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Encyclopedia > Amsterdam
Amsterdam
The Keizersgracht
The Keizersgracht
Flag of Amsterdam
Flag
Coat of arms of Amsterdam
Coat of arms
Nickname: Mokum, Venice of The North, Damsko
Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig
(Heroic, Determined, Merciful)
Location of Amsterdam
Coordinates: 52°22′23″N 4°53′32″E / 52.37306, 4.89222
Country Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Province Flag of North Holland North Holland
Government
 - Mayor Job Cohen[1] (PvdA)
 - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher
Carolien Gehrels
Tjeerd Herrema
Maarten van Poelgeest
Marijke Vos
 - Secretary Erik Gerritsen
Area [2][3]
 - Total 219 km² (84.6 sq mi)
 - Land 166 km² (64.1 sq mi)
 - Water 53 km² (20.5 sq mi)
 - Urban region 1,896 km² (732 sq mi)
Population (January 1, 2006)[4][5]
 - Total 751,757
 - Density 4,459/km² (11,548.8/sq mi)
 - Urban region 1,468,122
 - Randstad 6,659,300
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website: www.amsterdam.nl

Amsterdam  (IPA[ɑmstərˈdɑm]) is the capital and the largest city of The Netherlands. Its name is derived from "Amstel dam",[6] pointing to the city's origin: a dam on the river Amstel. The city is known for its historic port, the Rijksmuseum, its red-light district (de Wallen), its liberal coffee shop policy, and its many canals (grachten) which have led to Amsterdam being called the "Venice of the North". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Amsterdam can refer to the following Amsterdam, the largest city in, and titular capital of, the Netherlands see also Amsterdam (municipality) Nieuw Amsterdam, Netherlands in the municipality of Emmen, Netherlands Nieuw Amsterdam, Suriname New Amsterdam, Guyana Amsterdam Island, one of the French Southern Territories in the Indian Ocean Amsterdam, Saskatchewan... Image File history File links Flag_of_Amsterdam. ... The flag of Amsterdam. ... Image File history File links Wapen_van_Amsterdam_bewerkt. ... Coat of arms of Amsterdam The coat of arms of Amsterdam is the official symbol of the city of Amsterdam. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of Amsterdam The coat of arms of Amsterdam is the official symbol of the city of Amsterdam. ... Image File history File links LocatieAmsterdam. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Image File history File links Flag_North-Holland,_Netherlands. ... North-Holland redirects here. ... This is a list of mayors of Amsterdam (burgemeester) since 1824. ... Marius Job Cohen (born 18 October 1947) is the current mayor of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... Lodewijk Frans Asscher (Amsterdam, 27 September 1974) is a Dutch politician. ... Maria Bernadina (Marijke) Vos (born in Leidschendam May 4, 1957) is a Dutch politician. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Image File history File links Nl-Amsterdam. ... The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... For the 2004 album by American rapper Ludacris, see The Red Light District. ... The red light district in Amsterdam De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is the oldest part of Amsterdam, covering several blocks south of the church Oude Kerk and crossed by several canals. ... A coffeeshop in Amsterdam Coffeeshop license Some coffeeshops, especially in the Netherlands, are places where the sale of cannabis (marijuana) for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local authorities. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


Founded as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, because of its innovative developments in trade. During this time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds.[7] Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


The city proper comprises 751,251 inhabitants, containing at least 175 nationalities.[8][9] With its surrounding the Amsterdam metropolitan area has a population of 1 to 1.5 million people, depending on definition. This area is part of the Randstad conurbation, which has a population of 6,659,300. Moreover, Amsterdam is a six-point Gamma Global City.[10] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... “World city” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Amsterdam

The first known record of Amsterdam is 27 October 1275, when the inhabitants of a late 12th century fishing village, who had built a bridge with a dam across the Amstel, were granted exempted from paying a bridge toll by count Floris V.[11] The certificate's wording homines manentes apud Amestelledamme (people living near Amestelledamme) gives the first known use of the name Amsterdam, which by 1327 had developed into Aemsterdam.[11] A local romance has the city being founded by two fishermen, who landed on the shores of the Amstel in a small boat with their dog. Amsterdam's origin is relatively recent when compared to other Dutch cities such as Nijmegen, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. Amsterdam circa 1544, before the semi-circular ring of canals was added. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ... Paying toll on passing a bridge. ... Count Floris V of Holland and Zeeland (June 24, 1254–June 27, 1296), der Keerlen God (God of the Peasants), is one of the most important figures of the first, native dynasty of Holland (833-1299). ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ...

Painting of Amsterdam in 1538
Painting of Amsterdam in 1538

Amsterdam was granted city rights in 1300 or 1306.[12] From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely due to the trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the alteration to the protestant faith. The Stille Omgang—a silent procession in civil attire—is a remnant of the rich pilgrimage history.[13] City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Blessed Sacrament is displayed in a procession at the 2005 Southeastern Eucharistic Congress. ... Kalverstraat is the busiest shopping street of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Stille Omgang (silent procession) is a Roman Catholic procession which is walked each march in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ...


In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of Spain and his successors. Main reasons for the uprise were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, and the religious persecution of Protestantism by the Spanish Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which ultimately led to Dutch independence.[14] Strongly pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders as well as economic and religious refugees from the Spanish controlled parts of the Low Countries found safety in Amsterdam. The influx of Flemish printers and the city's intellectual tolerance made Amsterdam a hotbed of the European free press.[15] Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Historically the Netherlands is characterized by multitude of religions. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...

Dam Square in the late 17th century: painting by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde
Dam Square in the late 17th century: painting by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde

The 17th century is considered Amsterdam's Golden Age when it became one of the wealthiest cities in the world. Ships sailed from Amsterdam to the Baltic Sea, North America, Africa as well as present-day Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka and Brazil, forming the basis of a worldwide trading network. Amsterdam's merchants had the largest share in both, the VOC (Dutch East India Company) and the WIC (Dutch West India Company). These companies acquired overseas possessions that later became Dutch colonies. Amsterdam was Europe's most important point for the trans-shipment of goods and the leading financial centre of the world. In 1602, the Amsterdam office of the VOC became the first stock exchange in the world by trading in its own shares.[16] Download high resolution version (1081x770, 136 KB)Amsterdam, Dam square, Jan Adriaensz. ... Download high resolution version (1081x770, 136 KB)Amsterdam, Dam square, Jan Adriaensz. ... National Monument, with the Hotel Krasnapolsky in the right background. ... The Grote Markt and Sint-Bavokerk in 1696, by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde (1638, Haarlem - 1698, Amsterdam) was a Dutch artist of the 17th century, active in Haarlem, Amsterdam, and The Hague and best known for his cityscapes. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ...


Amsterdam's prosperity declined during the 18th and early 19th centuries. The wars of the Dutch Republic with England and France took their toll on Amsterdam. During the Napoleonic Wars, Amsterdam's fortunes reached their lowest point. However, the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 marks a turning point. New developments, by people such as city planner Samuel Sarphati, drew their inspiration from Paris. Belligerents Dutch Republic Denmark England France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Maarten Tromp The Duke of York Robert Blake Jean II dEstrées Strength Dutch Republic 600 warships 1,500 Marines 50 soldiers Denmark-Norway Fortress, 250 soilders England 650 warships 300 soldiers France 60 ships Casualties and losses Dutch... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Samuel Sarphati (1813-1866) was a dutch docter, physician, and city planner. ...

View on the Munttoren in 1900
View on the Munttoren in 1900

The end of the 19th century is sometimes called Amsterdam's second Golden Age.[17] New museums, a train station, and the Concertgebouw were built. At this time, the Industrial Revolution reached Amsterdam. The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal was dug to give Amsterdam a direct connection to the Rhine, and the North Sea Canal to give the port a shorter connection to the North Sea. Both projects improved the exchange with the rest of Europe and the world dramatically. In 1906, Joseph Conrad gives a brief description of Amsterdam as seen from the seaside, in The Mirror of the Sea. Shortly before World War I, the city began expanding and new suburbs were built. Even though the Netherlands remained neutral in this war, Amsterdam suffered a food shortage and heating fuel became scarce. The shortages sparked riots in which several people were killed. These riots are known as the Aardappeloproer. People started looting stores and warehouses in order to get supplies, mainly food. [18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 586 pixelsFull resolution (3250 × 2380 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 586 pixelsFull resolution (3250 × 2380 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Munttoren seen from the Singel canal The Munttoren seen from the Singel canal in 1900 The Munttoren or Munt (Mint Tower) is a tower in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... The Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal or Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal is a canal in the Netherlands that was built to connect the port city of Amsterdam to the main shipping artery of the Rhine. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The canal near Velsen Map showing the canal. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940 and took control of the country within five days of fighting. The Germans installed a Nazi civilian government in Amsterdam that cooperated in the persecution of Jews. Some Amsterdam citizens sheltered Jews, thereby exposing themselves and their families to the high risk of being imprisoned or sent to concentration camps, too. More than 103,000 to 105,000 Dutch Jews were deported to concentration camps. Perhaps the most famous deportee was the young German girl Anne Frank, who died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.[19] Only 5,000 Dutch Jews survived the war.[citation needed] At the end of World War II, communication with the rest of the country broke down, and food and fuel became scarce. Many citizens traveled to the countryside to fetch their aliment. Dogs, cats, raw sugar beets, and Tulip bulbs—cooked to a pulp—were consumed to stay alive.[20] Most of the trees in Amsterdam were cut down for fuel, and all the wood was taken from the apartments of deported Jews. After the war approximately 120,000 Dutch were prosecuted for their collaboration with Germany. Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March 1945) was a German-born Jewish girl from the city of Frankfurt, who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family, the Van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer in Amsterdam during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War... This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ... For other uses, see Tulip (disambiguation). ...

