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Encyclopedia > Amoy (linguistics)
Amoy
廈門話 / 厦门话 Ē-mn̂g-ōe
Spoken in: People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan), Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, and other areas of Min Nan and Hoklo settlement 
Region: Southern Fujian province; Taiwan
Total speakers: over 10 million (no recent data)
Language family: Sino-Tibetan
 Chinese
  Min
   Min Nan
    Amoy 
Official status
Official language of: None (Legislative bills have been proposed for it to be one of the 'national languages' in the Republic of China); one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in the ROC [1]
Regulated by: None (Republic of China Ministry of Education and some NGOs are influential in Taiwan)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: zh
ISO 639-2: chi (B)  zho (T)
ISO 639-3: nan

Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. It is almost identical to Taiwanese, and is widely known as Hokkien in Southeast Asia. Amoy is widely considered to be the prestige dialect within Min Nan. For this reason, Amoy is often simply called Min Nan. Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanjing (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Su Tseng-chang... Hoklo (pronounced Holo; Chinese ; Mandarin pronunciation--pinyin: Fulao) can refer to an ethnic-cultural group originating in Fujian province, China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanjing (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Su Tseng-chang... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanjing (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Su Tseng-chang... The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: TáiyÇ”, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ...


Spoken Amoy and Taiwanese are both mixtures of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. As such, they are very closely aligned phonologically. However, there are some subtle differences between the two, as a result of physical separation and other historical factors. The lexical differences between the two are slightly more pronounced. Generally speaking, Amoy, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Taiwanese, and the Hokkien in Southeast Asia are all mutually intelligible. Taiwanese (pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiyǔ, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for Senshū, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for Senshū, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiyǔ, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ...

Contents

History

In 1842, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Nanking, Xiamen (Amoy) was forcibly made into a trading port. Xiamen and Gulangyu islands rapidly developed, which resulted in a large influx of people from neighboring areas such as Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The mixture of these various accents have formed the basis for Amoy. Over the last several centuries, there have been a large number of descendents from these areas who have migrated to Taiwan. Eventually, Amoy became popularly known as Taiwanese among the locals living there. Just like British and American English, there are subtle lexical and phonologic differences between Taiwanese and Amoy, however these differences do not generally pose any barriers to communication. Amoy speakers also spread to Southeast Asia, where it became widely known as Hokkien. The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; pinyin: Xiàmén; Wade_Giles: Hsiamen) is a coastal sub_provincial city in Fujian Province, southern China. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Gulangyu Island (鼓浪嶼 Pinyin: Gǔlǎng Yǔ) is a 1. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: TáiyÇ”, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: TáiyÇ”, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ...


Special characteristics

Spoken Amoy preserves many of the sounds and words from Middle Chinese. However, the vocabulary of Amoy was also influenced in its early stages by the languages of the Minyue peoples. Spoken Amoy is known for its use of nasalization. Unlike English, Amoy also distinguishes between unaspirated voiceless ([ p ], [ k ]) and unaspirated voiced initial consonants ([ b ], [ g ]). Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggǔ Hànyǔ), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... Minyue (Traditional Chinese: 閩越) was an ancient kingdom located in today Fujian, Southern China, during Han Dynasty. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Alternative meaning: Initial (linguistics) Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ... See also consonance in music. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Accents

Amoy pronunciation is based on two main accents: Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The following table provides five words that illustrate some of the more commonly seen sound shifts:

English Chinese character Accent Pe̍h-ōe-jī IPA
two Quanzhou, Taipei IPA: [li˧˧]
Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Tainan IPA: [ʑi˧˧]
sick Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei pīⁿ IPA: [pĩ˧˧]
Zhangzhou, Tainan pēⁿ IPA: [pẽ˧˧]
egg Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taiwan nn̄g IPA: [nŋ˧˧]
Zhangzhou nūi IPA: [nui˧˧]
chopsticks Quanzhou, Lukang tīr IPA: [tɨ˧˧]
Xiamen, Penghu IPA: [tu˧˧]
Zhangzhou, Taiwan IPA: [ti˧˧]
shoes 皮鞋 Quanzhou phêr-êr IPA: [pʰə˨˩ə˧˥]
Xiamen, Taipei phê-ôe IPA: [pʰe˨˩ue˧˥]
Zhangzhou, Tainan phôe-ê IPA: [pʰue˧˧e˧˥]

漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas (杜鵑花之城) Coordinates: Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan Capital Xinyi Dist (信義區) Mayor Hau Lung-bin Area    - City 271. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Tainan is the name of a city and a county in southwestern Taiwan. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas (杜鵑花之城) Coordinates: Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan Capital Xinyi Dist (信義區) Mayor Hau Lung-bin Area    - City 271. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Tainan is the name of a city and a county in southwestern Taiwan. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Lung-shan Temple Lukang(Chinese: ; pinyin: lùgÇŽng; Wade-Giles: lu-kang; POJ: Lo̍k-káng; lit. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Pescadores Islands (Chinese: 澎湖群島; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Pinyin: Pénghú, from Portuguese, fishermen) are an archipelago in the Taiwan Strait. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas (杜鵑花之城) Coordinates: Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan Capital Xinyi Dist (信義區) Mayor Hau Lung-bin Area    - City 271. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Zhangzhou (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Tainan is the name of a city and a county in southwestern Taiwan. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Tones

Amoy is similar to other Min Nan dialects/languages in that it makes use of 7 tones. The tones are traditionally numbered from one through eight, but the second and sixth tones are identical in most regions. Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ...

1 Yin level IPA: [˥˥]
2 Yin rising IPA: [˥˧]
3 Yin falling IPA: [˨˩]
4 Yin entering IPA: [˩˩]
5 Yang level IPA: [˧˥]
6=2 Yang rising IPA: [˥˧]
7 Yang falling IPA: [˧˧]
8 Yang entering IPA: [˥˥]

Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Tone sandhi

Amoy has extremely extensive tone sandhi (tone-changing) rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. What an 'utterance' is, in the context of this language, is an ongoing topic for linguistic research. For the purpose of this article, an utterance may be considered a word, a phrase, or a short sentence. The diagram illustrates the rules that govern the pronunciation of a tone on each of the syllables affected (that is, all but the last in an utterance): Tone sandhi refers to tone manipulation rules governing the pronunciation of tonal languages. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ...


image:Amoy tones.JPG


Literary versus vernacular readings

Like other varieties of Min Nan, Amoy has complex rules for literary and vernacular readings of Chinese characters. For example, the character for big 大 has a vernacular reading of tōa (IPA: [tua˧˧]), but a literary reading of tāi (IPA: [tai˧˧]). Because of the loose nature of the rules governing when to use a given pronunciation, a student of the language must often simply memorize the appropriate reading for a word on a case by case basis. This situation is comparable to the on and kun readings of Japanese. Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Kanji (Japanese:  ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Kanji (Japanese:  ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


Vocabulary

For further information, read the article: Swadesh list

The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language. A Swadesh list is a prescribed list of basic vocabulary developed by Morris Swadesh in the 1940-50s, which is used in glottochronology (lexicostatistical dating). ...

Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Chaozhou language, also called Teochew, Teochiu, Tiuchiu, or Diojiu, is a dialect of the Chinese spoken variant of Minnan 閩南, spoken in the Chaoshan 潮汕 region of eastern Guangdong 廣東. // Chaozhou is a member of the Southern Min or Minnan dialect group, which in turn constitutes one of the seven major dialect... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a Chinese dialect/language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ...

Grammar

Amoy grammar shares a similar structure to other Chinese dialects, although it is slightly more complex than Standard Mandarin. Moreover, equivalent Amoy and Mandarin particles are usually not cognates. Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Mandarin has a number of meanings: mandarin, a bureaucrat of Imperial China, and in the United Kingdom and Canada, by analogy, any government bureaucrat Mandarin, a group of dialects of spoken Chinese, or more specifically, its standardized dialect, Standard Mandarin Mandarin Airlines, a subsidiary of China Airlines mandarin duck, Aix... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Complement constructions

As the following example shows, Amoy complement construnctions roughly parallel Standard Mandarin, with some exceptions (in red). Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...

particle English  
adverb He runs quickly. Amoy i cháu ē kín  
Mandarin pǎo kuài  
English He runs obtains quick  
adverb He runs very quickly. Amoy i cháu   chiok kín  
Mandarin pǎo hěn kuài  
English He runs   very quick  
adverb He does not run quickly. Amoy i cháu kín  
Mandarin pǎo kuài  
English He runs not quick  
can He can see. Amoy i khòaⁿ ē tio̍h  
Mandarin kàn dào  
English He sees obtains already achieved  
can He can not see. Amoy i khòaⁿ tio̍h  
Mandarin kàn dào  
English He sees not already achieved  
so He was so startled, that he could not speak. Amoy i kiaⁿ kah ōe kóng chhut-lâi
Mandarin xià huà dōu shuō chūlái
English He startled to the point of words also say not come out
  • view chart in simplified Chinese script
  • view chart in traditional Chinese script

Negative particles

Negative particle syntax is parallel to Standard Mandarin about 70% of the time. Here is a fairly complete description (parallel usage to Mandarin is bolded): Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ...

