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Encyclopedia > Amnesic shellfish poisoning

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is one of the four recognised syndromes of shellfish poisoning (the others being neurotoxic shellfish poisoning [1], diarrhetic shellfish poisoning [2] and paralytic shellfish poisoning). All four syndromes share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae in the form of dinoflagellates and diatoms. There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). ... Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) is one of the four recognised symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurologic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... Orders Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels †Cycloconchidae Hippuritoida †Lyrodesmatidae Myoida PENIS †Redoniidae Veneroida Subclass Paleoheterodonta Trigonioida; see Superfamily Trigoniacea Unionoida - freshwater mussels Subclass Protobranchia Nuculoida †Praecardioida Solemyoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters, mussels Arcoida Mytiloida Ostreoida Pterioida Bivalves are mollusks belonging to the class Bivalvia. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Littleneck clams; the pictured mollusks are of the species Mercenaria mercenaria. ... Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron, opened The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of mollusks which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ... Genera See text. ... Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ...


ASP results from consumption of domoic acid. In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptors, causing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is a normal event, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cell to degenerate. Chemical structure of Domoic acid Domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms [1]. In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called doumoi or hanayanagi (Chondria armata[2]) in Japan. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Biochemicals ... Kainate is a specific agonist for kainate receptor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ...


The chemical can bioaccumulate in marine organisms that feed on the phytoplankton, such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines. In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing permanent short-term memory loss, brain damage, and death in severe cases. Red tides are associated with the phenomenon of ASP. If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of the plankton that drift in the water column. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... {{Taxobox classis = Actinopterygii | ordo = Clupeiformes | familia = Engraulidae | subdivision_ranks = Genera | subdivision = Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchiovella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa }} The anchovies are a family large but uncommon schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. ... Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Docodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ...


Discovery

ASP was first discovered when, in late 1987, a serious outbreak of food poisoning occurred in eastern Canada. Symptoms of the poisoning included vomiting and diarrhea, followed in some cases by confusion, memory loss, disorientation, and coma. Three elderly patients died and other victims suffered long-term neurological problems. Because of the memory loss problem, the term amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is used to refer to this clinical syndrome [M. A. Quilliam, J. L. C. Wright, Anal. Chem., 61 (1989) 1053A]. The story made front-page newspaper headlines.


Epidemiologists from Health Canada quickly linked the illnesses to restaurant meals of cultured mussels harvested from one area in Prince Edward Island, a place never before affected by toxic algae. Mouse bioassays on aqueous extracts of the suspect mussels caused death with some unusual neurotoxic symptoms very different from those of paralytic shellfish poison and other known toxins. On December 12, 1987, a team of scientists was assembled at the National Research Council of Canada laboratory in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Integrating bioassay-directed fractionation with chemical analysis, the team identiĀ­fied the toxin on the afternoon of December 16, just 4 days after the start of the concerted investigation. The Department of Health, also referred to as Health Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is Canadas leading organization for scientific research and development. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Possible animal impacts

On June 22, 2006, a California brown pelican, possibly under the influence of domoic acid, flew through the windshield of a car on the Pacific Coast Highway. The acid is found in the local seas. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ...


Domoic acid poisoning was the most likely cause of a 1961 invasion of thousands of frantic seabirds in Santa Cruz, California. Director Alfred Hitchcock heard about this invasion while working on his adaptation of Daphne du Maurier novella "The Birds" for his feature film The Birds (1963). Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) was a highly influential film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Dame Daphne du Maurier DBE (13 May 1907–19 April 1989) was a famous British novelist best known for her short story The Birds and her classic novel Rebecca, published in 1938. ... The Birds (1963) is a horror film by Alfred Hitchcock, loosely based on the short story The Birds (ISBN 0-582-41798-8) by Daphne du Maurier. ...


Related Websites

  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Domoic Acid and Pseudo-nitzschia and References
  • Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife domoic acid page
  • International Bird Rescue Research Center - Crisis off our coast

  Results from FactBites:
 
FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book Various Shellfish-Associated Toxins (1038 words)
Shellfish poisoning is caused by a group of toxins elaborated by planktonic algae (dinoflagellates, in most cases) upon which the shellfish feed.
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP), Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP).
ASP first came to the attention of public health authorities in 1987 when 156 cases of acute intoxication occurred as a result of ingestion of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) harvested off Prince Edward Island, in eastern Canada; 22 individuals were hospitalized and three elderly patients eventually died.
Seafood Poisoning c/o Shoreland (1560 words)
Shellfish harbor the toxins that produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).
Ciguatera poisoning results from the ingestion of fish contaminated with several different marine toxins, all produced by small sea algae which adhere to dead coral and multiply rapidly with disturbances of coral reefs by such activity as underwater dredging or storms.
Shellfish harvested in waters contaminated with raw or inadequately treated sewage are extremely efficient vectors of seafood pathogens because they are filter feeders that concentrate the organisms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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