Subway station Nieuwmarkt with historic images of the Nieuwmarktrellen
Subway station Nieuwmarkt with historic images of the Nieuwmarktrellen

Many new suburbs, such as Osdorp, Slotervaart, Slotermeer, and Geuzenveld, were built in the years following World War II.[21] These suburbs contained many public parks and wide open spaces, while the new buildings provided improved housing conditions with larger and brighter rooms, gardens, and balconies. Due to the war and other incidences of the 20th century, almost the whole city centre had fallen into disrepair. As society was changing, politicians and other influential figures made plans to redesign large parts of it. There was an increasing demand for office buildings and new roads as the automobile became available to most common people.[22] A metro started operating between the new suburb of Bijlmer and the centre of Amsterdam. Further plans were to built a new highway atop of the metro to connect the central station and city centre with other parts of the city.
The incorporated large scale demolitions began in the formerly Jewish neighborhood of Amsterdam. Smaller streets like the Jodenbreestraat were widened and saw almost all their houses demolished. When the destructions culminated, the Nieuwmarktrellen (Nieuwmarkt riots) broke out.[23] Therein, people expressed their fury about the demolitions accorded to the restructuring of the city. As a result, demolitions were ceased, the highway never accomplished, and only the metro was finished. Only a few streets remained widened. The destroyed buildings were replaced by new ones corresponding to the medieval street plan of the neighborhood. The new city hall was built on the almost completely demolished Waterlooplein. In the meanwhile, large privat organizations, such as Stadsherstel Amsterdam, were founded with the aim to restore the entire city centre. While the success of this struggle is convincingly visible today, efforts for further restorations are still ongoing.[24] The entire city centre has attained its former splendor and—as a whole—is now a protected area. Many of its buildings have become monuments and plans exist to make the Grachtengordel (Herengracht, Keizersgracht, and Prinsengracht) a Unesco World Heritage site.[25] Car redirects here. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Nieuwmarkt is a square in the center of the Dutch city Amsterdam. ... Painting of the Herengracht (1672) The Herengracht is a canal in Amsterdam. ... Bridge over the Keizersgracht The Keizersgracht (literal English translation: Emperors Canal) is a canal in Amsterdam. ... The Prinsengracht is one of the main canals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Geography and climate

Satellite image of Amsterdam
Satellite image of Amsterdam

Being part of the province North-Holland, Amsterdam is located in the northwest of the Netherlands next to the provinces Utrecht and Flevoland. The river Amstel terminates in the city center into a large number of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ. Amsterdam is situated 2 meters above sea level. [26] The surrounding land is flat as it is formed of large polders. To the southwest of the city lies a man-made forest called het Amsterdamse Bos. Amsterdam is connected to the North Sea through the long North Sea Canal. Download high resolution version (1280x958, 178 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x958, 178 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Satellite imagery are photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... North-Holland redirects here. ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... Flevoland is a province of the Netherlands. ... The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ... Satellite image of Amsterdam and surroundings showing whats left of the IJ, its polders, and the North Sea Canal. ... A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes and requiring drainage by pumps to prevent the water table within it from rising too high. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The canal near Velsen Map showing the canal. ...


Amsterdam is intensely urbanized, as is the urban area surrounding the city. Comprising 219.4 square kilometers of land, the city proper has a population density of 4457 inhabitants and 2275 houses per square kilometer.[27] Amsterdam consist for 12% out of parks and nature reserves. [28] The concentrations of both carbon dioxide and small particles were above the limits the European Union directives.[29] Urban is in or having to do with cities, as distinct from rural areas. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For the Korean family name Park, see Korean name. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ...


Amsterdam enjoys a temperate climate, strongly influenced by its proximity to the North Sea to the west with prevailing north-western winds and gales. Winter temperatures are mild, seldom below 0°C. Frosts merely occur during spells of eastern or northeastern winds from the inner European continent, i.e., from Scandinavia, Russia, and even Siberia. Summers are warm but rarely hot. Days with measurable precipitation are common. Nevertheless, Amsterdam's average annual precipitation is less than 760 mm. Most of it pours as protracted drizzle or light rain, making cloudy and damp days common during the cooler months, October through March. Only the occasional Western storm may bring a lot of water at once, requiring all of it to be pumped out to higher grounds or to the seas around the city. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...

Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Year
Avg high °C
(°F)
 5.4
(41.7)
 6.0
(42.8)
 9.2
(48.6)
12.4
(54.3)
17.1
(62.8)
19.2
(66.6)
21.4
(70.5)
21.8
(71.2)
18.4
(65.1)
14.1
(57.4)
 9.2
(48.6)
 6.5
(43.7)
13.4
(56.1)
Avg low °C
(°F)
 0.5
(32.9)
 0.2
(32.4)
 2.4
(36.3)
 4.0
(39.2)
 7.8
(46.0)
10.4
(50.7)
12.5
(54.5)
12.3
(54.1)
10.2
(50.4)
 7.0
(44.6)
 3.9
(39.0)
 1.9
(35.4)
 6.1
(43.0)
Precipitation mm
(inches)
 62.1
(2.4)
 43.4
(1.7)
 58.9
(2.3)
41.0
(1.6)
48.3
(1.9)
67.5
(2.7)
65.8
(2.6)
61.4
(2.4)
82.1
(3.2)
85.1
(3.4)
 89.0
(3.5)
 74.9
(2.9)
65.0
(2.6)
Data retrieved from: [2]

Cityscape and architecture

A bird's-eye view of Amsterdam's city centre
A bird's-eye view of Amsterdam's city centre

Amsterdam fans out south from the Amsterdam Centraal railway station. The main street is Damrak which leads into Rokin. The area to the east of Damrak is the oldest area and is known as de Wallen ("the walls") after the medieval walls of the city - this area contains the city's red light area. To the south of de Wallen is the old Jewish quarter of Waterlooplein. The 17th century girdle of concentric canals, known as the "grachtengordel", embraces the heart of the city. Beyond the grachtengordel are the formerly working class areas of Jordaan and de Pijp, Museumplein, containing the city's major museums, Vondelpark, the 19th century park named after the Dutch writer Joost van den Vondel and Plantage, the neighborhood in which the zoo Artis is located. Amsterdam Centraal station at night Amsterdam Centraal station from the side. ... Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... A birdseye view of Amsterdam circa 1544, looking south. ... Amsterdam in 1544, with Dam square in the centre and the Rokin in the top left. ... The red light district in Amsterdam De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is the oldest part of Amsterdam, covering several blocks south of the church Oude Kerk and crossed by several canals. ... Location of the Jordaan in Amsterdam The Jordaan is a district of the city of Amsterdam in The Netherlands. ... The Vondelpark (named after Joost van den Vondel) is a park in Amsterdam. ... Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) was born in the Große Witschgasse in Cologne. ... The entrance to Artis in July 2004 Natura Artis Magistra (Latin for Nature is the mother (or teacher) of art) commonly known simply as Artis, is a zoo in Amsterdam. ...


Several parts of the city and of the urban area are polders, recognisable by their postfix -meer meaning 'lake', such as Aalsmeer, Bijlmermeer, Haarlemmermeer, and Watergraafsmeer. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Water tower in Aalsmeer Aalsmeer is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland; its name is derived from the Dutch for eel and lake[1]. Aalsmeer is bordered by the Westeinderplassen lake - the largest open water of the Randstad - and the Ring Canal... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Amsterdam Zuidoost. ... Haarlemmermeer (population: 127,750 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... The Watergraafsmeer is a polder in The Netherlands. ...


