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Encyclopedia > Amphibious warfare

Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Amphibious_warfare. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

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Siege · Total war · Trench Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ...

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Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

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Amphibious warfare is the utilization of naval firepower, logistics and strategy to project military power ashore. In previous eras it stood as the primary method of delivering troops unto non-contiguous enemy-held terrain. Airborne operations have slowly eroded this primacy as larger and more capable air transports have been fielded. In this modern era amphibious warfare persists in the form of commando insertion by fast patrol boats, zodiacs and mini-submersibles. Debatably, states with modest airlift potential may view amphibious operations as a viable means of troop deployment. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... Categories: Ship types ... Zodiac Group is a diversified corporation with a worldwide presence and a blue-chip stock specialising in the production of aerosafety systems, aircraft systems, airline equipment, airbags, remote transmissions, boats and swimming pools. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ...


In the modern era of warfare, an amphibious landing of infantry troops on a beachhead is the most complex of all military maneuvers. The undertaking requires an intricate coordination of numerous military specialties, including air power, naval gunfire, naval transport, logistical planning, specialized equipment, land warfare, tactics, and extensive training in the nuances of this maneuver for all personnel involved. A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Naval gunfire support (NGFS) comprises the use of naval artillery to provide fire support support for amphibious assault troops. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


An amphibious landing is distinguished from an airborne landing in the following respects: an airborne landing can take place virtually anywhere, while an amphibious landing must occur on a suitable ocean-facing beach; and an airborne landing in most cases must be supported almost exclusively from the air, while an amphibious landing can be supported by both air and naval shipping. Ninety Mile Beach Australia. ...

Contents

History

Recorded amphibious warfare predates the 18th century by a couple of millennia: the Sea Peoples that menanced the Egyptians from the reign of Akhenaten as captured on the reliefs at Medinet Habu and Karnak, the Helenic city states whom routinely resorted to opposed assaults upon each others shore's which they reflected upon in their plays and other expressions of art, the landing at Marathon by the ancient Persians on September 9, 490 BC which history records as the largest amphibious operation for 2400 years until eclipsed by Gallipoli. More current amphibious landings have been conducted by small commando forces of various states and non-state actors; Israel, Tamil Tigers etc. And there exists intense debate over mainland China (PRC)'s potential to conduct amphibious operations against Taiwan (ROC). With the bulk of the world's population concentrated near the sea, chances are good that future conflict may entail the use of amphibious assets. Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ...


16th century

Until these years, Armies or Navies were raised up from small units leaded by Officers who payed the troops at his own expense. These Officers served the King or Queen when needed. Royal Armies, when created, did not depended on private ventures but on the King's. Although the amphibious operations are part of the naval warfare, there were not specialised unit in this task. Troops raised were embarked and thrown to the fight according to their Commander's skills. After the fight or war, troops were disbanded until the next fight.


In 1565, the island of Malta was invaded by the Turks. A strategic choke point in the Mediterranean Sea, the loss was so menacing for the Western Europe that forces were urgently raised in order to recover the island. But it took four months to set up, arm, embark and move a 5,500 men amphibious force to the area in battle order. Then, Felipe II, King of Spain, decided to permanently assign certain already amphibious skilled Units to the Royal Armada. These units were trained specifically for the fighting on ships and from ships. The Spanish Marines were born. The idea was to set up a permanent assignation of land troops to the Royal Spanish Navy, available for the Crown. Thus, countries adopt the idea and all around the world. Countries raise their Marine Corps too. Seal of the spanish Infantería de Marina The Infantería de Marina or Spanish Marines is a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for providing amphibious warfare from the sea utilizing the mobility of the Spanish Navy. ...


The first "professional" Marine units were already task-trained amphibious troops, but instead of being disbanded, were kept for the Crown's needs. First actions took place all along the Mediterranean Sea where the Turks and Pirate settlements were a risk for the commerce and navigation: Algiers, Malta, Gelves, La Goleta... Landings as the "Terceras Landing" in Azores Islands 25 May 1583, was a military feat as the planners decided to make a fake landing to distract the defending forces (5000 Portuguese, British and French soldiers); also special barges were arranged in order to unload horses and artillery (700 guns) on the beach; special row boats were equipped with small cannons to support the landing boats; special supplies were readied to be unloaded and support the 11000 (eleven thousand) men landing force strength. The total strength of the amphibious force including ships, was 15000 (fifteen thousand) men...for an armada strength of 90 ships. After an initial recce action where the most suitable beaches for the landing assets were chosen, a 4000 man first assault wave was unloaded while two "Galeras" made a distractive fake landing away from the main beach. The main defensive body ran to defend against the feinted action, but the first wave had set up a firm defensive perimeter, and the second wave was already landing with the heavy artillery. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In this operation we can find documented reports about the detailed planning, the previous beaches recce, the special equipment and training, ship-to-shore movement, naval fire support...modern terms but old facts. Not the first landing, but for sure one of the first amphibious operations.


