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Encyclopedia > Amritsar
  ?Amritsar
Punjab • India
Nightview of the Harmandir Sahib(Golden Temple In English)
Nightview of the Harmandir Sahib(Golden Temple In English)
Coordinates: 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.64, 74.86
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation

• 218 m (715 ft)
District(s) Amritsar
Population 1,500,000 (2007)
Mayor Shavet Malik
Codes
Pincode
Telephone
Vehicle

• 143-0xx
• +91 183
• PB02

Coordinates: 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.64, 74.86 , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Punjab_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... The divisions of a district. ... Amritsar District is one of 19 districts in the state of Punjab in North West India. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Example of a PIN: The PIN code of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by the Indian Postal Service. ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... Licence plates on the back of a taxi in Kolkata. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Amritsar (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ, Hindi: अमृतसर), meaning: The Ocean of the Nectar of Immortality,[1] is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. The 2001 Indian census reported the population of the city to be over 1,500,000 and that of the entire district to number just over 3,695,077. Punjabi redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Amritsar District is one of 19 districts in the state of Punjab in North West India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Amritsar is located in the northwest part of India in the State of Punjab, 32 miles (51 km) east of Lahore, Pakistan. Some have taken the name Amritsar to derive Amŗit-saagar meaning "The Ocean of the Nectar of Immortality". This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


It is home to the Harimandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, and is the spiritual and cultural centre of the Sikh religion. This important Sikh shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal in Agra and is the number one destination for non-resident Indians (NRI) in the whole of India. It is also known for the unfortunate incidents of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre while under British Rule (1919) and Operation Bluestar in (1984) under the Late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and... The Operation Blue Star (also known as the Golden Temple Massacre) (June 4 to June 6, 1984) was the Indian military raid of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, the holiest temple of the Sikh religion. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in...


The main commercial activities include tourism, carpets and fabrics, farm produce, handicrafts, service trades and light engineering. The city is popular and known for its food and culture. It is a paradise for food lovers. Amritsar is also home to Pingalwara, the home for destitutes founded by Bhagat Puran Singh and a home to Central Khalsa Orphanage which was once a home to Shaheed Udham Singh a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement. For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... A handicraft shop in Delhi-India, other opction is Apus-Inka. ... Bhagat Puran Singh, Founder Pingalwara, Amritsar Bhagat Puran Singh with an inmate of Pingalwara. ... Bhagat Puran Singh, Founder Pingalwara, Amritsar Bhagat Puran Singh, center Bhagat Puran Singh was a Punjabi publisher of spiritual literature, environmentalist and founder of Pingalwara. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Contents

History

Distant view of Babatul, Amritsar
Distant view of Babatul, Amritsar

Amritsar city is one of the major cities of the Punjab state in India. Under instructions from Guru Amar Das, this city was founded by Guru Ram Das in 1574, on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. (Earlier Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 {according to one source in 1570}. It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das). Guru Ram Das began excavation of the Amritsar Sarovar tank in 1577. It was ready by 1581. This tank was renovated by Guru Arjan Dev in 1586. Since then this city has been known as Amritsar (after the name of the sarovar). The first stone of the foundation of the Darbar Sahib is said to have been laid been laid by Sain Mian Mir, a Muslim, at Guru Arjan's request. A story in Sikh lore tells of a mason who then corrected the stone's alignment and was chided by Guru Arjan for doing so, with the Saint stating that the re-alignment was symbolic of the complex being continually attacked and rebuilt. Many masons worked on laying the foundation on January 3, 1588. Sant Mian Mir was very friendly with Guru Arjan Dev and tried to intercede with the Guru's subsequent torture and death at the hands of the Emperor Jahangir. He continued to be a friend of the next Guru, Guru Hargobind and again worked on attaining his freedom when he was held for some time at Gwalior Fort. In 1590, Guru Arjan Dev moved to the village of Wadali where Guru Hargobind was born on June 19, 1590. By 1601, the Darbar Sahib was fully ready. In 1603-1604, the first volume of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh scriptures, was prepared in this city and was installed at Darbar Sahib on August 16, 1604. Image File history File links Babtul. ... Image File history File links Babtul. ... Guru Amar Das Guru Amar Das (Punjabi: ) (Born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 5 May 1479 – 14 May 1574 Amritsar, Punjab, India) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... Tung can refer to: Tung tree, a deciduous tree native to China. ... Guru Arjan, right, dictating the Adi Granth to Bhai Gurdas. ... A typical layout for the Darbar Sahib. ... Guru Har Gobind Ji (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev Ji. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ...