Canals

Main article: Canals of Amsterdam
Boat on the Prinsengracht in 2006
Boat on the Prinsengracht in 2006
A woodcut (1885) of the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal, a canal that is now a filled up
A woodcut (1885) of the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal, a canal that is now a filled up

Much of the Amsterdam canal system is the successful outcome of city planning.[30] In the early part of the 17th century, with immigration at a height, a comprehensive plan was put together, calling for four main, concentric half-circles of canals with their ends resting on de IJ bay. Known as the "grachtengordel", three of the canals are mostly for residential development (Herengracht or ‘’Gentleman's Canal’’; Keizersgracht or ‘’Emperor's Canal’’; and Prinsengracht or ‘’Prince's Canal’’), and a fourth, outer canal, the Singelgracht (not to be confused with the Singel), for purposes of defense and water management. The plan also envisaged interconnecting canals along radii; a set of parallel canals in the Jordaan quarter (primarily for the transportation of goods, for example, beer); the conversion of an existing, inner perimeter canal (Singel) from a defensive purpose to residential and commercial development; and more than one hundred bridges. The defensive purpose of the Singelgracht was served by moat and earthen dikes, with gates at transit points but otherwise no masonry superstructures.[31] A typical Amsterdam canal The canals of Amsterdam were mainly built during the Dutch Golden Age, and have led the city to being termed the Venice of the North.[1][2][3][4] The three main canals: Herengracht, Prinsengracht, and Keizersgracht form a concentric belt around the city, known as... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4017x2117, 3780 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amsterdam User:Deuar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4017x2117, 3780 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amsterdam User:Deuar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Prinsengracht is one of the main canals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... Satellite image of Amsterdam and surroundings showing whats left of the IJ, its polders, and the North Sea Canal. ... Painting of the Herengracht (1672) The Herengracht is a canal in Amsterdam. ... Bridge over the Keizersgracht The Keizersgracht (literal English translation: Emperors Canal) is a canal in Amsterdam. ... The Prinsengracht is one of the main canals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Singel is an old Dutch word meaning a circle (connected to German umzingeln, to surround), and hence is the name of a number of circular canals in the Netherlands. ... Location of the Jordaan in Amsterdam The Jordaan is a district of the city of Amsterdam in The Netherlands. ... Earthworks can refer to: Civil engineering earthworks based on moving massive quantites of soil; The Earthworks audio equipment company; The novel Earthworks by Brian Aldiss; The earthworks style of art. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ...


Construction proceeded from west to east, across the breadth of the lay-out, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the historian Geert Mak calls it – not from the centre outwards as a popular myth has it. Construction of the north-western sector was started in 1613. After 1656, with the canals in the southern sector also already finished for some time, building in that sector too was started, although slowly. The eastern part of the concentric canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel river and the IJ bay, was never implemented. In the following centuries, the land went mostly for parks, old age homes, theaters and other public facilities – and for waterways without much plan. [32] Geert Ludzer Mak (Vlaardingen 4 December 1946) is a Dutch journalist and historian. ... The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ...


Over the years, several canals have been filled up and are now streets or squares, such as Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal and Spui. [33] The Spui is a square in the centre of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ...


Architecture

Typical Amsterdam residential houses, the second building from the right was designed by Philip Vingboons.
Typical Amsterdam residential houses, the second building from the right was designed by Philip Vingboons.

Amsterdam has a rich architectural history. The oldest building in Amsterdam is het Houten Huys[34] at the Begijnhof in Amsterdam. This wooden building was built around 1425 and is one of the two still existing wooden buildings in Amsterdam. It is also one of the few rare examples of gothic architecture in Amsterdam. In the sixteenth century wooden buildings were broken down and replaced by brick ones. During this age many buildings were built according to the architecture of the Renaissance. Buildings build during this period are very recognizable, since they all have a façade which ends at the top in the shape of a staircase. This is however the common Dutch Renaissance style. Amsterdam quickly developed its own Renaissance architecture. These buildings were built according to the principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser.[35] One of the most striking buildings designed by Hendrick de Keyer is the Westerkerk. In the seventeenth century baroque architecture became very popular as did it elsewhere in Europe. This was roughly in the same period as was Amsterdam’s Golden Age. The leading architects of this style in Amsterdam were Jacob van Campen as well as Philip Vingboons and Daniel Stalpaert.[36] Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchant’s houses throughout the city. A famous building in baroque style in Amsterdam is the Royal Palace on Dam Square. Throughout the eighteenth century Amsterdam was heavily influenced by French culture. This is reflected in the architecture from that period. At around 1815 architects broke with the baroque style and started building in different neo-styles[37]. Most gothic style buildings date from that era and are therefore said to be built in a neo-gothic style. At the end of the nineteenth century the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau style became popular and a lot of new buildings were constructed in this architectural style. Since Amsterdam rapidly expanded during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city’s center were also built in this style. The houses in the vicinity of the Museum Square in Amsterdam Oud-Zuid are an example of Jugendstil. The last style that was popular in Amsterdam before the modern era was Art Deco. Amsterdam had its own version of the style, which was called the Amsterdamse School. Whole districts were built in Amsterdamse School, such as the Rivierenbuurt.[38] The Begijnhof in Amsterdam The Begijnhof is one of the oldest inner courts in Amsterdam. ... This article describes the wood that comprises trees and boards. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Stairs, staircase, stairway, flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Hendrick de Keyser (born: 15 May 1565 - died: 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, Spanish Habsburg, which is now in the Netherlands. ... View of the Prinsengracht canal by night showing the Westerkerk on the far right and the Anne Frank house just right of the centre The Westerkerk is a church in Amsterdam, finished in 1638 after a design by Hendrick de Keyser. ... For the Baroque style in a more general sense, see Baroque. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mauritshuis Jacob van Campen (1596 - 1657) was a Dutch artist and architect. ... Koninlijk Paleis The Royal Palace in Amsterdam (Koninklijk Paleis te Amsterdam in Dutch) is one of three palaces in the Netherlands which is at the disposal of Queen Beatrix by Act of Parliament. ... National Monument, with the Hotel Krasnapolsky in the right background. ... Jugendstil is defined as a style of architecture or decorative art similar to Art Nouveau, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries [1]. Jugendstil was also popular in the Nordic countries, where it became integrated with the National Romantic Style. ... The Modern-Era of NASCAR is a dividing line in NASCARs history. ... Asheville City Hall. ...


The old city’s center is the epicenter of all the architectural styles before the end of the nineteenth century. Jugendstil and Art Deco are mostly found outside the city’s century in the neighborhoods built in the early twentieth century, although there are some striking examples of these styles present in the city’s center. Most historic buildings in the city’s center and near it are houses, such as the famous merchant’s houses lining the canals.


Economy

The World Trade Center Amsterdam is located in the financial district Zuidas.
Skyscrapers in the Zuidas district
Skyscrapers in the Zuidas district

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.[39] Many large Dutch corporations and banks have their headquarters in Amsterdam, including ABN Amro, Akzo Nobel, Heineken International, ING Group, Ahold, TomTom, Delta Lloyd Group and Philips. KPMG International's global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen. The ING Building; also called The Shoe The Zuidas (meaning South Axis in Dutch) is a large urban project in South of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... The ING Building; also called The Shoe The Zuidas (meaning South Axis in Dutch) is a large urban project in South of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... ABN AMRO (Euronext: AAB, NYSE: ABN) was in the period of 1991 till 2007 one of the largest banks in Europe and had operations in about 63 countries around the world. ... Akzo Nobel is a multinational company, active in the fields of healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. ... Heineken International is an Australian beer, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Bunbury. ... ING House, ING headquarters in Amsterdam ING Groep N.V. (NYSE: ING, Euronext: INGA) (known as ING Group) is a financial institution of Dutch origin offering banking, insurance and asset management services. ... Ahold, (in full Koninklijke Ahold N.V., Royal Ahold N.V.), (Euronext: AH , FWB: AHO, NYSE: AHO, SWX: AHO) is a major international supermarket operator based in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Tom tom. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... KPMG is one of the largest professional services firms in the world. ...


Though many small offices are still located on the old canals, companies are increasingly relocating outside the city centre. The Zuidas (English: South Axis) is the new financial and legal hub.[40] The five largest law firms of the Netherlands and Dutch subsidiaries of large consulting firms like Boston Consulting Group, McKinsey & Co and Accenture have their offices here. The World Trade Center Amsterdam stands here. The ING Building; also called The Shoe The Zuidas (meaning South Axis in Dutch) is a large urban project in South of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... “BCG” redirects here. ... McKinsey & Company is a privately owned management consulting firm that focuses on solving issues of concern to senior management in large corporations and organizations. ... Accenture (NYSE: ACN, ISIN: BMG1150G1116) is a global management consulting, technology services, and outsourcing company. ...


There are also three other smaller financial districts in Amsterdam. The first one is the area surrounding Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station. A lot of newspapers like De Telegraaf have their offices here. Also Gemeente Vervoersbedrijf and the Dutch tax offices are located there. The second other financial district is the area surrounding Amsterdam Arena. Last the area surrounding Amsterdam Amstel railway station. The highest building in Amsterdam (Rembrandttoren)[41] is situated there and it is the location of the headquarters of Philips.[42] De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper, with a daily circulation of approximately 800,000. ... The Amsterdam ArenA is a stadium in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ...


The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX), nowadays part of Euronext, is the world's oldest stock exchange and is one of Europe's largest bourses. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. A bond from the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX) is a European stock exchange, based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Euronext N.V. is a pan-European stock exchange based in Paris[1] and with subsidiaries in Belgium, France, Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom. ... National Monument, with the Hotel Krasnapolsky in the right background. ...


