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Encyclopedia > Amos (prophet)

Amos (Hebrew: עָמוֹס, Standard ʿAmos Tiberian ʿĀmôs ; "Burden") is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. The only direct information about him comes from this book. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is June 15. He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... // 1 Third Day of the Fast of the Nativity 2 Fourth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 3 Fifth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 4 Sixth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 5 Eve of the Nativity and Theophany of our Lord Jesus Christ 6 Feast... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Engraving of the Prophet Amos (1891)

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (763x935, 154 KB) Summary From THE DORE GALLERY OF BIBLE ILLUSTRATIONS(1891) -- digitized by Project Gutenberg and released into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (763x935, 154 KB) Summary From THE DORE GALLERY OF BIBLE ILLUSTRATIONS(1891) -- digitized by Project Gutenberg and released into the public domain. ...

Audience

Amos prophesied in the days of Jeroboam II of Israel, while Uzziah was king of Judah. He was born in Tekoa in Judah in the early 8th Century B.C.E. Although a native of the Southern Kingdom, Judah, he prophesied in the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Amos is not seen as a 'professional' prophet, in contrast to many other Old Testament Prophets such as Samuel, Elijah and Elisha. Amos had two main occupations before God called him to be a prophet, as a shepherd and a tender of sycamore trees (7:14). However, since it is clear from his writings that he was a clever man and fully aware of the political and cultural issues within his society, it is suggested that he was most probably from a wealthy background, and thus the owner of flocks and sycamore groves rather than simply a herdsman or a farmhand. Jeroboam II was the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years (2 Kings 14:23). ... Uzziah of Judah (עוזיהו) (also known as Azariah), was the king of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, and one of Amaziahs sons, whom the people appointed to replace his father (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Chronicles 26:1). ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...


The book of Amos records that two years after Amos received the visions contained therein, an earthquake struck the area (1:1). Josephus, the Jewish historian, believed that the earthquake happened at the same time as Uzziah's seizure of the role of High Priest and his subsequent bout with leprosy. Amos was a contemporary of Isaiah, Micah and Hosea. Under Jeroboam II, the kingdom of Israel reached the zenith of its prosperity. The gulf between rich and poor widened at this time. Amos was called from his rural home to remind the rich and powerful of God's requirement for justice (e.g. 2:6-16). He claimed that religion that is not accompanied by right action is anathema to God (5:21ff.), and prophesied that the kingdom of Israel would be destroyed (e.g. 5:1-2; 8:2). An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ...


Amos' message was, perhaps understandably, unwelcome in Israel. Not only was he a foreigner from the southern kingdom, but his prophecies of doom were completely at odds with the prevailing political climate of hope and prosperity. Israel under the leadership of Jeroboam II had extended its territory into modern day Syria, taking advantage of the nation's weakness after a recent defeat by the Assyrians. Assyria, the major threat to Israel's power, had withdrawn itself temporarily due to internal strife, allowing Israel to flourish politically and economically. The nation's resultant affluence, however, was the main focus of Amos' mission as a prophet, and soon after Jeroboam came to power in 781 BC/BCE, Amos was called to speak to the people of the Northern Kingdom. He was continually in conflict with the governing authorities, as demonstrated in the narrative by way of a conversation between Amos and Amaziah, a priest of Bethel. The priest, loyal to Jeroboam, accuses Amos of stirring up trouble and conspiring against the king, and commands him to stop prophesying. Amos responds with an oracle: “Your wife will become a prostitute in the city, and your sons and daughters will fall by the sword. Your land will be measured and divided up, and you yourself will die in a pagan country. And Israel will certainly go into exile, away from their native land."(Amos 7:17) For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC Events and Trends 789 BC - Nineveh destroyed 780 BC - The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in... Amaziah (strengthened by God) was the name of several individuals in the Hebrew Bible. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ...