17th century

This was a century of "expansion". Countries were expanding and creating colonies. Amphibious operations were mostly oriented to settle colonies and strong points along the navigational routes. Fights among countries to keep or destroy opposing power's capabilities were continuous.


Amphibious forces were fully organized and devoted to this mission, although the troops not only fought ashore, but on board ships.


18th century

Also, the Mediterranenan Sea keeps on being the playground for the European Powers. Amphibious landings are performed by Spanish Marines allowing them to conquer Sardinia (1717) and Sicily (1732)


But not all landings were successful. Mere frontal assaults from the sea against well defended positions are to be a fiasco should they be halfhearted planned. On March 13, 1741, a British fleet, 2000 guns in 186 ships, commanded by Admiral Sir Edward Vernon tries to take with a 23600 man force, the Spanish City of Cartagena de Indias (now Colombia). In this expedition, take part 4000 Virginia recruits commanded by Lawrence Washington (half brother of George Washington). The defenders lined up 3000 men, including Marines from the only six ships based in that port. After 15 of previous bombing, the British start the landings, delayed by the defenders' actions and finally the scuttling of the six Spanish ships attempting to close the access channel to the city. The defenders are decimated and only 600 remain inside the last bastion: San Felipe Fortress. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Bocagrande Cartagena San Pedro Square,Old City Cartagena Cartagena, Colombia, also known as Cartagena de Indias, is a large seaport on the north coast of Colombia. ...


San Felipe de Barajas Fortresses Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 692 KB) Denis Jacquerye, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Cartagena, Colombia ...


The Landing Force Commander, General Woork, tried to advance but due to the heavy equipment it made only slow progression towards the fortress. The defending artillery focused on the ships supporting troops and the movement ship to shore, while the defenders decimated the advancing troops in the open. The landing force advance ended abruptly when the attackers found the ladders and engineer equipment was not suitable for the fortress assault. During that very night a carnage took place among the Landing Force, and with the first light of the morning, a surprising bayonet charge from the defenders finished the Landing Force and their supplies. For 30 more days the attackers bombed the fort with no results, and they fell back to Jamaica.


In 1759, during the siege of Quebec the British troops attempted on a number of occasions to cross the Saint Lawrence River in force. An attempt to land some 4,000 troops in the face of resistance failed. Ultimately a landing was managed at a relatively undefended site and British troops gained a foothold allowing 5,000 to take part in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham which led to the surrender of the city. TheSaint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War...


In 1776, Samuel Nicholas and the Continental Marines, the "progenitor" of the United States Marine Corps, made a first successful landing in the Battle of Nassau. Samuel Nicholas (circa 1744 - August 27, 1790) was the first officer commissioned in the United States Continental Marines (now the United States Marine Corps), and by tradition is considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. ... The Continental Marines were the Marine force of the American Colonies during American Revolutionary War. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Map of the Bahamas The Battle of Nassau (March 2 – March 3, 1776) was a naval action and amphibious assault by American forces against British-occupied Nassau, The Bahamas during the American Revolutionary War. ...


In 1781, the Spanish field marshall, Bernardo de Gálvez, successfully captured British controlled Fort George by ampibious assault in the Battle of Pensacola. In 1782, he captured the British naval base at New Providence in the Bahamas. Bernardo de Gálvez Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Galvez (23 July 1746 born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain – 1786) was Spanish governor of Louisiana from 1777 to 1785, and Viceroy of New Spain 1785-1786. ... Combatants Spain Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez John Campbell Strength 7,000 regulars and militia 3,000 regulars, sailors, militia, and natives Casualties 74 dead, 198 wounded 105 dead, 382 wounded, 2,213 captured The Battle of Pensacola marked the culmination of Spains reconquest of Florida from Britain... (This article is about the island in the Bahamas. ...


19th century

During the American Civil War, the United States made several amphibious assaults all along the Confederate coastline. Port Royal, South Carolina was the first of many attacks. Along with others on Roanoke Island, NC, Galveston, TX, Morris and James Islands, SC, Fort Sumter, SC, Norfolk, VA, and several others. The largest was at Fort Fisher, which was the largest and most powerful fort in the world at the time, protecting the entrance of Wilmington, North Carolina. The assaulting force of over 15,000 men and 70 warships comprising of over 600 guns, was the most powerful amphibious assault in world history and was not surpassed until D-Day 1944.


An early form of amphibious warfare was employed during the War of the Pacific in 1879, and saw coordination of army, navy and specialized units. Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Bolivia Republic of Chile Commanders Juan Buendía Andrés Cáceres Miguel Grau Manuel Baquedano Patricio Lynch Juan Williams Strength Peru-Bolivian Army 7,000 soldiers in 1878 Peruvian Navy 2 ironclad, 1 corvette, 1 gunboat Army of Chile 4,000 soldiers in...


