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Encyclopedia > Amorium
Amorium Höyük (mound) as seen from the minaret of the village of Hisarköy (source: www.amoriumexcavations.com)
The site (source: S. Aydal)
The site (source: S. Aydal)
John Kallos, Bishop of Amorion
John Kallos, Bishop of Amorion

Amorium, is an ancient city in Turkey that dates back at least to the Hellenistic Period in Anatolia and that had acquired particular historical significance, in several respects, under the Byzantine Empire. Its site lies at a distance of 13 kilometers from the district center of Emirdağ, in Afyonkarahisar Province. Excavations on the site are currently being pursued by a team from the New York Metropolitan Museum. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ρωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... EmirdaÄŸ is a town in Turkey, named Aziziye till 1932, near Afyon city in the Afyonkarahisar Province. ... shows the Location of the Province Afyon Afyonkarahisar (also called more simply Afyon) is a province in western Turkey. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Largest city Albany New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi  (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... There is also the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), located in Manhattan. ...

Amorium is the Latinized pronunciation of its name and this name seems to have hold on in a generally more prominent scope, as compared to the Ancient Greek and Byzantine "Amorion", despite the city's having been important primarily in the context of Byzantine history. Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as "Ammuriye". Although an attractive idea, the name does not derive from the root word of "amor" (love), but is generally linked to the Proto-Indo-European "ma" (for mother), which leads to the consclusion that, at its foundation, the settlement was associated with the Mother Goddess cult, widespread in ancient Anatolia. Today, Amorium's höyük (mound, tumulus) is situated by the modern Turkish village of Hisarköy. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... It has been suggested that Mother (neopaganism) be merged into this article or section. ...


That the city had minted its own coins as of some time between 133 to 27 B.C. till the 3rd century A.D. is evidence of its maturity as a settlement and of its importance during the pre-Byzantine period as well. Amorium then must have been prestigious and prosperous. But early historical records that mention the city are extremely scarce, in fact strictly limited to a reference by Strabo, although it is expected that new discoveries will shed a light to the city's Roman period and before. Events Julius Severus, governor of Britain, is sent to Palestine to quell a revolt Births Athenagoras of Athens, a Christian apologist January 30, Didius Julianus, Roman Emperor Deaths Categories: 133 ... Events The Emperor Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving the praetorian prefect Sejanus in charge of both Rome and the Empire. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Amorium held a key importance starting from the 7th century, with its becoming the last stronghold of defense in Central Anatolia before access to the heart of the Byzantine Empire. The city faced a full-fledged attack by the new rising power a few years after 641, the year in which the first forays of Arab raiders into the Anatolian geography had taken place. Succesive Arab assaults continued for two centuries after that. In 668, the castle has been captured by the Arabs, to be recovered by the Byzantine Empire short afterwards, and the wide-scale sieges of 716 and 796 could be thwarted. // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events April 19 - The monastery on the Island of Iona celebrates Easter on the Roman date. ... Events December - Coenwulf becomes king of Mercia. ...

In the 9th century, the city produced a ruling dynasty for the Byzantine throne (the Phrygian dynasty or the Amorian dynasty), which includes only 3 emperors who reigned between 820 to 867. This dynasty, it is true, can not be associated with bright achievements for the Empire, as hinted by their nicknames legated for history. (Michael II, the Stammerer, his son Theophilus and his grandson Michael III, the Drunkard). As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Michael II, called Psellus, the stammerer, or the Amorian (770-829) reigned as Byzantine emperor 820 - 829. ... Various people have been known by the name Theophilus. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ...

In 838, the city went through the worst destruction in its history by Al-Mu'tasim's armies, never to recover its former importance again. The 838 destruction is also memorable on religious grounds, on account of the 42 notables of Amorium who had been taken as hostages and taken to Samarra (today in Iraq) and who has executed there in 845 (the so-called 42 Martyrs of Amorium). Events At Hingston Down, Egbert of Wessex beats the Danish and the West Welsh. ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq (, ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Salah ad Din, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Events March 28 - Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. ...

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