelago, while the main island was called West Spitsbergen. Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North Spitsbergen (or Spitzbergen in German; formerly known as West Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen) is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, which is situated in the Arctic Ocean and administered by Norway. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North Spitsbergen (or Spitzbergen in German; formerly known as West Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen) is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, which is situated in the Arctic Ocean and administered by Norway. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Svalbard

By the terms of the Svalbard Treaty of February 9, 1920, international diplomacy recognized Norwegian sovereignty. Norway took over administration of Svalbard in 1925. However, under the terms of this unique treaty, citizens of various other countries have rights to exploit mineral deposits and other natural resources "on a footing of absolute equality". As a result, a permanent Russian settlement, more or less autonomous, grew up at Barentsburg. Another Russian settlement at Pyramiden was abandoned in 2000. At one time, the Russian (or Soviet) population of Svalbard considerably exceeded the Norwegian population, although this no longer applies. U.S., U.K., German, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past. The Svalbard Treaty recognizes Norwegian sovereignty over Svalbard. ... The Traité concernant le Spitsberg of February 1920 placed the arctic islands of Spitsbergen as an overseas part of Kingdom of Norway (article I). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Barentsburg (Russian Баренцбург) is the second largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 850 inhabitants, almost entirely Russians and Ukrainians. ... Coal mining facilities in Pyramiden, 2005 Pyramiden (Norwegian, meaning the pyramid, Russian: Пирамида) was a Russian settlement and coal mining community on the archipelago of Svalbard, Norway. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


Seed Bank

Main article: Norwegian Seed Bank

By the year 2007 the Norwegian government is planning on building a 'doomsday' seed bank in which as many (known) species' seeds will be stored. As reported by BBC News the Norwegian government will be building this bank by hollowing out a cave on Spitsbergen and then putting in as many seeds possible with the support from countries around the world. The proposed bank will have top security blast-proof doors and would have two airlocks. The amount of seeds stored would depend on the number of countries participating in the project. The Norwegian Seed Bank is a planned project of the government of Norway to build a doomsday seedbank to store as many seeds known to humans as possible by 2007. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North Spitsbergen (or Spitzbergen in German; formerly known as West Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen) is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, which is situated in the Arctic Ocean and administered by Norway. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Svalbard
Picture overlooking Longyearbyen
Picture overlooking Longyearbyen

Svalbard consists of a group of islands in the Arctic Ocean; ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East, it forms the northernmost part of Norway and the northernmost lands of Europe. The islands cover an area of 62,050 km². Three large islands dominate: Spitsbergen (39,000 km²), Nordaustlandet, (Northeast Land), (14,600 km²) and Edgeøya (Edge Island) (5,000 km²). There is also the smaller Barentsøya (Barents Island) and a few other, smaller islands. MODIS satellite photo of Svalbard, courtesy NASA Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway Geographic coordinates: 78° 00 N, 20° 00 E Map references: Arctic Region Area: total: 62,049 km² land: 62,049 km² water: 0 km² note... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Longyearbyen ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Longyearbyen ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North Spitsbergen (or Spitzbergen in German; formerly known as West Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen) is the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, which is situated in the Arctic Ocean and administered by Norway. ... Nordaustlandet (sometimes translated as North East Land) is the second largest island of Svalbard, with an area of 14,600 km². As its name suggests, it lies north east of Spitzbergen. ... Edgeøya (occasionally anglicised as Edge Island), is an uninhabited island in Svalbard, lying between Spitzbergen and Barentsøya. ... Map showing Barents Island (Barentsøya) Barentsøya or Barents Island is one of the smaller islands in the Svalbard archipelago, just north of Edge Island or Edgeøya. ...