The first amphibious assault of this war took place as 2,100 Chilean troops successfully took Pisagua from 1,200 Peruvian and Bolivian defenders on 2 November 1879. Chilean Navy ships bombarded Allied beach defenses for several hours at dawn, followed by open, oared boats landing Army infantry and sapper units into waist-deep water, under enemy fire. An outnumbered first landing wave fought at the beach; the second and third waves in the following hours were able to overcome resistance and move inland. By the end of the day, an expeditionary army of 10,000 had disembarked at the captured port. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Chilean Navy Jack The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile. ... A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) anothers fortifications. ...


Additional amphibious assaults would be carried out thorough the war. By early 1881, Chilean commanders were using purpose-built, flat-bottomed landing craft that would deliver troops in shallow water closer to the beach.


Landing tactics and operations were closely observed by neutral parties during the war: two Royal Navy ships monitored the Battle of Pisagua; U.S. Navy observer Lt. Theodorus B.M. Mason included an account on his report The War on the Pacific Coast of South America. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...

V Beach, viewed from the SS River Clyde on 25 April 1915.
V Beach, viewed from the SS River Clyde on 25 April 1915.

Download high resolution version (880x608, 85 KB)Sedd-el-Bahr fort and village seen from the SS River Clyde, 25 April 1915, during the landing at Cape Helles, Battle of Gallipoli. ... Download high resolution version (880x608, 85 KB)Sedd-el-Bahr fort and village seen from the SS River Clyde, 25 April 1915, during the landing at Cape Helles, Battle of Gallipoli. ...

World War I

During World War I, amphibious warfare was still in its infancy: tactics and equipment were rudimentary and required much improvisation.


During this period, British Royal Marine Light Infantry (merged with the Royal Marine Artillery in the 1920s to form the Royal Marines) were used primarily as naval parties onboard Royal Navy warships to maintain discipline and man ships' guns. The RMLI joined a new Royal Navy division - the Royal Naval Division - formed in 1914 to fight on land; however, throughout the conflict, army units were depended upon to provide the bulk - if not all - of troops used in amphibious landings. Her Majestys Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM) or sometimes colloquially as the Green Berets[1], is the United Kingdoms amphibious force and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ... Her Majestys Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM) or sometimes colloquially as the Green Berets[1], is the United Kingdoms amphibious force and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British 63rd (Royal Naval) Division was a First World War division of the New Army. ...


The first amphibious assault of the war ended in disaster in 1914. A large British Indian Army force was directed to launch an amphibious assault on Tanga, German East Africa. British actions prior to the assault, however, alerted the Germans to prepare to repel an invasion. The Indian forces suffered heavy casualties when they advanced on the city, forcing them to withdraw back to their boats, leaving much of their equipment behind. A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Map of the Tanga Region Tanga is both the name of the most northerly seaport city of Tanzania, and the surrounding Tanga Region. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Combatants German Empire British Empire Commanders Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Arthur Aitken Strength about 1100 Askari 8000 Indian reservists Casualties 81 wounded, 61 killed 487 wounded, 360 killed The Battle of Tanga (sometimes nicknamed the Battle of the Bees) was the blundered attempt by the British Indian Army to capture...


The Allied invasion against the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915 proved even more disastrous than Tanga, in part due to incompetence at the high command. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Soldiers were landed via open, oared whaleboats and tugs at Anzac Cove and Helles. At V Beach, Helles, the landing troops - inexperienced at amphibious landings - were effectively slaughtered by the Ottoman defenders, most not even making it out of their landing craft. The Royal Dublin Fusiliers, for example, lost almost all their officers including their commander and suffered over 500 casualties. A modern copy of a traditional whaleboat on display at Mystic Seaport. ... TUG is a three-letter acronym which can stand for: Graz University of Technology in Graz, Austria the TeX Users Group The Ultimate Group, an entertainment production company, founded by Chris Stokes Tie Up Games (a form of bondage) For the word tug, see Tug (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Landing at Cape Helles Conflict First World War Date 25 April 1915 Place Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result British victory The Landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on April 25, 1915 during World War I. Helles, at... The Royal Dublin Fusiliers was an Irish Infantry Regiment of the British Army raised and garrisoned in Ireland, which was disbanded in 1922 under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. ...


In a second landing at Suvla in August, the forerunner of modern landing craft - the armoured 'Beetle' - was first used by the British. Landing at Suvla Bay Conflict First World War Date 6–15 August 1915 Place Suvla, Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Turkish victory The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey as part of the August Offensive, the...

Troops from the U.S. 1st Division landing on Omaha beach.
Troops from the U.S. 1st Division landing on Omaha beach.

Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Interwar period

[1]Alhucemas Landing 8th September 1925. Performed by a Spanish-French coalition against rebel Kabilas in the north of Morocco, is a landing where tanks were used for the first time; air support and naval gunfire support were employed by landing forces. Spotting trained personnel with communication devices directed supporting air and naval firepower.


Floating depots were organized with medical, water, ammunition and food supplies, to be dispatched ashore when needed. The barges used in this landing were the survivors "K" boats from the Gallipolli fiasco. But in this case, the landings were performed against a prepared, defended in force positions. A successful opposed Amphibious Assault.


World War II

By the Second World War tactics and equipment had moved on. Purpose built landing craft were used at the evacuation from Dunkirk (Operation Dynamo) and an amphibious operation was tried out at Dieppe in 1942. The operation proved a failure but the lessons hard learned were used later. Arguably the most famous amphibious assault was the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944, in which British, Canadian, and US forces were landed at Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword Beaches. The organizational planning of the landing itself (Operation Neptune) was in the hands of Admiral Bertram Ramsay. It covered the landing of the troops and their re-supply. Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Dieppe is the name of several places and events: Dieppe, France (pop. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... Combatants United States Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Norman Cota Clarence R. Huebner U.S. 1st Infantry Division U.S. 29th Infantry Division Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, British 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Static Infantry Division Strength 24,970 Unknown Casualties 400 altogether Unknown This article is about a World War II invasion. ... This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845 Unknown Casualties 630 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... Categories: People stubs | 1883 births | 1945 deaths | Royal Navy admirals | Royal Navy officers | British World War II people ...


Other large amphibious actions in the European Theatre in WWII include: German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events Main article: Events preceding World War II in Europe Main article: Causes of World War II Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a...

In the Pacific Theatre, almost every campaign involved "island hopping" assaults from the sea. Some of the famous ones are mentioned: Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... Combatants  United States United Kingdom  Canada Free French Nazi Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton, Jr. ... Operation Avalanche was the codename for the landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark W. Clark John P. Lucas Lucian Truscott Albert Kesselring Eberhard von Mackensen Strength 22 Jan 1944: 36,000 soldiers and 2,300 vehicles End May:150,000 soldiers and 1,500 guns 22 Jan 1944: 20,000 soldiers End May... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ...

Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibasaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign Makin Raid – Tarawa – Makin – Kwajalein – Truk – Eniwetok The... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Iwo Jima – Okinawa – Ten-Go... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Isamu Cho† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096...

Post-World War II

During the Korean War the U.S. Marine Corps landed at Inchon. Conceived of and commanded by US General Douglas MacArthur, this landing is considered by many military historians to have been a tactical jewel, one of the most brilliant amphibious maneuvers in history. The success of this battle eventually resulted in intervention by Chinese forces on behalf of North Korea. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... // Combatants United Nations: United States  United Kingdom  Republic of Korea Canada  Australia  Netherlands  France Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Syngman Rhee Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun Strength 40,000[1]  ? Casualties 566 killed 2,713 wounded 14,000 casualties... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... General of the Army Douglas MacArthur KCB (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964), was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippines Army. ...


The Royal Marines made first post-WWII amphibious assault during the Suez War of 1956 when they successfully landed at Suez on 6 November. In the Falklands War, the Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade, (augmented by the British Army's Parachute Regiment) landed at Port San Carlos on 21 May 1982. The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... 3 Commando Brigade is the main manoeuvre force of the British Royal Marines. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Parachute Regiments display team, the Red Devils at an American airshow The Parachute Regiment is the main body of elite airborne troops of the British Army. ... Port San Carlos is located on the northern bank of the San Carlos Estuary on the Western coast of East Falkland (also known as Soledad), in the Falkland Islands. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


During the Persian Gulf War, a large amphibious assault force, composed of US Marines and naval support, was positioned off the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. This force was composed of 40 amphibious assault ships, the largest such force to be assembled since the Battle of Inchon.[1] The object was to fix the six Iraqi divisions deployed along the Kuwaiti coast. Due to early misadventure, the mission for this amphibious force turned into a feint. Nevertheless, the operation was extremely successful in keeping more than 41,000 Iraqi forces from repositioning to the main battlefield. As a result, the Marines maneuvered through the Iraq defense of southern Kuwait and outflanked the Iraqi coastal defense forces. Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Feints are maneuvers designed to distract or mislead. ...


The most recent amphibious assault was carried out by the Royal Marines when they landed at the Al-Faw Peninsula on 20 March 2003 during the Iraqi War. Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


See also

This is a list of amphibious warfare ships updated as of January 2005. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ...

References

  1. ^ Hayden, Thomas. "Amphibious Operations in the Gulf War: 1990–91", Marine Corps Gazette, 1995. (URL accessed September 2, 2006)


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