It is here that the Akal Takht (The throne of immortality, lit. the never ending throne) the seat of Sikh political power was built by Guru Hargobind in 1609. Two flags representing temporal and spiritual authority and Sikh sovereignty were set up in front of the Akal Takht. Here Guru Hargobind wore two swords of Miri and Piri (temporal and transcendental authority). The Akal Takht (Punjabi: , ) is the second holiest shrine of the Sikhs. ... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... The piri (피리) is a Korean double reed instrument, used in both the folk and classical (court) music of Korea. ...


On April 13, 1634, the Mughal army attacked Guru Hargobind here. From 1635 to 1698, Amritsar remained in the control of the Mina family (descendants of Pirthi Chand). During this period, on November 23, 1664, Guru Tegh Bahadur visited the town. In April 1698, Bhai Mani Singh was appointed as the caretaker of the shrines of Amritsar. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Mina can refer to: // MiNa, the Microsystems and Nanotechnology Research Group at The University of British Columbia Mina, Gabon Mina, Greece Mina, Iloilo, in the Philippines. ... Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan Ji. ... Bhai Mani Singh Bhai Mani Singh a great Sikh scholar and illustrious Martyr, came, according to Bhai Kesar Singh ji Chhibbar, his contemporary, of a Kamboj family, but according to Giani Gian Singh Dullat [1822-1921], author of Panth Parkash, of a Dullat Jatt family of Kamboval village (now extinct...


The Mughal chief of Patti tried to occupy Amritsar several times. One such attempt was made in April 1709. The Sikhs, under the command of Bhai Mani Singh and Bhai Tara Singh of Dallwan, repelled this attack. When Baba Banda Singh Bahadur occupied several areas in the Punjab, Bhai Mani Singh chose to leave Amritsar in order to avoid the Mughal attacks. On December 30, 1711, the Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah, granted Ajit Singh Palit the charge of Amritsar in order to use him against Baba Banda Singh Bahadur. After the death of Bahadur Shah, Ajit Singh Palit returned to Delhi. In 1721, Bhai Mani Singh returned to Amritsar and re-started regular worship. His first act was to solve a dispute between the Tat Khalsa and the Bandai Khalsa factions for the right to the management of the shrines in Amritsar. Patti is a first or last name. ... Baba Banda Singh Bahadur is revered as one of Sikhisms greatest warriors as well as one of its most hallowed martyrs. ... Two Mughal Emperors have had the name of Bahadur Shah: Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah Zafar II. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Tat Khalsa (the True Khalsa) Singh Sabha organization was founded in Lahore in 1879 to rival the earlier Sanatan Singh Sabha. ...


On March 29, 1733, a major gathering of Sikhs was held here in front of Akal Takht. During the same time a Sarbat Khalsa gathering was also held. It discussed the Mughal offer of Nawab-hood. In April 1734, Bhai Mani Singh was arrested and was executed in Lahore on June 24, 1734. The Sarbat Khalsa is a gathering of a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ...


In 1740, Massa Ranghar, an official, desecrated the Darbar Sahib. He was killed for this action by Bhai Sukkha Singh and Bhai Mahtab Singh, on August 11, 1740. In 1757 an Afghan army of Ahmed Shah Abdali demolished both the Darbar Sahib and the Akal Takht. Baba Deep Singh led several thousand Sikhs against the Afghans. A major battle was fought on November 11, 1757. Baba Deep Singh and several thousand Sikhs were killed. Again, in 1762, the Darbar Sahib complex was again demolished by an Afghan army. On December 1, 1764, the Afghan army made another attack. 30 Sikhs, led by Jathedar Gurbakhsh Singh, fought against the mammoth Afghan army and were killed. In 1765, the Sikhs began re-construction of the shrines. The central part was ready by 1776. Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... Baba Deep Singh (1682-1757) is revered as one of the most hallowed martyrs in Sikh history. ...