60% of Svalbard is covered by glaciation and snowfields. However, the North Atlantic Current moderates the Arctic climate (see also Geography of Norway), keeping the surrounding waters open and navigable most of the year (updated ice maps). Svalbard lies far north of the Arctic Circle. In Longyearbyen, the midnight sun lasts from April 20 to August 23, and perpetual darkness lasts from October 26 to February 15. Aletsch glacier, Switzerland A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The North Atlantic current is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ... Norway is located in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea in southwest, the North Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Barents Sea to the northeast, and Sweden to the east. ... World map showing the five major circles of latitude A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway The midnight sun is a phenomenon occurring in latitudes north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle where the sun is continuously visible for at least 24 hours. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Svalbard serves as the breeding ground for large numbers of seabirds, including Brunnich's and Black Guillemot, Puffin, Little Auk, Fulmar and Kittiwake. Other seabirds include Arctic Tern, four species of skua, and the elusive Ivory Gull. The Svalbard Ptarmigan, found on the larger islands, is the only landbird present for the entire year. Only two songbirds migrate to Svalbard to breed: the Snow Bunting and the Wheatear. Binomial name Uria lomvia (Linnaeus,, 1758) The Brunnichs Guillemot, or Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia, is a bird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Cepphus grylle Linnaeus, 1758 The Black Guillemot or Tystie, Cepphus grylle, is a medium-sized alcid at 32-38 cm in length, and with a 49-58 cm wingspan. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For the Puffin coin, see Coins of Lundy The puffin is an auk (or alcid) of the genus Fratercula (Latin: Little Brother - probably a reference to their black and white plumage resembling monastic robes) with a brightly colored beak in the breeding season. ... Binomial name Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) The Little Auk, or Dovekie, Alle alle, is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle (Link, 1806). ... Species Fulmar (Linnaeus, 1761) Southern Fulmar (Smith,A, 1840) The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Lagopus mutus (Montin, 1781) The Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) is a small (31-35 cm) bird in the grouse family. ... Binomial name Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Snow Bunting, (Plectrophenax nivalis), is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a family now separated by most modern authors from the finches Fringillidae. ... Binomial name Oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Wheatear or Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the Thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae. ...


Four mammal species inhabit the archipelago: the Svalbard field mouse Microtus epiroticus, the Arctic fox, the Svalbard reindeer (a distinct sub-species), and polar bears. Since polar bears occur very commonly on Svalbard, all people need to take precautions when outside the settlements: this includes carrying a rifle. Nevertheless, the law protects polar bears, forbidding anyone to harm or disturb them. Binomial name Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus or Vulpes lagopus) is a small fox native to cold Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the musician, please see Caribou (musician). ... Binomial name Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774 The Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus), also known as white bear or northern bear or sea bear, is a large bear native to the Arctic. ... A rifle is a firearm that uses a spiral groove cut into the barrel to spin a projectile (usually a bullet), thus improving accuracy and range of the projectile. ...


There is an astonishing variety of flowering plants on Svalbard. Although they are very small, these plants use the short period of 24-hour daylight to produce colourful blossoms. See also: Flowers of Svalbard. There are 164 vascular plant species on the Norwegian island of Svalbard, not included are algae, mosses, lichens. ...

Map of Svalbard
Enlarge
Map of Svalbard

Svalbard map (from CIA) File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Bjørnøya Categories: CIA World Factbook images | Maps | Svalbard ... Svalbard map (from CIA) File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Bjørnøya Categories: CIA World Factbook images | Maps | Svalbard ...

Settlements

No roads link the settlements on the island; transportation mechanisms include boat, plane, helicopter, and snowmobile. Barentsburg (Russian Баренцбург) is the second largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 850 inhabitants, almost entirely Russians and Ukrainians. ... Location of Bjørnøya north of mainland Norway Bjørnøya (Norwegian for Bear Island) is an arctic island of Norway that forms the southernmost part of Svalbard. ... Grumant is a Soviet Russian settlement, abandoned in 1961. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 1,700 inhabitants, most of them Norwegians and some Russians. ... Ny-Ã…lesund in summer Ny-Ã…lesund is one of the four permanent settlements on Svalbard. ... Coal mining facilities in Pyramiden, 2005 Pyramiden (Norwegian, meaning the pyramid, Russian: Пирамида) was a Russian settlement and coal mining community on the archipelago of Svalbard, Norway. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The settlement of Smeerenburg on Amsterdam Island in north-west Svalbard, originated with Dutch whalers before 1620: one of Europes northernmost outposts. ... Sveagruva is the third-largest settlement in the Norwegian territory of Svalbard, with a population of about 200. ... Lobster boat A boat is a watercraft, usually smaller than most ships. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers). ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park, note the snowdust in the air (NPS Photo) A snowmobile (or snow scooter, often referred to by enthusiasts as a sled and in the Canadian north and Alaska as a snowmachine) is a land vehicle propelled by one or two rubber tracks, with...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Svalbard

