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Encyclopedia > Amphetamines


Amphetamine

IUPAC name:

1-phenylpropan-2-amine

CAS number
 ?
ATC code
 ?
Chemical formula C9H13N
Molecular weight 135.2084
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Elimination half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Pregnancy category  ?
Legal status DEA Schedule II (USA)
Delivery Vaporized, Insufflated, Injected, Taken Orally
Indicated for:

Recreational uses:

Other uses:

  • ?
Contraindications:
  • CNS Stimulants
Side effects:
  • dizziness
  • tachychardia (rapid heartbeat)
  • sweating
  • decrease in appetite/weight loss

Severe:

  • tongue
  • teeth

Atypical sensations:

  • ?

Cardiovascular:

  • ?

Ear, nose, and throat:

  • ?

Endocrinal:

  • ?

Eye:

  • ?

Gastrointestinal:

  • Diarrhea

Hematological:

  • ?

Musculoskeletal:

  • ?

Neurological:

  • ?

Psychological:

  • ?

Respiratory:

  • ?

Skin:

  • ?

Urogenital and reproductive:

  • ?

Miscellaneous:

  • ?

Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. Amphetamine and its derivatives (amphetamines) are part of a broader class of compounds called phenethylamines.


Amphetamine is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and ADHD. It is also used recreationally and for performance enhancement. These uses are illegal in most countries. It is a commonly abused drug. Amphetamine can be snorted, taken orally, smoked, or injected.

Amphetamine (Adipex 37.5mg tablets)

When the drug is snorted, smoked or injected, the effects can be felt within a few minutes, but the duration is usually lessened compared to oral administration. When taken orally, the effects of the drug tend to feel "smoother" and are generally longer_lasting.


Amphetamine was introduced in most of the world in the form of the pharmaceutical Benzedrine from the late 1920s. It was banned except for prescribed use in the late 1950s.


Chronic amphetamine use can cause severe psychological dependence. Long-term use can result in extreme exhaustion and malnutrition.

Contents

Effects

The behavioral effects of amphetamine itself comes from its action on the monoamine transporter DAT (dopamine transporter) which leads to an increase in the amount of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. Other amphetamines may have other modes of action.


Physiological effects

Short-term physiological effects include decreased hunger, increased stamina and physical energy, increased sexual drive/response, increased social responsiveness, involuntary bodily movements, increased perspiration, hyperactivity, nausea, itchy, blotchy or greasy skin, and headaches.


Long-term effects can include changed sleep patterns, poor skin condition, lowered immune system effectiveness, erectile dysfunction, heart problems, stroke, liver, kidney and lung damage. When snorted, amphetamine can lead to a deterioration of the lining of the nostrils.


Psychological effects

Short-term psychological effects can include euphoria, increased concentration, rapid talking, increased confidence, nystagmus (eye wiggles), hallucinations, and loss of REM sleep (dreaming) the night after use.


Long term psychological effects can include insomnia, mental states resembling schizophrenia, aggressiveness, addiction with accompanying withdrawal symptoms, and irritability. Chronic use can lead to amphetamine psychosis which causes delusions and paranoia.


Medical use

Like Ritalin, amphetamine is one of the standard treatments of ADHD. Its effects on ADHD is improved impulse control, improved concentration, decreased sensory overstimulation and decreased irritability. This results in an overall calming effect.


When used within the recommended doses, side effects like loss of appetite appear only initially.


Amphetamines are also a standard treatment for narcolepsy.


Amphetamines are sometimes used to augment anti-depressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression.


Medical use for weight loss is still approved in some countries, but is regarded as obsolete in the United States.


Performance enhancing use

Amphetamine is usually not used by athletes whose sport involves extreme cardiovascular workout, as methamphetamine and amphetamine put a great deal of stress on the heart.


The United States Air Force uses amphetamines (Adderall) as stimulants for pilots, calling them "go pills".


Legal issues

In the United Kingdom, amphetamines are regarded as Class B drugs. The maximum penalty for unauthorised possession is three months imprisonment and a 2,500 fine.


In the United States, amphetamine and methamphetamine are Schedule II controlled drugs, classified as a CNS (Central Nervous System) Stimulant. A Schedule II drug is classified as one that: has a high potential for abuse, has a currently accepted medical use and is used under severe restrictions, and has a high possibility of severe psychological and physiological dependence.


See also


Phenethylamines edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Phenethylamines&action=edit)

{2C-B} {2C-C} {2C_D} {2C-E} {2C-I} {2C-N} {2C-T-2} {2C-T-21} {2C-T-4} {2C-T-7} {2C-T-8} {3C-E} {Amphetamine} {Bupropion} {Cathine} {Cathinone} {DOB} {DOI} {DOM} {Dopamine} {Br-DFLY} {Ephedrine} {Epinephrine} {Escaline} {Fenfluramine} {MDBD} {MDA} {MDMA} {MDEA} {Mescaline} {Methamphetamine} {Methcathinone} {Methylphenidate} {Norepinephrine} {Phentermine} {Salbutamol} {Tyramine}

External links

  • USAF use of amphetamines (http://abcnews.go.com/sections/2020/DailyNews/2020_pilotpills021220.html)
  • Erowid's Amphetamines page (http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/amphetamines/amphetamines.shtml)
  • Good Drugs Guide (http://www.thegooddrugsguide.com/amphetamines/index.htm)
  • Lycaeum's Amphetamines page (http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=364)











  Results from FactBites:
 
Amphetamine (PIM 934) (4199 words)
Amphetamine is rapidly absorbed by inhalation and is abused by this route (Brust, 1993).
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Early investigations of the properties of amphetamine focused on the peripheral effects and found that amphetamine was a sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator properties.
Sustained high-dose administration of amphetamines (especially methamphetamine) to experimental animals produces a persistent depletion of DA which is associated with terminal degeneration (62, 182, 195), as well as neuronal chromatolysis in the brain stem, cortex and striatum (42, 182).
In chronic high-dose cocaine (75) or amphetamine abuse (49), energy and euphoria induced by active drug administration is replaced in withdrawal by rebound dysphoric and anergic symptoms that appear to occur whether or not the stimulant abuser meets the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder (74).
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