During the eighteenth century, Amritsar, like the Sikh community as a whole, witnessed many vicissitudes of history. It suffered repeatedly desecration and destruction until it was finally liberated upon the establishment of sovereign authority of the Sikh misls, principalities, over the Punjab in 1765. The town was thereafter under the control of several misl chiefs although its surrounding district was held by Sardār Harī Siṅgh of the Bhāṅgī misl. Different sardārs or chiefs constructed their own buṅgās or residential houses around the principal sarovarand also their respective kaṭṛās or wards encouraging traders and craftsmen to reside in them and over which each exercised exclusive control. The sacred shrines were however administered by a joint council comprising representatives of the chiefs who had made endowments in land for their maintenance. Even prior to the time of Sikh ascendancy, joint councils, known as sarbatt Khālsā(lit. the entire Sikh Panth), to take crucial decisions on political matters had been held at Amritsar. Now again with all misl chiefs having their buṅgās there, it became the common capital of the Khālsā. Devotees from far and near, free to visit the holy city after six decades of the severest persecution, flocked to Gurū kī Nagarī (the Gurū's town). So did businessmen and tradesmen to take advantage of the increasing pilgrim and resident population. Trade, commerce and crafts flourished in different kaṭṛās each having its own markets and manufactories. By the end of the eighteenth century, Amritsar had already become Punjab's major trading centre. Yet the town with its multiple command setup remained a confederated rather than a composite habitation until Mahārājā Raṇjīt Siṅgh (1780-1839) rose to power and consolidated the whole of the Punjab into one sovereign State. Misl refers to a fighting clan. ... Panth (meaning a path in Sanskrit) is the term used for several religious traditions in India. ...


Ranjīt Singh, chief of the Sukkarchakkīā misl, who first occupied, in 1799, Lahore, the traditional capital of the Punjab, and declared himself Mahārājā in 1801, extended his hegemony to Amritsar in 1805 when he took over from his traditional rivals, the bhāngī chiefs, their fort with its mint striking the Nānakshāhī rupee, and the famous Zamzamā gun. The fort of the Rāmgarhīā misl was occupied in 1815 and with the possessions of Rānī Sadā Kaur of Kanhaiyā Misl and Fateh Siṅgh Āhlūwālīā in Amritsar during the early 1820s, Ranjīt Singh's occupation of Amritsar was complete. He then constructed a double wall and a moat around the city with twelve gates and their corresponding bridges over the moat. Already in 1809 he had constructed the Gobindgaṛh Fort outside Lahaurī Gate complete with a formidable moat, three lines of defence and several bastions and emplacements for heavy guns. Amritsar thus had already become his second capital. The royal toshākhānā or treasury was kept in Gobindgaṛh Fort which was also used as the royal residence during the Mahārājā's frequent visits to the city before his palace in the city, Rām Bāgh, was completed in 1831. Several members of the nobility also raised palatial houses and beautiful gardens in and around the city. Ranjīt Singh devoutly provided liberal funds to have the dome and exterior of the Darbar Sahib gold plated and to have the interior ornamented with fine filigree and enamel work and with decorative murals and panels in marble inlaid with coloured stone. Sardār Desā Singh Majīthīā (d. 1832), who had been appointed manager of the holy shrines in the city since its occupation by Ranjīt Singh, donated gold for gilding the top of Bābā Attal. Around 1830, Ranjit Singh had Muslim goldsmiths to gold-plate some parts of the inner section of the Darbar Sahib. The Gold plating led to it being called the Golden Temple.


In 1846, the British established themselves in the Lahore Darbar, with a resident in the Court; and, Amritsar became a place of frequent visits by the British. In order to keep the sanctity of the city, H. M. Lawrence, the British resident, issued an order, dated March 24, 1847, asking the English people to follow Sikh protocol while visiting Sikh places of worship. In 1858, a municipal committee was set up here. In 1862, train services between Lahore and Amritsar were started. Khalsa College, the first Sikh college was established here in 1892. [In 1969 Guru Nanak Dev University was established here]. In 1913, the city was electrified. In September 1915, the British declared Amritsar a holy City. (This order was later annulled after Indian independence in August 15, 1947 by the Indian government). On April 13, 1919, General Reginald Dyer opened fire on the gathering, at Jallianwala Bagh, near Darbar Sahib, killed 379 people and wounded another 1200. The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.) and the Shiromani Akali Dal were established here in 1920. Reginald Dyer : The Butcher of Amritsar by Nigel Collett Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (October 9, 1864 – July 23, 1927) was a British Indian Army officer responsible for the Amritsar massacre. ... Jallianwala Bagh is a garden in Amritsar city, one of the major towns of Punjab state. ... Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party), is a Sikh political party mainly based in Punjab, India. ...