Tourism

Amsterdam is the 5th busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4.2 million international visitors.[43] This number of visitors has been growing rapidly and steadily over the past decade. 41743 beds were located in 19400 rooms in 351 hotels as of 2007. Two thirds of these hotels are located in the city's center. Hotels with 4 or 5 stars contribute 42% of the total beds available and 41% of the overnight stays in Amsterdam. The room occupation rate was 78% in 2006, up from 70% in 2005. [44] The origin of tourists visiting Amsterdam is largely European: 74%. The growth in recent years can be attributed to an increase in the number of visitors from Europe too. The largest group of non-European visitors came from the United States, with 14% of the total.[44] Certain years have a theme in Amsterdam to bring extra tourists. For example, the year 2006 was designated "Rembrandt 400" to celebrate the 400th birthday of Rembrandt van Rijn. Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities due to these years. The average number of guests per year staying on the four campsites around the city numbers from 12,000 to 65,000. Amsterdam, one of Europes smaller capitals, has many attractions for visitors. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1745x1188, 1297 KB) Summary Visitors in line outside the Anne Frank Museum, Amsterdam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1745x1188, 1297 KB) Summary Visitors in line outside the Anne Frank Museum, Amsterdam. ... The Anne Frank House on the Prinsengracht in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is a museum dedicated to Jewish wartime diarist Anne Frank, who hid from Nazi persecution with her family and four other people in hidden rooms at the rear of the building. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 - October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters in European art history, and the most important United Provinces (Netherlands) painter of the seventeenth century. ...


Retail

Amsterdam shops range from large department stores such as Metz & Co, founded in 1740, De Bijenkorf founded in 1870, and Maison de Bonneterie a Parisian style store founded in 1889, to small specialty shops. Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets Pieter Cornelisz Hooftstraat and Cornelis Schuytstraat, which are located in the neighborhood of the Vondelpark. One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat in the heart of the city. Another shopping area are the Negen Straatjes: nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel, the concentric canal system of Amsterdam. The Negen Straatjes differ from other shopping districts by displaying a large diversity of privately owned shops.[45] The city features also a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuypmarkt, Westermarkt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt.[46] Logo and slogan of Metz & Co Metz & Co is an exclusive department store in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, founded in 1740 by Mozes Samuels who sold his company to his three sons in 1794. ... De Bijenkorf is a chain of upmarket department stores in the Netherlands with its flagship store on Dam Square, Amsterdam. ... Maison de Bonneterie in the Hague Maison de Bonneterie is an upscale department store in the Netherlands with flagship stores in Amsterdam and The Hague and a smaller branch in Laren. ... The Vondelpark (named after Joost van den Vondel) is a park in Amsterdam. ...


Demography

In the 16th and 17th century non-Dutch immigrants to Amsterdam were mostly Huguenots, Flemings, Sephardi Jews and Westphalians. Hugenots came after 1685's Edict of Fontainebleau, while the Flemish Protestants came during the Eighty Years' War. The Westphalians came to Amsterdam mostly for economic reasons – their influx continued through the 18th and 19th centuries. From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Look up Fleming in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ...


The first mass immigrants in the 20th century were people from Indonesia, who came to Amsterdam after the independence of the Dutch East Indies in the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1960s guest workers from Turkey, Morocco, Italy and Spain migrated to Amsterdam. After the independence of Suriname in 1975 a large wave of Surinamese settled in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area. Other immigrants, among which asylants and illegals, come from Europe, America, Asia and Africa. In the seventies and eighties many 'old' Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like Almere and Purmerend, prompted by the third planological bill of the Dutch government. This bill promoted suburbanization and arranged for new developments in so called "groeikernen", literally "cores of growth". Young professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods de Pijp and the Jordaan abandoned by these Amsterdammers. The non-Western immigrants settled mostly in the social housing projects in Amsterdam-West and the Bijlmer. Non-Western immigrants make up approximately one in three residents of Amsterdam and more than 50% of the children in Amsterdam have a non-western background.[47][48][49] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... The Bijlmermeer or colloquially Bijlmer is a neighboorhood that forms together with Gaasperdam the stadsdeel Amsterdam Zuidoost, part of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Almere (disambiguation). ... Location of Purmerend Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient way. ... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Location of the Jordaan in Amsterdam The Jordaan is a district of the city of Amsterdam in The Netherlands. ...

Demographic evolution of Amsterdam between 1300 and 2006
1300 1400 1500 1600 1675 1796 1810 1850 1879 1900 1930 2006
1,000[50] 3,000[51] 15,000[51] 54,000[51] 206,000[52] 200,600[52] 180,000[53] 224,000[54] 317,000[54] 523,577[6] 757,000[53] 742,981[4]
The Church of St. Nicholas (Sint Nicolaaskerk)
The Church of St. Nicholas (Sint Nicolaaskerk)

Amsterdam's largest religious group are the Christians followed by Islam, mainly Sunni Islam.[55] Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Church of St. ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In 1578 the previously Roman Catholic city of Amsterdam joined the revolt against Spanish rule, late in comparison to other major northern Dutch cities. In line with Protestant procedure of that time, all churches were "reformed" to the Protestant worship. Calvinism became the dominant religion and although Catholicism was not forbidden and priests allowed to serve, the Catholic hierarchy was prohibited. This led to the establishment of schuilkerken, covert churches, behind seemingly ordinary canal side house fronts, one of them the current debate centre de Rode Hoed. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


A large influx of foreigners of many religions into 17th-century Amsterdam, in particular Sefardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, Huguenots from France, and Protestants from the Southern Netherlands, led to the establishment of many non-Dutch-speaking religious churches. In 1603 the first notification is made of Jewish religious service. In 1639 the first Jewish synagogue was consecrated. In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


As they became established in the city, other Christian denominations used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services. The oldest Church of England building outside the United Kingdom is found at the Begijnhof. Regular services there are still offered in English.[56] The Huguenots accounted for nearly 20% of Amsterdam's inhabitants in 1700; being Calvinists, they soon integrated into the Dutch Reformed Church, though often retaining their own congregations. Some, commonly referred by the moniker 'Walloon', and are recognizable today as they offer occasional services in French. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Begijnhof in Amsterdam The Begijnhof is one of the oldest inner courts in Amsterdam. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ...


In the second half of the 17th century, Amsterdam experienced an influx of Ashkenazim, Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, which continued into the 19th century. Jews often fled the pogroms in those areas. They not only founded their own synagogues, but had a strong influence on the 'Amsterdam dialect' adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary. Amsterdam's nickname of Mokum, the Yiddish word for the Hebrew makom ("town"), stems from this immigration. Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Despite an absence of an official Jewish ghetto, most Jews preferred to live in the eastern part of the old medieval heart of the city. The main street of this Jewish neighborhood was the Jodenbreestraat. The neighborhood comprised the Waterlooplein and the Nieuwmarkt.[57] Buildings in in this neighborhood fell into disrepair after World War II and a large section of the neighbourhood was demolished during the construction of the new subway. This led to riots and as a result a small part of the old neighborhood was saved. For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... Nieuwmarkt is a square in the center of the Dutch city Amsterdam. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ...


Catholic churches in Amsterdam have been constructed since the restoration of the bishopric hierarchy in 1853. One of the principal architects behind the city's Catholic churches, Cuypers, was also responsible for the Amsterdam Central Station and the Rijksmuseum, which led to a refusal of Protestant King William III to open 'that monastery'. In 1924 the Roman Catholic Church of the Netherlands hosted the International Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, and numerous Catholic prelates visited the city, where numerous festivities were held in churches and stadiums; Catholic processions on the public streets however were still forbidden under law at the time. Only in the twentieth century was Amsterdam's relation to Catholicism normalized, but despite its far larger population size, the Catholic clergy chose to place its bishopric seat of the city in the nearby provincial town of Haarlem.[58] The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... The 1932 International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, from the Congress Pictorial Record Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of clergy and laymen for adoring and evangelising the Holy Eucharist. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the building type. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ...


The most recent religious changes in Amsterdam are due to large-scale immigration from former colonies. Immigrants from Suriname have introduced Evangelical Protestantism and Lutheranism, from the Hernhutter variety, Hinduism, from South East Asia and a liberal branch of Islam from various parts of the world. Turks, Kurds and Moroccans have introduced other Islamic sects. Islam has now become the largest non-Christian religion in Amsterdam. The large community of Ghanaian and Nigerian immigrants have established African churches, often in parking garages in the Bijlmer area, where many have settled. In addition, a broad array of other religious movements have been established congregations, including Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism and Scientology. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Bijlmermeer or colloquially Bijlmer is a neighboorhood that forms together with Gaasperdam the stadsdeel Amsterdam Zuidoost, part of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ...


