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Encyclopedia > Amplitude

Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable, with each oscillation, within an oscillating system. For instance, sound waves are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis then the amplitude may be measured as the vertical distance between points on the curve. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex-valued function that describes an uncertain or unknown quantity. ... Amplitude is a 2003 PlayStation 2 musical video game. ... Peak to Peak Charter School is a K-12 public college-preparatory charter school located in Lafayette, Colorado, and is part of the Boulder Valley School District. ... The magnitude of a mathematical object is its size: a property by which it can be larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind; in technical terms, an ordering of the class of objects to which it belongs. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... This article is about compression waves. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...

Contents

Concepts of Amplitude

Peak Amplitude

Peak amplitude is measured between a peak and the rest position of the system. In many sciences this is called peak amplitude. In astronomy, when measuring the wobble of a body due to the gravitational influence of another body, it is called the semi-amplitude[1]. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...

The displacement y is the amplitude of the wave
The displacement y is the amplitude of the wave

moved over from meta File links The following pages link to this file: Wave Amplitude Categories: GFDL images ... moved over from meta File links The following pages link to this file: Wave Amplitude Categories: GFDL images ...

Peak-to-peak Amplitude

Peak-to-peak amplitude is to measure it between peak and trough. Peak-to-peak amplitudes can be measured by meters with appropriate circuitry, or by viewing the waveform on an oscilloscope. Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ...


Root Mean Square Amplitude

Root mean square(RMS) amplitude is used especially in electrical engineering: the RMS is defined as the square root of the mean over time of the square of the vertical distance of the graph from the rest state. In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... In mathematics, a square root (√) of a number x is a number r such that , or in words, a number r whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself) is x. ... This article is about mathematical mean. ...


Ambiguity of Amplitude

The use of peak amplitude is simple and unambiguous for symmetric, periodic waves, like a sine wave, a square wave, or a triangular wave. For an asymmetric wave (periodic pulses in one direction, for example), the peak amplitude becomes ambiguous because the value obtained is different depending on whether the maximum positive signal is measured relative to the mean, the maximum negative signal is measured relative to the mean, or the maximum positive signal is measured relative the maximum negative signal (the peak-to-peak amplitude) and then divided by two. In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... A square wave is a kind of basic waveform. ...


For complex waveforms, especially non-repeating signals like noise, the RMS amplitude is usually used because it is unambiguous and because it has physical significance. For example, the average power transmitted by an acoustic or electromagnetic wave or by an electrical signal is proportional to the square of the RMS amplitude (and not, in general, to the square of the peak amplitude). In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ...

A sinodial voltage.1 = Amplitude (peak),2 = Peak-to-peak,3 = RMS,4 = Wave period
A sinodial voltage.
1 = Amplitude (peak),
2 = Peak-to-peak,
3 = RMS,
4 = Wave period

When dealing with alternating current electrical power it is universal to specify RMS values of a sinusoidal waveform. It is important to recognise that the peak-to-peak voltage is nearly 3 times the RMS value when assessing safety, specifying components, etc. An AC voltage (or other alternating signal) measured by looking at its maximum positive and maximum negative voltage. ... In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ... The period of a wave is the time the full wave takes to pass a given point. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...


Pulse amplitude

In telecommunication, pulse amplitude is the magnitude of a pulse parameter, such as the field intensity, voltage level, current level, or power level. Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... In signal processing, the term pulse has the following meanings: A rapid, transient change in the amplitude of a signal from a baseline value to a higher or lower value, followed by a rapid return to the baseline value. ... In physics, the field strength of a field is its force per unit mass or charge at a point. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ...


Note 1: Pulse amplitude is measured with respect to a specified reference and therefore should be modified by qualifiers, such as "average", "instantaneous", "peak", or "root-mean-square." In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ...


Note 2: Pulse amplitude also applies to the amplitude of frequency- and phase-modulated waveform envelopes. For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... This article is about a portion of a periodic process. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ...