In addition to the damage done by the Afghan armies the Akal Takhat was damaged by the Indian government forces in June 1984 during Operation Blue Star launched to deal with a Sikh secessionist movement which had fortified the Holy site with automatic weapons and rocket launchers. The Group was headed by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwala head of the Damdama Takhsal, a mobile college begun byGuru Gobind Singh. The Indian government repaired it in September 1984. The Sikhs promtly removed the work done by the Indian Government and re-did the repairs themselves. Theys began demolishing the repairs on January 26, 1986. The present structure was repaired by five service-groups headed by Baba Thakar Singh of Bhindranmehta Jatha. Belligerents Indian Army Sikh militiamen Casualties and losses Military: 83 killed, 248 wounded Militants (including civilians): 492 Killed Operation Blue Star ( ਬਿਲਯੂ ਸਟਾਰ , बिल्यू स्टार ) (June 3 to June 6, 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India,[1] to remove Sikh militants from Golden Temple...


The city is dominated by the history of the Sikhs and many of their sacred shrines are found in and around the city. It was established by Guru Ramdas. The city has highest temporal seat of Sikhs "The Harimandir Sahib" popularly known as Golden Temple. The city has central old city called walled city. It has narrow zig zag streets mostly developed in the 17th and 18th century. The city has a peculiar example of introvert planning system and has uniques areas called Katras. The Katras are self styled residential units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city. For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ...

Harimandir Sahib
Harimandir Sahib

The city lies on the main Grand Trunk Road (GT Road) from Delhi to Amritsar connecting to Lahore in Pakistan. The G. T. Road, built by Sher Shah Suri, runs through the whole of the northern half of the Indian subcontinent, connecting Peshawar, Pakistan to Sonargaon, Bangladesh. The city is also connected to most other major cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta by an extensive network of rail system. The city also provides air connectivity to major Indian cities, as well as international cities such as Birmingham, Toronto, Dubai, Singapore, Tashkent, Ashgabat, London etc from the Raja Sansi International Airport. The airport is being developed for increasing demand in future; a new International inbound & outbound terminal is operational and cargo terminal is also under construction. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Sonargaon is the ancient capital of Isa Khans kingdom in Bengal. ... This article is about the British city. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Raja Sansi International Airport (IATA: ATQ, ICAO: VIAR), also known as Amritsar International Airport, is 11 km north-west from the city of Amritsar, India. ...


The city is the administrative centre for the Amritsar District. Amritsar developed from a small village pool to a business centre. However, it did not become the industrial centre of Punjab due to its proximity to the volatile Indo-Pak border. Amritsar District is one of 19 districts in the state of Punjab in North West India. ...


Modern Amritsar

Amritsar is not just bhangra or giddha; sarson ka saag and makki ki roti. It is an attitude and a way of life. It enshrines and exudes its essential cultural identity, on one hand and welcomes the winds of change, on the other. Modern Amritsar is currently seeing rapid urban growth. To facilitate the development process, the Government of India and Government of Punjab have released a Rs.3,150 Crore (roughly 769 million USD) plan to guide Amritsar to world class status[citation needed]. The planned budget would fund construction of roads, sewage management, water, and a mass Rapid Transport transit system. Amritsar is witnessing a spurt in high-end premium residential property and multiplex development, courtesy the government’s decision to set up a SEZ here and the growing interest of real estate developers.


Leading developers from Delhi as well as local ones have lined up a series of townships comprising of villas, luxury apartments, service apartments and penthouses. Delhi-based Advance India Projects Ltd (AIPL) has planned a 115-acre (0.47 km²) township with a focus on service apartments and penthouses along with a plethora of luxurious amenities. Noida based Nitishree Group is launching an elite Shourya NRI City on the GT road, targeting NRIs. Local developers like Sharma and Gangaher Builders and Colonisers Private Limited, The Heritage Group and Impact Projects Private Limited have also planned a series of residential projects for the city. Government bodies too are actively involved in property development especially on the GT Road. The Punjab Urban Development Authority (PUDA) is developing a 650-acre (2.6 km²) Urban estate on GT Road while Housefed is building multi storied super deluxe flats at New Amritsar Development Scheme on GT Road. The Amritsar Improvement Trust too has acquired 2,375 acres (9.61 km²) of land for development purposes.


The multiplex mania has already hit Amritsar with about a dozen malls in various phases of completion by builders like Alpha G Corp, DLF, Omaxe, AIPL, Today Homes and Infrastructure, MBD group, Dynamic and Continental etc.