Culture

During the later part of the 16th century Amsterdams Rederijkerskamer (Chamber of Rhetoric) organized contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama. In 1638 Amsterdam got its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as 1642. In the 18th century French theatre became popular. Opera could be seen in Amsterdam from 1677, first only Italian and French operas, but in the 18th century German operas. In the 19th century popular culture was centred around the Nes area in Amsterdam (mainly vaudeville and music-hall). The metronome, one of the most important advances in European classical music was invented here in 1812 by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel. At the end of this century the Rijksmuseum and Gemeentelijk Museum were built. In 1888 the Concertgebouworkest was established. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and television. Though the studios are in Hilversum and Aalsmeer, Amsterdam's influence on programming is very strong. Many people who work for television broadcasters live in Amsterdam. Also, the headquarters of SBS 6 are located in Amsterdam.[59] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2516x1376, 221 KB) Description: Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Source: own image/selbst fotografiert Date: August 2005 Author: Markus Würfel File links The following pages link to this file: Art gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2516x1376, 221 KB) Description: Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Source: own image/selbst fotografiert Date: August 2005 Author: Markus Würfel File links The following pages link to this file: Art gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... Chambers of rhetoric (Dutch: rederijkerskamers) were dramatic societies in the Low Countries. ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nes is: A municipality in the county of Akershus in Norway, see Nes, Akershus. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel (1780 - 1826) Dietrich Winkel was born in Amsterdam in 1780. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest in Dutch) is the best known and most respected orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest. ... is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Water tower in Aalsmeer Aalsmeer is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland; its name is derived from the Dutch for eel and lake[1]. Aalsmeer is bordered by the Westeinderplassen lake - the largest open water of the Randstad - and the Ring Canal... Satellite Business Systems, abbreviated as SBS, was a company founded by IBM, Aetna, Comsat (and later purchased by MCI), that provided private professional satellite communications through its SBS fleet of geosynchronous satellites, and was the first company to do so. ...


Museums

The most important museums of Amsterdam are located on het Museumplein (Museum Square). This square is the largest square of Amsterdam and lies adjacent to the southern side of the city's centre. It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World Exposition. The northern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum. In front of the Rijksmuseum on the square itself you can find a man-made pond. This is transformed in winter time into a ice rink. The western part of the square is bordered by the Van Gogh Museum, Stedelijk Museum, House of Bols Cocktail & Genever Experience and Coster Diamonds. The southern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam. The Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square. To the east of the square are situated a couple of villas, one of which houses the American consulate. A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket. Het Museumplein is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northern part of the square which is covered with gravel. The current appearance of the square was realized in 1999, when the square was remodeled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam for festivals and outdoor concert, especially in the summer. Plans have been made this year (2008) to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam are not happy with it's current appearance. Worlds Fair is the generic name for various large expositions held since the mid 19th century. ...

The Nachtwacht, by Rembrandt

The Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art. It opened it's doors to the public in 1885. It collection consists of one million pieces of art. The artist most associated with Amsterdam is Rembrandt, whose work, and the work of his pupils, is displayed in the Rijksmuseum. Rembrandt's masterpiece the Nightwatch is one of top pieces of art of the museum. It also houses paintings from artists like Van der Helst, Vermeer, Frans Hals, Ferdinand Bol, Albert Cuijp, Van Ruysdael and Paulus Potter. Besides paintings the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art. This ranges from Delftware to giant dollhouses from the 17th century. The architect of the gothic revival building was P.J.H. Cuypers. Only one wing of the Rijksmuseum is currently open to the public, where the 200 most important pieces of art are on display. The museum will open again after the year 2010. The Rijksmuseum is being expanded, renovated and a new main entrance for the museum is being created. Download high resolution version (750x625, 38 KB)Image from the official Rijksmuseum website. ... Download high resolution version (750x625, 38 KB)Image from the official Rijksmuseum website. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... View of Delft, 1660-1661 Johannes Vermeer (1632 - December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter. ... Frans Hals (c. ... Ferdinand Bol (born in June 24, 1616 in Dordrecht - died August 24, 1680 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. ... The young bull, 2. ... Delftware panel. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ...


Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam for a short while, so there is a museum dedicated to his early work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam. The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is shown to the public. A new building was added to the museum in 1999. This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by a Japanese architect. It's purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum. Some of Van Gogh's most famous paintings like the Aardappeleters and Zonnenbloemen are present in the collection of the museum. The Van Gogh museum is the most visited museum in Amsterdam. van gogh is a piece of shit Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Netherlands artist. ... Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (Utrecht, June 24, 1888 – Utrecht, June 26, 1964), was a Dutch designer, architect and cabinet maker. ... Categories: Stub | Paintings | Vincent van Gogh ...


Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum. This is Amsterdam's most important museum concerning modern art. The museum opened it's doors at around the same time the Museum Square was created. The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan, Karel Appel, and Kasimir Malewitsj. This museum is also currently being renovated and expanded. The main entrance will be relocated from the Paulus Potterstraat to the Museum Square itself. It will be open again to public in 2009.The current exhibition of this museum is housed in a former post office near the central station. The Stedelijk Museum (lit. ... Piet Mondrian (March 7, 1872 - February 1, 1944) was a Dutch painter and an important contributor of the De Stijl art movement, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. ... Karel Appel (born April 25, 1921) is a painter, born in Amsterdam. ...


Amsterdam contains a lot more museums then just those on the Museum Square. These museums range from little ones, such as the Verzetsmuseum, the Anne Frank House, and the Rembrandthuis, to very large ones like the Tropenmuseum, Amsterdams Historisch Museum, and Joods Historisch Museum. These museums are all located in the city centre or nearby it. The Anne Frank House on the Prinsengracht in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is a museum dedicated to Jewish wartime diarist Anne Frank, who hid from Nazi persecution with her family and four other people in hidden rooms at the rear of the building. ... The Rembrandt House in 2005 The Rembrandt House Museum (Dutch: Rembrandt House Museum) is a house in the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years. ... The Tropenmuseum is an anthropological museum located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... The Amsterdams Historisch Museum is the historical museum of the town of Amsterdam. ... Jewish historical museum in amsterdam Jewish historical museum in amsterdam The Joods Historisch Museum (Jewish Historical Museum) is a museum about the history of the Jews in Amsterdam. ...


Performing arts

The Grote Zaal of the Concertgebouw
The Grote Zaal of the Concertgebouw

Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, the home base of which is the Concertgebouw across the Van Baerlestraat from the Museum Square. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with one of the best acoustics in the world. The building contains three halls: Grote Zaal, Kleine Zaal and Spiegelzaal. 800 concerts a year are performed here for a audience of approximately 850.000 people. The Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Dutch: Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest, KCO) is the best-known and most respected symphonic orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest orchestras. ... The Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ... Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... A halls of residence, British English (almost always halls and not hall) or a residence hall (North American English) is a type of residential accommodation for large numbers of students. ...


The main theatre building of Amsterdam is the Stadsschouwburg Amsterdam at the Leidseplein. It is the home base of the Toneelgroep Amsterdam. The current building dates from 1894. Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall). The normal programm of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms, mostly by Dutch writers. The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The Stadsschouwburg (Dutch - city theatre) of Amsterdam is the name held by the theatre building at the Leidseplein in Amsterdam in the Netherlands, and by its predecessors, all of which are lost and/or have burnt down. ... Besides the square itself, several streets around it, such as the Korte Leidsedwarsstraat (pictured) are named after the city of Leiden. ...


The opera house of Amsterdam is situated adjacent to the city hall. Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera. This word is derived from the Dutch words stadhuis (city hall) and opera. The building was officially opened in 1986. This huge modern complex lies in the former Jewish neighborhood at Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel. The Stopera is the homebase of De Nederlandse Opera, Het Nationale Ballet and the Holland Symfonia. Stopera, as seen from the river Amstel. ... The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ... De Nederlandse Opera (DNO) is the leading opera company of the Netherlands. ...


Het Muziekgebouw aan 't Ij is a new concert hall, which is situated in the Ij near the central station. Its concerts are mostly modern interpretations of classical music. Adjacent to it, the Bimhuis, a concert hall for Jazz music, is located. A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ... The letter combination IJ can stand for the following: a common typographical representation of the IJ (letter IJ), a letter of the Dutch alphabet. ... A concert comprises a performance, usually involving some degree of formality, and particularly a performance featuring music. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


The Heineken Music Hall is a concert hall located near the Amsterdam ArenA. It main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts. Many famous international artists like Armin van Buuren, James Blunt and Rihanna have performed there. Inside Heineken Music Hall is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands, near the Amsterdam ArenA (Amsterdam South-East). ... The Amsterdam ArenA is a stadium in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... Armin van Buuren (born December 25, 1976) is a trance music producer. ... For the American Civil War general, see James G. Blunt. ... Not to be confused with Rhianna or Rayhana. ...


Nightlife, festivals

Amsterdam has a vibrant and diverse nightlife scene and is famous for it. The two main epicentres for nightlife are the Leidseplein and Rembrandtplein. The Rembrantplein is more visited by Dutchmen from outside Amsterdam and the Leidseplein tends to be more for the locals and tourist from outside the country. Besides the square itself, several streets around it, such as the Korte Leidsedwarsstraat (pictured) are named after the city of Leiden. ... Rembrandtplein Rembrandtplein The Rembrandtplein (Rembrandt Square) is a major square in central Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ...