  1. m̄ - is not + noun (Mandarin: bù)
    i m̄-sī gún lāu-bú. She is not my mother.
  2. m̄ - does not + verb/will not + verb (Mandarin: bù)
    i m̄ lâi. He does not come./He will not come.
  3. verb + bē + particle - is not able to (Mandarin: bù)
    góa khòaⁿ-bē-tio̍h. I am not able to see it.
  4. bē + helping verb - can not (opposite of ē is able to/Mandarin: bù)
    i bē-hiáu kóng Eng-gú. He can't speak English.
    • helping verbs that go with bē
      bē-sái - is not permitted to (Mandarin: bù kěyǐ)
      bē-hiáu - does not know how to (Mandarin: búhuì)
      bē-tàng - not able to (Mandarin: bùnéng)
  5. mài - do not (imperative) (Mandarin: bié)
    mài kóng! Don't speak!
  6. bô - do not + helping verb (Mandarin: bù)
    i bô beh lâi. He is not going to come.
    • helping verbs that go with bô:
      beh - want to + verb; will + verb
      ài - must + verb
      èng-kai - should + verb
      kah-ì - like to + verb
  7. bô - does not have (Mandarin: méiyǒu)
    i bô chîⁿ. He does not have any money.
  8. bô - did not (Mandarin: méiyǒu)
    i bô lâi. He did not come.
  9. bô - is not + adjective (Mandarin: bù)
    i bô súi. She is not beautiful.
    • An exception can be made for hó (good), m̄-hó = bô-hó - not good.
  • view negative particles in simplified Chinese script
  • view negative particles in traditional Chinese script

Cheat sheet

Here is an English/Amoy/Mandarin conversion list for some of the more commonly seen particles:

Particle English yellow: dual use particle; red: two different particles
passive They were cheated. Amoy in hō· lâng phiàn khì  
Mandarin tāmen bèi   piàn le  
English They by person was cheated  
object identifier (1) He handed the money to you. Amoy i chîⁿ kau hō·
Mandarin qián jiāo gěi
English He (object identifier) money hand over give you
more (1) He ate one more bowl. Amoy i ke chia̍h   chi̍t óaⁿ
Mandarin duō chī le wǎn
English He more eat (past tense) one bowl
object identifier (2) I'm telling you ... Amoy góa kóng  
Mandarin gēn jiǎng  
English I (object identifier) you say  
more (2) He has more friends. Amoy i ū khah chē ê pêng-iú
Mandarin yǒu bǐjiào duō de péngyǒu
English He has comparatively many of friends
  • view chart in simplified Chinese script
  • view chart in traditional Chinese script

Romanization

  • A number of Romanization schemes have been devised for Amoy. Pe̍h-ōe-jī is one of the oldest and best established. However, the Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet has been steadily gaining popularity in Taiwan.
Vowels
IPA a ap at ak aʔ ã ɔ ɔk ɔ̃ ə o e i ɪɛn
Ph-ōe-jī a ap at ak ah aⁿ ok oⁿ o o e eⁿ i ian eng
Revised TLPA a ap at ak ah aN oo ok ooN o o e eN i ian ing
TLPA a ap at ak ah ann oo ok oonn o o e enn i ian ing
Pumindian (普闽典) a ap at ak ah na oo ok noo o o e ne i ien ing
PSDB (普實台文) a ab/ap ad/at ag/ak aq/ah va o og/ok vo oi oi e ve i ien eng
DT (台語通用拼音) a ap at ak ah ann/aⁿ or ok onn/oⁿ o o e enn/eⁿ i ian/en ing
zhuyin ㆦㆶ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄥ
example (traditional Chinese)













example (simplified Chinese)













Vowels
IPA ɪk ĩ ai au am ɔm ɔŋ ŋ̩ u ua ue uai uan ɨ ũ
Ph-ōe-jī ek iⁿ ai aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i uⁿ
Revised TLPA ik iN ai aiN au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir uN
TLPA ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir unn
Pumindian (普闽典) ik ni ai nai au am om m ong ggn u ua ue uai uan i nu
PSDB (普實台文) eg/ek vi ai vai au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i nu
DT (台語通用拼音) ik inn/iⁿ ai ainn/aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i unn/uⁿ
zhuyin ㄨㄚ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄢ
example (traditional Chinese)












example (simplified Chinese)