‘Alpha One’ located at Amritsar is a retail project developed by Alpha G Corp. which is located on the main G.T. Road , in close proximity to the central business district as well as the emerging ‘New Amritsar’. it is the single largest mall to come up in Punjab comprising of retail , entertainment and a 7 star business hotel. The project is designed by leading international architects.


'Omaxe Novelty Mall’ would be located in the very heart of Amritsar’s most fashionable address Lawrence Road, this mall would have a 3 - screen multiplex. However, because of building violations the mall is taking longer to be built.


RapMedia multiplex is being completed on The Mall Road in Amritsar with five screens.


The residential projects in Amritsar promise the best in luxury living and this coupled with series of malls and multiplexes offer a complete package of an urban, upmarket living for the upwardly mobile.


The city is witnessing an economic expansion similar to that seen in other cities in India. To protect Amritsar's historical and religious heritage, part of the new budget is dedicated to the preservation of religious shrines in the city[citation needed]. A new city Convention Centre has also been planned[citation needed].


Four 5 star hotels are also coming up like The Radisson Hotel Amritsar is to be operationalised by October 2008. It is situated on the International Airport Road. Also The Taj and Holiday Inn Group, Marriott Hotels and more are fast completing their projects.


In the last 5 years, the city has grown to be one of the most prominent business centres in the state of Punjab, with rapid economic growth and social development. Today, it boasts state-of-the-art infrastructure and ultra modern shopping and entertainment facilities. This trend towards modernity is, in fact, just the beginning. The future looks very bright for this city of yore.


Geography and Climate

Climate chart for Amritsar
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
24
 
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33
 
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48
 
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30
 
35
19
 
 
45
 
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27
 
38
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231
 
36
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187
 
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79
 
35
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18
 
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6
 
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18
5
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: Weather Underground

Amritsar is located at 31.63° N 74.87° E.[2] It has an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).


Amritsar has a continental climate, typical of northwestern India. The winter season (November to March) when temperatures ranges from 18 °C to about 4 °C, the hot season (April to June) when temperatures can reach 49.5 °C, monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon (September to November), Annual rainfall is about 790 mm. The best time to visit Amritsar is between October and March. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

As of 2007, Amritsar had a population of 1,547,695. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Amritsar has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. The main spoken language in Amritsar and in the surrounding villages is the Punjabi dialect of Maajhi, considered to be Standard Punjabi. Other languages spoken in the city are English and Hindi. Punjabi redirects here. ... Maajhi is referred to as the standard dialect of Punjabi language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ...


District Administration

  • The Divisional Forest Officer, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the forests, environment and wildlife in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Forest Service and other Punjab Forest officials and Punjab Wild-Life officials.
  • Sectoral development is looked after by the district head/officer of each development department such as PWD, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, etc. These officers are from various Punjab state services.
  • The Amritsar city has a local government (municipal corporation) responsible for the management of local and public health systems of the city. The municipal corporation is a democratic body of councilors. At present there are more than 70 councilors. They elect their mayor.
  • The District Town Planner - The state government's department of Town and Country Planning has a district level office of District Town Planning. Since the formation of this office, however, the city has not received a comprehensive development plan[citation needed]. The government of India has selected Amritsar to invest 1000 crores rupees for development.

The Deputy Commissioner (DC) or District Magistrate (DM) or District Collector is the head of the revenue administration of an Indian district. ... The (IAS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). ... Punjab, a state of India, has currently (2006) seventeen administrative districts, as noted below: Amritsar, Bathinda, Firozpur, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Mansa, Moga, Muktsar, Nawan Shahr, Patiala, Rupnagar, and Sangrur. ... A Superintendent of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police or Deputy Commissioner of Police is an officer belonging to the elite Indian Police Service. ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ... A Deputy Conservator of Forests or Divisional Forest Officer is an officer belonging to the elite Indian Forest Service. ... The Indian Forest Service (IFS) is one of the important All India Services of the Government of India. ...