Amsterdam contains a lot of cafes. They range from large cafes, like the ones on the Leidseplein itself to smaller cafes sought after by locals in the smaller streets of this city. You can sit down in a old fashion cafe, which are called a bruin kroeg by Dutchmen. These bruine kroegen contain a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere and the interior is lit with dim lights. You could also choose to sit down in one of the many trendy, stylish new cafes Amsterdam has to offer. These cafes are more sought after by a younger crowd, who drink cocktails or mixed drinks. Most cafes have terraces in summertime. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine. ...


Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam. Since Amsterdam is a multicultural city a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found here. Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being normal and affordable. Some of the best restaurants in the Netherlands are located in Amsterdam. Many hotels have a adjacent restaurant.


Amsterdam also possesses many discothèques. Most of the discothèques are situated near or on the Leidseplein or Rembrandtplein. A example of a discothèque near the Leidseplein is the Jimmy Woo. This is a trendy club were you have to be on the guest list to get in. The Paradiso and Melkweg are cultural centres, which turn into discothèques one some nights. Those nights in the Paradiso are popular with students. Large discothèques near the Rembrandtplein are the Escape, Club Home and Cineac (currently closed). There are in addition to these also a lot of cafes with a dance floor throughout the city. Various other large discothèques in Amsterdam are located outside these two epicentres. Panama is located near the Ij, which also is a restaurant. The Powerzone is a discothèque, which used to be an office building. House music is a popular category of music in the Powerzone. Club Arena is situated near the Oosterpark and used to be a chapel. Now it is place where people dance and drink all night long. You mostly have to be 21 years or older to get in, but they are not always that strict and for some parties you have to be 18 years or older. The Reguliersdwarsstraat is the main street for gay bars and clubs. It can get very crowded in this small street on weekend nights. The letter combination IJ can stand for the following: a common typographical representation of the IJ (letter IJ), a letter of the Dutch alphabet. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ...

Koninginnedag 2007 in Amsterdam
Koninginnedag 2007 in Amsterdam

The cinemas of Amsterdam which feature Hollywood productions are all part of a larger chain of cinemas in the Netherlands owned by Pathe. They have two cinemas in the city's centre, one of which (Tuschinski) is a beautiful old art deco style building in the Reguliersbreestraat. Scattered throughout the city's centre are a lot of smaller cinemas, which show a various selection of movies from documentaries to movies for children. Koninginnedag in Amsterdam, 2000 A stall at the Vondelpark in Amsterdam Typical koninginnedag-humour in Amsterdam; the sign says overthrow the royal house, referring to the pictures of the royal famly on the pile of boxes one can throw balls at. ... A typical megaplex (AMC Ontario Mills 30 in Ontario, California). ... Pathé Tuschinski is a movie theater in the Netherlands, in Amsterdam, originally exploited by Abraham Icek Tuschinski, who had it built in 1921 at a cost of 4 million guilders, in a spectacular mix of styles, as designed by Hijman Louis de Jong; Amsterdam School, Jugendstil, Art Nouveau and Art... Asheville City Hall. ...


Amsterdam is a city of festivals. In the last year alone there were 140 festivals in Amsterdam.[60] Famous festivals in Amsterdam are the events taking place during Koninginnedag, Amsterdam Gay Pride and the Uitmarkt. On Koninginnedag, hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam to join the inhabitant to celebrate and party. The entire city will be overcrowded with people who are buying products from the freemarket or visit one of the many music concerts. It is held on the 30th of April. During Gay Pride, there is a very long parade of boats with extravagant people floating on Amsterdam's canals and there are various events taking place in the city elsewhere. It is held in August. Finally the Uitmarkt is a cultural event which lasts three days. It consists of many podia with a lot of different artist on them, like musicians and poets. It is held in late August. Koninginnedag in Amsterdam, 2000 A stall at the Vondelpark in Amsterdam Typical koninginnedag-humour in Amsterdam; the sign says overthrow the royal house, referring to the pictures of the royal famly on the pile of boxes one can throw balls at. ... Front line of Gay Pride parade in Paris, France; June 2005 Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... The Uitmarkt is the opening of the cultural season in Amsterdam, held every year over a weekend at the end of August, usually on and around the Leidseplein and Museumplein (museum square). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... King Gustav V of Sweden delivers a speech from a podium For the 2004 film directed by Yann Moix, see Podium (film). ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... Poets are authors of poems. ...


Fashion

Fashion brands like G-star, Gsus, BlueBlood, 10 feet and Warmenhoven & Venderbos and fashion designers like Mart Visser, Viktor & Rolf, Marlies Dekkers and Frans Molenaar are based in Amsterdam. Model agencies Elite Models, Touche models and Tony Jones have opened branches in Amsterdam. Supermodels Yfke Sturm, Doutzen Kroes and Kim Noorda started their career in Amsterdam. Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion Centre. Buildings formerly housing brothels in the red light district have have been converted to ateliers for young upcoming fashion designers. G-Star Raw logo G-Star or G-Star Raw is a Dutch fashion label founder by Jos Van Tilburg in 1989. ... 10Feet is a Dutch fashion label, based in Amsterdam and is a subsidiary of Herb Industries. ... WARMENHOVEN & VENDERBOS The Netherlands based label is the brainchild of Sascha Warmenhoven and Babette Venderbos. ... Viktor & Rolf logo Viktor & Rolf is a Dutch fashion designer-duo company. ... Elite is a modeling agency founded in Paris in 1972 by Gerald Marie, John Casablancas and Alain Kittler. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Doutzen Kroes (born January 23, 1985) is a Dutch supermodel. ...


Red light district

Main article: De Wallen

De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is the largest and best-known red-light district in Amsterdam, a major tourist attraction. It is a network of alleys containing several hundred tiny one-room apartments rented by female prostitutes (and some ladyboys) who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. The area also has a number of sex shops, sex theatres, peep shows, a sex museum, a cannabis museum, and a number of Cannabis coffee shops offering various cannabis products. The city administration is actively pursuing a policy of reducing the number of venues. The red light district in Amsterdam De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is the oldest part of Amsterdam, covering several blocks south of the church Oude Kerk and crossed by several canals. ... A red-light district is a neighborhood where prostitution is a common part of everyday life. ... For the 2004 album by American rapper Ludacris, see The Red Light District. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... Ladyboy redirects here. ... Front window of a Tokyo sex shop advertising adult toys A sex shop is a shop that sells products such as sex toys, pornography, erotic lingerie, erotic books, and safer sex products such as condoms and dental dams. ... The sex industry is the industry formed of commercial enterprises which employ sex workers. ... A peep show or peepshow is an exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass. ... A sex museum is a museum that displays erotic art, historical sexual aids, and documents on the history of erotica. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A coffeeshop in Amsterdam Coffeeshop license Some coffeeshops, especially in the Netherlands, are places where the sale of cannabis (marijuana) for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local authorities. ...


Sports

Amsterdam is the hometown of the Eredivisie football club Ajax. Its home base is the stadium Amsterdam ArenA, located in the south-east of the city. Before it moved to the Arena in 1996 Ajax played their regular matches in De Meer Stadion. The Eredivisie (English: Honorary Division) is the highest football league in the Netherlands. ... Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax (Euronext: AJAX), also referred to as AFC Ajax, or simply Ajax, is a professional football club from Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... The Amsterdam ArenA is a stadium in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Amsterdam Zuidoost is one of the 15 boroughs (stadsdelen) of the city of Amsterdam, that consists of four residential areas Bijlmermeer, Venserpolder, Gaasperdam and the village Driemond, as well as a business park Amstel III/Bullewijk which includes the recreational ArenA Boulevard area. ... De Meer is the name of the former stadium of Ajax Amsterdam. ...


In 1928, Amsterdam hosted the Games of the IXth Olympiad. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam Marathon. The Olympisch Stadion in 1928 The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... The Olympic Stadium The Olympisch Stadion was built as the main stadium for the 1928 Summer Olympics. ... The Amsterdam Marathon is an annual marathon race over the classic distance of 42km and 195 meters held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands since 1975. ...


The ice hockey team Amstel Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league. Speed skating championships have been held on the 400-metre (1,310 ft) lane of this ice rink. Amsterdam is also a place where many skateboard competitions are held. Amstel Tijgers is the Ice Hockey team of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... Jaap Eden first became famous as a speed skater, winning the World Championships in 1893, 1895 and 1896. ... Rockefeller Center ice rink Outdoor ice rink in Ottawa. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Gaetan Boucher training for the 1976 Olympics Speed skating (as well Speedskating) is a form of ice skating in which the competitors attempt to travel a certain distance over the ice as quickly as possible. ...