Source: from Federal Standard 1037C Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ...


Amplitude in the Wave Equation

In the simple wave equation The wave equation is an important partial differential equation that describes the propagation of a variety of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ...

x = A sin(t - K) + b ,

A is the amplitude of the wave.


Units of Amplitude

The units of the amplitude depend on the type of wave.


For waves on a string, or in medium such as water, the amplitude is a displacement. A vibration in a string is a wave. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In Newtonian mechanics, displacement is the vector that specifies the position of a point or a particle in reference to an origin or to a previous position. ...


The amplitude of sound waves and audio signals (also referred to as Volume) conventionally refers to the amplitude of the air pressure in the wave, but sometimes the amplitude of the displacement (movements of the air or the diaphragm of a speaker) is described. The logarithm of the amplitude squared is usually quoted in dB, so a null amplitude corresponds to - dB. Loudness is related to amplitude and intensity and is one of most salient qualities of a sound, although in general sounds can be recognized independently of amplitude. The square of the amplitude is proportional to the intensity of the wave. This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Particle displacement or particle amplitude (represented in mathematics by the lower-case Greek letter ξ) is a measurement of distance (in metres) of the movement of a particle in a medium as it transmits a wave. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... Look up logarithm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... In physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged energy flux. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Music and the brain. ... The sound intensity, I, (acoustic intensity) is defined as the sound power Pac per unit area A. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listeners location. ...


For electromagnetic radiation, the amplitude of a photon corresponds to the changes in the electric field of the wave. However radio signals may be carried by electromagnetic radiation; the intensity of the radiation (amplitude modulation) or the frequency of the radiation (frequency modulation) is oscillated and then the individual oscillations are varied (modulated) to produce the signal. This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ...


Wave Forms and Amplitude

The amplitude may be constant (in which case the wave is a continuous wave) or may vary with time and/or position. The form of the variation of amplitude is called the envelope of the wave. A continuous wave (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency. ... An envelope detector is a device which is used to demodulate AM signals. ...


If the waveform is a pure sine wave, the relationships between peak-to-peak, peak, mean, and RMS amplitudes are fixed and known, but this is not true for an arbitrary waveform which may or may not be periodic. In trigonometry, an ideal sine wave is a waveform whose graph is identical to the generalized sine function y = Asin[ω(x − α)] + C, where A is the amplitude, ω is the angular frequency (2π/P where P is the wavelength), α is the phase shift, and C is the... In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ...


For a sine wave the relationship between RMS and peak-to-peak amplitude is: In trigonometry, an ideal sine wave is a waveform whose graph is identical to the generalized sine function y = Asin[ω(x − α)] + C, where A is the amplitude, ω is the angular frequency (2π/P where P is the wavelength), α is the phase shift, and C is the...

 mbox{Peak-to-peak} = 2 sqrt{2} times mbox{RMS} approx 2.8 times mbox{RMS}. ,

References

[1]Exoplanets by Urial A. Goldvais downloaded 2008/03/31 from img2.tapuz.co.il/forums/1_109580628.pdf


See also

Look up amplitude in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals (e. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... The crest factor of a waveform is equal to the peak amplitude of a waveform divided by the RMS value. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amplitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (356 words)
Amplitude is a nonnegative scalar measure of a wave's magnitude of oscillation, that is, magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle.
The amplitude of sound waves and audio signals conventionally refers to the amplitude of the air pressure in the wave, but sometimes the amplitude of the displacement (movements of the air or the diaphragm of a speaker) is described.
The square of the amplitude is proportional to the intensity of the wave.
Amplitude modulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1958 words)
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal.
Its output is a signal at the carrier frequency, with peaks that trace the amplitude of the unmodulated signal.
Forms of AM In its basic form, amplitude modulation produces a signal with power concentrated at the carrier frequency and in two adjacent sidebands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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