Economic activity centres on coal mining, supplemented by fishing and trapping. In the final decades of the 20th century, tourism, research, higher education, and some high-tech enterprises like satellite relay-stations have grown significantly. A 200 nautical mile (370 km) Fisheries Protection Zone around Svalbard was established in 1977 pursuant to the Act of 17 December 1976 relating to the Economic Zone of Norway. Despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone. Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the extraction of coal from the Earth for use as fuel. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Tourist redirects here; for the album by Athlete, see Tourist (album) Tourism is the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Research is an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry in order to discover, interpret and/or revise facts. ... Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees, such as community colleges, and liberal arts colleges. ... A nautical mile is a unit of length. ... In international maritime law, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


The Svalbard Undersea Cable System which started operation in January 2004 provides dual 1,440 km fiber optic lines from Svalbard to Harstad via Andøy, needed for communicating with polar orbiting satellite stations on Svalbard, some owned by NASA and NOAA. Svalbard Undersea Cable System consists of two 1400 km long Submarine communications cables from Harstad to Svalbard via Andøy. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → January 31, 2004 The United States defence budget is set to exceed US$400 billion next year—an almost 7% increase—according to budget proposals inadvertently posted on the Pentagons website. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Image:Harstad i norge. ... County Nordland Landscape VesterÃ¥len Municipality NO-1871 Administrative centre Andenes Mayor (2005) Jonni Helge Solsvik (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 169 656 km² 616 km² 0. ... A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution. ... A satellite is any object tha orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... NASA logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure.


Coal mining in Svalbard

Main article: Coal mining in Svalbard

The first modern coal mine was opened in 1906 when the Arctic Coal Company (ACC) set up camp. The settlement that grew up around the mine was named after the American owner of ACC, John Munroe Longyear. However ACC sold out to the Store Norske Spitsbergen Kull Compani (SNSK) in 1916, and over the next few years two other Norwegian companies set up operations on the southernmost island, Bjørnøya, and the Kings Bay Kull Compani opened a mine in Ny Ålesund.


Mining came to a halt during WWII, and the islands were evacuated on the 3rd of September 1941. However the Germans did bomb Longyearbarn and the Barentsburg settlement in September 1943 and the settlement of Sveagruva the year after.


The Ny Ålesund mine was closed down in 1963 after an explosion in 1962 when 21 lives were lost, and has since been converted to a scientific post.


As of 2006 there is only one privitised coal mine in operation in Longyearbyen, approximately 50% of that which is mined being used in the nearby coal power plant for the town. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Svalbard

Svalbard has a population of approximately 2,800 people. 60% of the people are Norwegian; 40% are Russian and Ukrainian. The official language of Svalbard is Norwegian. Russian is used in the Russian settlements, but formerly, Russenorsk was the lingua franca of the entire Barents Sea region. Russenorsk (or Russonorsk) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago and the Russian Kola peninsula. ... Map showing the location of the Barents Sea. ...


Svalbard in Popular culture

Svalbard featured as the setting for much action in Phillip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy, and was alleged to be the point from which one could gain access to parallel universes. Philip Pullman Philip Pullman, (born October 19, 1946) is an English writer, educated at Exeter College, Oxford, who is the best-selling author of the His Dark Materials trilogy of fantasy novels and a number of other books, purportedly for children, but attracting increasing attention by adult readers. ... The trilogy, in order of succession from left to right. ...


Sources, References & External links


The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police (Justis- og politidepartementet) is a Norwegian government ministry in charge of justice, police and domestic intelligence. ...

 
Overseas territories of Norway
Bouvet Island | Jan Mayen | Queen Maud Land | Peter I Island | Svalbard

Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... It has been suggested that Queen Maude Land be merged into this article or section. ... Fabian von Bellingshausen discovered Peter I Island (in Norwegian ) off West Antarctica on January 21, 1821. ...


 
 

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