Transport

Amritsar Railway Station at night
Amritsar Railway Station at night

Amritsar has international airport which has 150+ flights weekly, and which are increasing day by day. Amritsar is connected by bus with Ambala, Chandigarh, Delhi, Ferozepur, Jammu etc. Some of the road distances are as follows:- Jammu 216 km, Ferozepur 120 km, Chandigarh 235 km, Delhi 445 km and Wagah 29 km. Rickshaws, autorickshaws and buses are an easy way of getting around Amritsar. , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


The city is on the G.T. Road (Grand Trunk Road, NH1) so is well connected to the road network. A sum of Rs 450 crore, is being spent to make the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road four-laned. In 2006, Punjab Govt had finalised the construction of the elevated road to provide smooth access to devotees coming from the Jalandhar-Amritsar road and Amritsar airport. The four-laned elevated road is being constructed from Maqboolpura Chowk to Bhandari Bridge with two entry points and one exit.[3].


Amritsar is connected by rail with Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay, Varanasi, Wagah (Attari Border) and other major Indian cities. The main railway station in Amritsar is the, Amritsar Railway Station.


The city's international airport, Raja Sansi International Airport, is growing in size rapidly handling around 150 flights a week. By July 2008, it will be doubled in size, 4 jetways, with a new parking area and much more[citation needed]. Raja Sansi International Airport (IATA: ATQ, ICAO: VIAR), also known as Amritsar International Airport, is 11 km north-west from the city of Amritsar, India. ... A Jetway, jet bridge or aerobridge is a moveable bridge, normally enclosed, which extends from an airport terminal allowing passengers to board an airplane without having to go outside. ...


About Rs. 2,100 Crore is being left aside for the Mass Rapid Transport system for the city[citation needed]. It is hoped that this will help relieve city traffic, save money and help the environment.


Indian Railways has also proposed a high speed rail line to serve Delhi-Amritsar via Chandigarh and Ambala. The train is to run at a amazing 350 km/h, a first of its kind in India. It will get travelers between the cities in 2.5 hours. Countries such as Japan, China, UK, Canada and others have expressed a lot of interest in the project.The company to build the line will be awarded the contract at the end of May, 2008. Other lines of this kind will run in Mumbai, Ahmadabad, Pune, and Kolkata. [4] [5] [6] , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... , Ambala (Hindi: अम्बाला, Punjabi ਅੰਬਾਲਾ , Telugu: అంబాల ) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. ...


Education

Amritsar is a major educational centre. World renowned educational institutions like Guru Nanak Dev University (established 1969),Govt Polytechnic, Amritsar (established 1964), BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar(established 1967), Khalsa College, Amritsar (established 1892), DAV College Amritsar (established 1955), S.R. Government College for Women (established 1932), Government Medical College, Amritsar (established 1926) Government Dental College & Hospital, Amritsar (established 1952) are in Amritsar, and are among India's best universities and colleges. A proposed civil aviation college is also in planning stages, if built it would the first in India[citation needed]. GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY (G.N.D.U.) was established at Amritsar, India on 24th November,1969 to commemorate Guru Nanak Devs birth quincentenary celebrations. ... Design & Technology Complex, BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar A View of Lawns, BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar The College Hostel, BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar accredited A+ by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) Bangalore & College with Potential for Excellence (status... Khalsa College Amritsar Khalsa College Amritsar, Main Building Principal Jodh Singh, far left, presenting annual report for year 1939 Khalsa College is a historic educational institution in northern Indian city of Amritsar in Punjab state. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Government Medical College, Amritsar is governed by Director Research and Medical Education, Punjab and is affiliated to Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot. ...


Religious Shrines

Sikh

The following is a list of the prominent Sikh gurudwaras and sacred places in the city and its vicinity:

  • Harimandir Sahib (Golden Temple)
  • Gurdwara Manji Sahib Devan Asthan
  • Akal Takht
  • Gurudwara Shaheed Ganj Sahib Ji (Dhan Dhan Baba Deep Singh Ji)
  • Gurdwara Ramsar Sahib
  • Gurdwara Baba Deep Singh, built at the site of the martyrdom of Baba Deep Singh
  • Gurdwara Bebaksar Sahib
  • Birth Place of Guru Hargobind Sahib
  • Gurdwara Darbar Sahib, Tarn Taran (twenty five km south of Amritsar)
  • Gurdwara Baba Budha
  • Guru da Bagh, Kokawali
  • Gurdwara Bohli Sahib, Goindwal
  • Gurdwara Bir Baba Budha, Thattah-Chabhal
  • Gurdwara Darbar Sahib, Khadur
  • ChhehartaSahib, Guru Hargobind Ji
  • Baba Bakala, where Bhai Makhan Shah proclaimed that he had found the ninth Sikh Guru in Guru Teg Bahadur
  • Birth Place of Baba Budha Ji, Kathunangal
  • Saragarhi Gurudwara
  • Tala Sahib Gurudwara
  • Gurudwara Bhai Manj Sahib Ji
  • Gurudwara Pau Wind Sahib Ji (Dhan Dhan Baba Deep Singh Ji)