The baseball team the Amsterdam Pirates competes in the Dutch Major League. There are three field hockey teams, Amsterdam, Pinoké and Hurley, who play their matches around the Wagener Stadium in the nearby city of Amstelveen. These teams are often referred to as playing in Amsterdam. The basketball team the Amsterdam Astronauts competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid, near the Olympic Stadium. This article is about the sport. ... Amsterdam Pirates is a baseball team in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Honkbal Hoofdklasse, Dutch for Major League Baseball, is the highest level of professional baseball in the Netherlands. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... The Wagener stadium is a Dutch Field hockey stadium. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Since 1999 the city of Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and -women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards in 1999. The Amsterdam Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year is an annual election, organised since 1999 by the citys division for topsport named Topsport Amsterdam in cooperation with the city council. ... Raymond Joval (born 15 September 1968 in Amsterdam, Noord-Holland) is a professional boxer from The Netherlands, who is the current IBO middleweight champion of the world. ... Carole Helene Antoinette Thate (born on December 6, 1971 in Utrecht) is a former Dutch field hockey player, who played 168 international matches for The Netherlands, in which she scored fourty goals. ...


Transportation

An Amsterdam bike
An Amsterdam bike

Amsterdam is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world and is a centre of bicycle culture with good provision for cyclists such as bike paths and bike racks, which are ubiquitous throughout the city. There are an estimated one million bicycles in the city. Bike theft is common, so cyclists use large secure locks. Approximately 100.000 bicycles get stolen a year in Amsterdam.[61] People use their bicycles for a lot of different purposes, which range from going to work to picking up the children from school and doing groceries with. A wide variety of bicycles can be found throughout the city. Most people use a common bicycle, but some use mountain bikes, racing bikes or even recumbent bikes. Transportation in Amsterdam is a selection of ways of transportation in and around Amsterdam. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Bicycle-friendly is a descriptive term that describes policies, places and practices which make it easier for people to ride bicycles. ... Many cities contain subcultures of bicycle enthusiasts, including racers, bicycle messengers, bicycle transportation activists, mutant bicycle fabricators, bicycle mechanics, and cyclists who share an interest in peace and justice activism or various counter-culture groups. ... A bicycle rack is a device to which a bicycle can be securely attached to prevent theft. ... ...


In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged. Parking fees are steep and a great number of streets are closed to cars or are one-way.[62] The local government sponsors carsharing and carpooling initiatives such as Autodelen and Meerijden.nu.[63] For other uses, see Parking (disambiguation). ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... Carpooling is shared use of a car, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs. ...


Public transport in Amsterdam mainly consists of bus and tram lines, operated by Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf, Connexxion and Arriva. Currently, there are 16 different tramlines; there are four metro lines, with a fifth line, the North/South line, under construction. Three free ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the IJ to Amsterdam-Noord, and two fare charging ferries go east and west along the harbour.[64] There are also water taxis and a water bus, in addition to the canal cruises, that transport people along Amsterdam's waterways. Some 35% of all people travelling in Amsterdam uses public transport. The Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (GVB) (municipal transport company) of Amsterdam operates 3 metro lines, partly elevated, no level crossings. ... Connexxion-bus in Katwijk Connexxion is the largest public transport bus company in the Netherlands, operating in the west, middle, east and far northern part of the country. ... An Arriva train in Denmark Arriva plc is a UK-based international public transport operator and vehicle rental company, headquartered in Sunderland. ... The lines of the Amsterdam metro Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (GVB) operates the Amsterdam Metro system, along with the Amsterdam Trams, Ferries and a number of Bus Lines. ... The North/South Line (in Dutch Noord/Zuidlijn) of Amsterdam, Netherlands, is a new metro line being constructed from 2003. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Satellite image of Amsterdam and surroundings showing whats left of the IJ, its polders, and the North Sea Canal. ... Map of Amsterdam, where Amsterdam-Noord is green Amsterdam-Noord (IPA: ; English: Amsterdam-North) is an autonomous stadsdeel (borough) of Amsterdam. ...


The A10 Ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam with the Dutch national network of freeways. Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the eighteen city roads, numbered s101 through s118. These city roads are regional roads without grade separation, and sometimes without a central reservation. Most are accessible by cyclists. The s100 is called the centrumring, a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre. A sign on the Hampton Roads Beltway in Virginia, United States, traveling on the outer loop (counterclockwise). ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


Amsterdam was intended in 1932 to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre Zero, of the highway system of the Netherlands,[65] with freeways numbered one through eight planned to originate from the city.[65] The outbreak of the Second World War and shifting priorities led to the current situation, where only roads A1, A2, and A4 originate from Amsterdam according to the original plan. The A3 road to Rotterdam was cancelled in 1970 in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8, leading north to Zaandam and the A10 Ringroad were opened between 1968 and 1974.[66] Besides the A1, A2, A4 and A8, several freeways, such as the A7 and A6, carry traffic mainly bound for Amsterdam. Kilometre Zero of French national highways, located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre Dame cathedral, and considered the official center of the city of Paris. ... These are the Highways (Dutch: autosnelwegen) with the most important towns at or near the highways: A1: Amsterdam - Hilversum - Amersfoort - Apeldoorn - Deventer - Hengelo - Germany A2: Amsterdam - Utrecht - s-Hertogenbosch - Eindhoven - Weert - Geleen - Maastricht - (border) Visé A4: Amsterdam - Schiphol - Leiden - The Hague - Delft A4: Vlaardingen - Hoogvliet A4: Bergen op Zoom - Antwerp... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Location of the A4 motorway. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... The Groene Hart (English: Green Heart) is a relatively thinly populated area in the Dutch Randstad. ... Zaandam () is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. ... A sign on the Hampton Roads Beltway in Virginia, United States, traveling on the outer loop (counterclockwise). ...

A tram crossing a bridge over the river Amstel
A tram crossing a bridge over the river Amstel

Amsterdam is served by eight stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways).[67] Five are intercity stops: Sloterdijk, Zuid, Amstel, Bijlmer ArenA and Amsterdam Centraal. Many other stations exist in the Amsterdam urban area. The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. ... There are 387 train stations in the Netherlands, since December 2004, when Almere Oostvaarders was opened. ... Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS (Dutch railways) is the main public transport railway company in the Netherlands. ... Sloterdijk () is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. ... Amsterdam Zuid is a railway station situated in the Zuidas (south axis) area of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, formerly known as Amsterdam Zuid WTC. It lies on the strategic rail route known as the Zuidtak (south branch), completed in 1999, and connecting Schiphol Airport railway station in the west to... Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA (Asb) is a railway station in Amsterdam Zuidoost (south-east) in The Netherlands. ... Amsterdam Centraal station at night Amsterdam Centraal (Asd) is the Centraal Station (Central Station) of Amsterdam. ...


Eurolines has coaches from Amsterdam to destinations all over Europe. Eurolines is a coach (long distance bus) company operating international routes within Europe. ... For other uses, see Coach. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Amsterdam Centraal is an international train station. From the station there are regular services with destinations in Belgium, France, Germany, and Switzerland. Among these trains are international trains of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen and the Thalys, CityNightLine, and InterCityExpress.[68] Amsterdam Centraal station at night Amsterdam Centraal (Asd) is the Centraal Station (Central Station) of Amsterdam. ... Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS (Dutch railways) is the main public transport railway company in the Netherlands. ... Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... CityNightLine (timetable and platform sign abbreviation: CNL) is a Swiss night train service well known for its service and comfort. ... ICE 3 trainset near Ingolstadt The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation: ) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its neighbouring countries. ...


Amsterdam Schiphol Airport is less than 20 minutes by train from Amsterdam Central Station. It is the biggest airport in the Netherlands, the fourth largest in Europe and the tenth largest in the world. It handles about 44 million passengers a year and is home base to KLM. Schiphol is the third busiest airport in the world measured by international passengers. Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ... KLM can also refer to KLM (Human Computer Interaction) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English: Royal Dutch Airlines) is an airline subsidiary of Air France-KLM based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... The following is a list of the worlds busiest airports by international passenger traffic. ...


Education

Amsterdam has two universities: the University of Amsterdam (Universiteit van Amsterdam), and the VU University Amsterdam (Vrije Universiteit or "VU"). Other institutions for higher education include an art school, De Rietveldacademie, the Hogeschool van Amsterdam and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool voor de Kunsten. Amsterdam's International Institute of Social History is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions concerning social history, and especially the history of the labour movement. Amsterdam's Hortus Botanicus, founded in the early 1600s, is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world, with many old and rare specimens, among them the coffee plant that served as the parent for the entire coffee culture in Central and South America. The University of Amsterdam (UvA) (Dutch: Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a comprehensive research university located in the heart of the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... The Vrije Universiteit is a university in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... The International Institute of Social History (Dutch: Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, abbreviation: IISG) is situated in Amsterdam in the Netherlands, and was founded in 1935 by Nicolaas Posthumus. ... A flowering Victoria in the Amsterdam Hortus Botanicus Photograph by Dirk van der Made Hortus Botanicus is a botanical garden in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family...