Consonants
IPA p b pʰ m t tʰ n l k g kʰ h tɕi ʑi tɕʰi ɕi ts ʣ tsʰ s
Ph-ōe-jī p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h chi ji chhi si ch j chh s
Revised TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
Pumindian (普闽典) b bb p m d t n l g gg k h zi li ci si z l c s
PSDB (普實台文) p b ph m d t n nng l k g q h ci ji chi si z j zh s
DT (台語通用拼音) b bh p m d t n ng l g gh k h zi r ci si z r c s
zhuyin
example (traditional Chinese)




















example (simplified Chinese)




















Tones
IPA a˥˥ a˥˧ a˨˩ ap˩˩
at˩˩
ak˩˩
aʔ˩˩
a˧˥ a˥˧ a˧˧ ap˥˥
at˥˥
ak˥˥
aʔ˥˥
Ph-ōe-jī a á à ap
at
ak
ah
â á ā p
t
k
h
Revised TLPA
TLPA
a1 a2 a3 ap4
at4
ak4
ah4
a5 a2 (6=2) a7 ap8
at8
ak8
ah8
Pumindian (普闽典) ā ă à āp
āt
āk
āh
á ă â áp
át
ák
áh
PSDB (普實台文) af ar ax ab
ad
ag
aq
aa aar a ap
at
ak
ah
DT (台語通用拼音) a à â āp
āt
āk
āh
ă á ā ap
at
ak
ah
zhuyin ㄚˋ ㄚᒻ


ㄚˊ ㄚˋ ㆴ̇
ㆵ̇
ㆶ̇
ㆷ̇
example (traditional Chinese)





example (simplified Chinese)





Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; pinyin: Xiàmén; Wade_Giles: Hsiamen) is a coastal sub_provincial city in Fujian Province, southern China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages, scripts from all... Code2000 is a digital font which includes characters and symbols from a very large range of writing systems. ...

See also

Map of Linguistic Groups (showing arees under effective control of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) and Republic of China combined) Chinas many different ethnic groups speak many different languages, collectively called Zhōngguó YÇ”wén (中国语文), literally Speech and writing of China which... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: TáiyÇ”, Táiwānhuà) is a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Penang Hokkien is a local variant of Minnan (Southern Min) spoken in Penang, Malaysia. ... Lan-nang, or more properly known as Lan-nang-oé, is the Philippine variant of Min Nan, also known as Southern Fujianese or Hokkienese. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taiwanese people. ... Chinatown was an enclave for the early Chinese immigrants in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...

References

  • 愛說台語五千年 -- 台語聲韻之美 To understand the beauty of Taiwanese (ISBN 9789867101471)
  • 華台英詞彙句式對照集 A vocabulary and sentence structure comparison between Mandarin, Taiwanese and English (ISBN 9571138223)
  • 閩南語語法研究試論 Papers on Southern Min Syntax (ISBN 9571509485)

External links

Wikipedia
Amoy (linguistics) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

[edit] Chinese: spoken varieties  
Traditional categories:

Mandarin | Wu | Cantonese | Min | Hakka | Xiang | Gan
Spoken Chinese Spoken Chinese comprises many regional variants. ... Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yÇ”; Latin method wu gnu(niu)) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a Chinese dialect/language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Gan (赣语) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ...

Other:

Jin | Hui | Ping Jin (simplified: 晋语; traditional: 晉語; pinyin: jìnyǔ), or Jin-yu, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... The Hui (徽) dialects are unrelated to the Hui (回) ethnic group of China. ... Pinghua (平話/平话), also Guangxi Nanning, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ...

Unclassified:

Danzhouhua | Shaozhou Tuhua Danzhouhua (hua = language) 儋州話 / 儋州话 is an unclassified Chinese dialect spoken in the area of Danzhou on the island Hainan. ... Shaozhou Tuhua ( 韶州土話 / 韶州土话 ) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi. ...

Note: The above is only one classification scheme among many.
The categories in italics are not universally acknowledged to be independent categories.
Subcategories of Mandarin: Northeastern | Beijing | Ji-Lu | Jiao-Liao | Zhongyuan | Lan-Yin | Southwestern | Jianghuai | Dungan
Subcategories of Min: Min Bei | Min Nan
Min Dong | Min Zhong | Hainanese | Puxian | | Shaojiang
Comprehensive list of Chinese dialects
Official spoken varieties: Standard Mandarin | Standard Cantonese
Historical phonology: Old Chinese | Middle Chinese | Proto-Min | Proto-Mandarin | Haner
Chinese: written varieties
Official written varieties: Classical Chinese | Vernacular Chinese
Other varieties: Written Vernacular Cantonese

 
 

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