One of Amos' most famous claims is Amos 7:14, "Amos answered Amaziah, 'I was neither a prophet nor a prophet’s son, but I was a shepherd, and I also took care of sycamore-fig trees.'" While this was often understood to mean that Amos was reluctant to prophesy or that he was poor, scholars today see it as bolstering Amos' claim to be financially independent and not a part of the corrupt religious system of his day. His agricultural holdings as a shepherd and a tender of trees were seen in his day as signs of means, which he used to point out that he was not in the prophetic calling for money. Amaziah (strengthened by God) was the name of several individuals in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Message

The oracle predicted that many of Israel's neighbors (including Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon and Moab, but especially Judah) and Israel would suffer because they "knew" God, yet rebelled. Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Edom (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; red) is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation purportedly descended from him. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ...


Much of the prophecy of Amos is directed at the heartlessness of wealthy merchants who ignore the plight of the poor, the lack of justice for the righteous, and the emptiness of religious ritual apart from true faith. Amos is a classical prophet, concerned with the well-being of the people and the purity of the faith. He does not have the millennial apocalyptic views of later prophets, nor does he rely on esotericism or mystical signs. The prophecy of Amos is clear and direct. He ends his message with a proclamation of hope and restoration for the people of Israel if they mend their ways: "The days are coming, declares the LORD, when the reaper will be overtaken by the plowman and the planter by the one treading grapes. New wine will drip from the mountains and flow from all the hills. I will bring back my exiled people Israel; they will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them. They will plant vineyards and drink their wine; they will make gardens and eat their fruit. I will plant Israel in their own land, never again to be uprooted from the land I have given them, says the LORD your God.” (Amos 9:13-15) It is disputed whether this final passage was indeed written by Amos, as the style and message is different from the rest of the book. Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... Look up Poor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses, see Apocalypse (disambiguation). ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ...


Literary style

Amos uses a simple language on one level, being straightforward and direct with the messages he has received from God, not only for Israel and Judah, but also for the surrounding nations. However, Amos also utilizes many agricultural metaphors most likely drawn from his experiences in agriculture. Note the agricultural imagery in Amos 7: "This is what the Sovereign Lord showed me: He was preparing swarms of locusts after the king's share had been harvested and just as the second crop was coming up. When they had stripped the land clean, I cried out, 'Sovereign Lord, forgive! How can Jacob survive? He is so small!'"


Additional facts

A portion of the book of Amos is used in the ceremony of the Fellowcraft Degree in Freemasonry.


Amos 7:7-8 (7)Thus he shewed me: and, behold, the LORD stood upon a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in his hand. (8)And the LORD said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A plumbline. Then said the LORD, Behold, I will set a plumbline in the midst of my people Israel: I will not again pass by them any more:


Further reading

  • Anderson, Bernhard W. & Foster R. McCurley The Eighth Century Prophets: Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah Wipf and Stock: 2003. ISBN 1592443540
  • Rosenbaum, Stanley Ned Amos of Israel: A New Interpretation Georgia: Mercer University Press: 1990. ISBN 0865543550

External links

  • Calvin's Commentary on Amos
  • Amos in the Biblical Encyclopedia Tanakh Profiles (Hebrew/English) See also translations of names.
  • Article on Amos from Hypertext Bible Commentary: Amos a peer-reviewed biblical commentary

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...

Prophets of Judaism & Christianity in the Hebrew Bible
Abraham · Isaac · Jacob · Moses · Aaron · Miriam · Eldad · Medad ·The seventy elders of Israel · Joshua · Phinehas

Deborah · Samuel · Saul · Saul's men · David · Solomon | Gad · Nathan · Ahiyah · Elijah · Elisha | Isaiah · Jeremiah · Ezekiel

Hosea · Joel · Amos · Obadiah · Jonah · Micah · Nahum · Habakkuk · Zephaniah · Haggai · Zechariah · Malachi

Shemaiah · Iddo · Azariah · Hanani · Jehu · Micaiah · Jahaziel · Eliezer · Zechariah ben Jehoiada · Oded · Huldah · Uriah

Judaism:
Sarah · Joseph · Eli · Elkanah · Hannah · Abigail · Amoz · Mordecai · Esther · (Baruch)
Christianity:
Abel · Enoch · Daniel
Non-Jewish: Kenan · Eber · Bithiah · Beor · Balaam · Job · Eliphaz · Bildad · Zophar · Elihu
v  d  e

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amos (WebBible Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net (240 words)
Amos was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles southeast of Bethlehem.
He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but a herdsman and dresser of sycamore trees.
7:10-17 consists of a conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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