Amsterdam is thought to have excellent elementary schools. Some of these schools base their teachings on particular pedagogic theories like the various Montessori schools. Many however are based on religion. This used to be primarily Roman Catholicism and various Protestant denominations, but with the influx of Muslim immigrants there is a rise in the number of Islamic schools. You can also find Jewish schools in the southern suburbs of Amsterdam. In addition to these schools based on distinct beliefs there are public schools. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician, educator, philosopher, humanitarian and devout Catholic; she is best known for her philosophy and method of education of children from birth to adolescence. ...


The same goes for secondary education. Amsterdam is noted for having 3 independent grammar schools (Dutch: gymnasia), the Vossius Gymnasium, Barlaeus Gymnasium and St. Ignatius Gymnasium, where a classical curriculum including Latin and classical Greek is taught. Though believed until recently by many to be an anachronistic and elitist concept that would soon die out, the gymnasia have recently experienced a revival leading to the formation of a fourth grammar school in which the three aforementioned schools participate. Most secondary schools in Amsterdam offer a variety of different levels of education on the same school. Vossius Gymnasium is one of the three main gymnasia in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, the other two being Barlaeus Gymnasium and Ignatius Gymnasium. ... Barlaeus Gymnasium is one of the three categorial gymnasia in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, the other two being Vossius Gymnasium and Ignatius Gymnasium. ... Image:Iglogo. ...


Government

The administration of the municipality of Amsterdam is divided into 15 boroughs or stadsdelen; the central one, Centrum, being circled by Westerpark, Bos en Lommer, De Baarsjes, Oud-West, Oud-Zuid, Oost/Watergraafsmeer, Zeeburg and Amsterdam-Noord, with the six outer boroughs creating a further encirclement.[69] A stadsdeel (pl. ... The Oud West of Amsterdam roughly covers the length of the Overtoom, a major thoroughfare, the length of Kinkerstraat, a major shopping street and the areas between these two parallel streets. ... Oud-Zuid is one of the boroughs of Amsterdam. ... Map of Amsterdam where Oost/Watergraafsmeer is green Oost/Watergraafsmeer is a stadsdeel (borough) of Amsterdam. ... Zeeburg is one of the boroughs of Amsterdam. ... Map of Amsterdam, where Amsterdam-Noord is green Amsterdam-Noord (IPA: ; English: Amsterdam-North) is an autonomous stadsdeel (borough) of Amsterdam. ...


Definitions

The 15 boroughs of Amsterdam and the ringroad A10
The 15 boroughs of Amsterdam and the ringroad A10

Amsterdam is usually understood to be the municipality of Amsterdam. Colloquially, some areas within the municipality, such as the village of Durgerdam, may not be considered part of Amsterdam. Statistics Netherlands uses three other definitions of Amsterdam: metropolitan agglomeration Amsterdam (Grootstedelijke Agglomeratie Amsterdam, not to be confused with Grootstedelijk Gebied Amsterdam, a synonym of Groot Amsterdam), Greater Amsterdam (Groot Amsterdam, a COROP region) and the urban region Amsterdam (Stadsgewest Amsterdam).[4] These definitions are not synonymous with the terms urban area and metropolitan area, which are commonly used in English speaking countries for the purpose of defining large conurbations. The Amsterdam Department for Research and Statistics uses a fourth conurbation, namely the City region Amsterdam. This region is similar to Greater Amsterdam, but includes the municipalities Zaanstad and Wormerland. It excludes Graft-De Rijp. Image File history File links AmsterdamStadsdelen. ... Image File history File links AmsterdamStadsdelen. ... Durgerdam () is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... A COROP-region is a regional area within the Netherlands. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image:Http://www. ... Wormerland is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Graft-De Rijp (population: 6,486 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ...


The smallest of these areas is the municipality, with a population of 742,981 in 2006.[70] The metropolitan agglomeration had a population of 1,021,870 in 2006.[70] It includes the municipalities of Zaanstad, Wormerland, Oostzaan, Diemen and Amstelveen only, as well as the municipality of Amsterdam. Greater Amsterdam includes 15 municipalities[71], and had a population of 1,211,503 in 2006.[70] Though much larger in area, the population of this area is only slightly larger, because the definition excludes the relatively populous municipality of Zaanstad. The largest area by population, the urban region Amsterdam, has a population of 1,468,122.[70] It includes Zaanstad, Wormerveer, Muiden and Abcoude, but excludes Graft De Rijp, Uithoorn and Aalsmeer. Amsterdam is also part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad, with a total population of 6,659,300 inhabitants.[5] Image:Http://www. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ...


City government

As all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a mayor, aldermen, and the municipal council. However, unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into fifteen stadsdelen (boroughs), a system that was implemented in the 1980s to improve local governance. The stadsdelen are responsible for many activities that previously had been run by the central city. Fourteen of these have their own council, chosen by a popular election. The fifteenth, Westpoort, covers the harbour of Amsterdam, has very few inhabitants, and is governed by the central municipal council. Local decisions are made at borough level, and only affairs pertaining to the whole city, such as major infrastructure projects, are handled by the central city council. The Government of Amsterdam is the government of the municipality and city of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... This is a list of mayors of Amsterdam (burgemeester) since 1824. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ... A stadsdeel (pl. ...


National government

The present version of the Dutch constitution mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" only in one place, chapter 2, article 32: The king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the capital Amsterdam" ("de hoofdstad Amsterdam"). Previous versions of the constitution spoke of "the city of Amsterdam" ("de stad Amsterdam"), without mention of capital. In any case, the seat of the government, parliament and supreme court of the Netherlands is (and always has been, with the exception of a brief period between 1808 and 1810) located at The Hague. Foreign embassies too are in The Hague. Although capital of the country, Amsterdam is not the capital of the province in which it is located, North Holland, whose capital is located at Haarlem. The present constitution of the Netherlands dates back to 1815. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, situated in The Hague. ... Hague redirects here. ... North-Holland redirects here. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ...


Symbols

Main article: Flag of Amsterdam
The coat of arms of Amsterdam
The coat of arms of Amsterdam

The coat of arms of Amsterdam is composed of several historical elements. First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses, aligned in a vertical band on the city's shield. These St Andrew's crosses can also be found on the cityshields of neighbours Amstelveen and Ouder-Amstel. This part of the coat of arms is the basis of the flag of Amsterdam, flown by the city government, but also as civil ensign for ships registered in Amsterdam. Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria — in 1489, out of gratitude for services and loans, Maximilian I awarded Amsterdam the right to adorn its coat of arms with the king's crown, in 1508 replaced with Maximilian's imperial crown when he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In the early years of the 17th century, Maximilian's crown in Amsterdam's coat of arms was replaced with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II, a crown that also would become the Imperial Crown of Austria. The lions date from the late 16th century, when city and province became part of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Last came the city's official motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig ("Valiant, Determined, Compassionate"), bestowed on the city in 1947 by Queen Wilhelmina, in recognition of the city's bravery during World War II. Coat of arms of Amsterdam The coat of arms of Amsterdam is the official symbol of the city of Amsterdam. ... The flag of Amsterdam. ... Image File history File links Wapen_van_Amsterdam_bewerkt. ... Image File history File links Wapen_van_Amsterdam_bewerkt. ... For The Saltire (proper noun), see Flag of Scotland. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Total 44. ... Ouder-Amstel (population: 13,055 in 2004) is a municipality in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... The flag of Amsterdam. ... The civil ensign (a. ... Crown of the Austrian Empire The Crown of the Empire of Austria (de: Österreichische Kaiserkrone or Krone des Kaisertums Österreich) was originally the personal crown of emperor Rudolf II. It is therefore also known as the Crown of Rudolf II, or the Crown of the Austrian Empire. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) was a title used by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire before their coronation by the Pope, and later also by the heir designate of the Empire. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Rudolf II (July 18, 1552 - January 20, 1612, Prague, now in the Czech Republic) was King of Hungary (as Rudolf, 1572-1608), King of Bohemia (as Rudolf II, 1575-1608/1611), Archduke of Austria (as Rudolf V, 1576-1608), and Holy Roman Emperor (as Rudolf II, 1576-1612). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Queen Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Orange-Nassau (August 31, 1880 - November 28, 1962) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948 and Queen Mother (with the title of Princess) from 1948 to 1962. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


References

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  15. ^ Case in point: After his trial and sentencing in Rome in 1633, Galileo chose Lodewijk Elzevir in Amsterdam to publish one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. See Wade Rowland (2003), Galileo's Mistake, A new look at the epic confrontation between Galileo and the Church, New York: Arcade Publishing, ISBN 1559706848, p. 260.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Country Netherlands Province North Holland Coordinates Area 219. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Country Netherlands Province North Holland Coordinates Area 219. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hague redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a defining moment in the history of the relationship between religion and science. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Lodewijk Elzevir (1546? - 1617) was a significant Dutch printer. ... The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638) was Galileos final book and a sort of scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS (Dutch railways) is the main public transport railway company in the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Amsterdam
  • (Dutch) Amsterdam.nl - city government website
  • I amsterdam - international Amsterdam portal
  • Illustrated Google map of Amsterdam
  • Amsterdam travel guide from Wikitravel

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.   Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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