For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan click here. ... The Akal Takht (Punjabi: , ) is the second holiest shrine of the Sikhs. ... Baba Deep Singh (1682-1757) is revered as one of the most hallowed martyrs in Sikh history. ... Tarn Taran Sahib is a city with population of more than 100,000 and is situated near Amritsar, in the state of Punjab, India. ... Goindval is a place in Amritsar district in Punjab province in India. ... Italian stained glass depicting this Sakhi at the Makhan Shah Lobana Centre in Chandigarh, courtesy of Ms Ravi Chawla Makhan Shah Lubana (Punjabi: , , also written as Lobana) (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Belligerents 36th Sikhs of British Indian Army alliance of Afridis and Orakzais Commanders Havildar Ishar Singh  â€  unknown Strength 21[1] 10,000[2][3] Casualties and losses 21 (100%)[1] 180[4] to 600[5][6] The Battle of Saragarhi was fought during the Tirah Campaign on 12 September 1897...

Hindu

The maha kali mandir is situated at national highway Near Majitha bypass on Jalandhar-Rajashansi airport road. ...

Others

  • Radhasoami Beas

References

  1. ^ Amritsar City Information,City Information of Amritsar,City Information Guide of Amritsar India
  2. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Amritsar
  3. ^ Tribune India
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ [3]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

As per the 2001 census there are 36 cities or urban agglomerations in India with a population of 1 million or more. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... , Asansol (Bengali: ), a coal-mining-industrial centre, is the second largest city [1] in West Bengal, after Kolkata. ... , For other uses, see Aurangabad. ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... Madras redirects here. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Faridabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Faridabad district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Ghaziabad   (Hindi: गाज़ियाबाद, Urdu: غازی آباد) is an industrial city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is about a city in India. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर ,Marathi:इंदूर)  , a large city in the Malwa region of Central India is the commercial capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the pink city, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... , Jamshedpur   (जमशेदपुर in Devanagari) is a city located in the state of Jharkand in India, founded by the late Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata. ... , Kanpur   (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is one of the most populous cities in the north India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The urban agglomeration (UA) of Kochi (pronunciation?·i; Malayalam: കൊച്ചി [Kocci]); formerly known as Cochin) is the largest UA in the Indian state of Kerala. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... For the district of the same name, see Ludhiana District. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... , Nashik (Marathi: ) ( ) or Nasik (Marathi: ) is a city in Indias Maharashtra state. ... , Navi Mumbai (Marathi: नवी मुंबई, IAST: ), formerly known as New Bombay, is a twin city of Mumbai, India. ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... , Rajkot   (2005 pop. ... Get the information of Kakinada at http://www. ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... , For the Anglo-Saxon royal retainer, see Thegn. ... , Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા,Marathi:बडोदा)  ), also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... , Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी VārāṇasÄ«, IPA:  ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Vijayawada ( ) (విజయవాడ) literally translates to The Place of Victory. It is also known as Bezawada. ... , Visakhapatnam  (telugu - విశాఖపట్నం) (also Viśākhapattanamu, shortened and anglicized: Vizag or Vizagapatnam) is a port city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... , For the district of the same name, see Warangal district. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amritsar - LoveToKnow 1911 (550 words)
AMRITSAR, or Umritsar, a city and district of British India, in the Lahore division of the Punjab.
Amritsar is chiefly notable as the centre of the Sikh religion and the site of the Golden Temple, the chief worshipping place of the Sikhs.
The population of Amritsar in 1901 was 162,429.
Amritsar - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia. (4736 words)
AMRITSAR (31°38'N, 74°53'E) (originally called Ramdaspur) literally "pool of nectar." This is now the name of a Sikh holy city located in the northern Indian state of Punjab, where the Harimandir Sahib complex is located.
Amritsar continued to enjoy its precedence as the holiest city of the Sikhs as well as the most important commercial and industrial centre in the northwest India even after the annexation of the Punjab to the British empire in 1849.
It was a declaration in 1873 by four Sikh students of the Amritsar Mission School of their intention to embrace Christianity which led to the rise of a Sikh movement to promote rediscovery of the essentials of the teachings of the faith and education among the Sikh masses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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