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Encyclopedia > Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrate
IUPAC name Ammonium nitrate
Identifiers
CAS number 6484-52-2
RTECS number BR9050000
Properties
Molecular formula NH4NO3
Molar mass 80.04336 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 1.123 g/cm³, solid
Melting point

191 °C Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 348 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 478 pixel, file size: 18 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

approx. 210 °C decomp Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 119 g/100 ml (0 °C)
190 g/100 ml (20 °C)
286 g/100 ml (40 °C)
421 g/100 ml (60 °C)
630 g/100 ml (80 °C)
1024 g/100 ml (100 °C)
Explosive data
Explosive velocity 5,270 m/s
Hazards
EU classification not listed
NFPA 704

Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... djbdasjkhfohasoiflkasdfioalkjsfoijaoislkna wu9832u09q1b oai iu3y hq oi23u89q This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

0
2
3
OX
Related Compounds
Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate
Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate
Related compounds Nitrous oxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula N H4N O3, is a white powder at room temperature and standard pressure. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Ammonium nitrite, NH4NO2, is formed by oxidizing ammonia with ozone or hydrogen peroxide; using precipitations from reacting barium or lead nitrites with ammonium sulfate, or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride. ... Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydroxylammonium Nitrate or hydroxylamine Nitrate (HAN) is an energetic chemical with the chemical formula NH3OHNO3. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...

Contents

Use

Use in Industry

Ammonium Nitrate is used for zeolite modification. In ion-exhanges, UZM zeolites have their sodium ions exhanged with the proton in NH4+ in ammonium nitrate. This forms zeolite catalysts which have many uses in various fields, including petroleum. Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Use in fertilizer

The highly water soluble salt is the preferred nitrogen source of fertilizers. Most of the produced ammonium nitrate ends therefore in the production of fertilizers. Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ...


Use in explosives

As a strong oxidizing agent, ammonium nitrate makes an explosive mixture when combined with a fuel such as a hydrocarbon, usually diesel fuel (oil), or sometimes kerosene. ANFO mixtures have reportedly been used for bombs in terrorist acts such as the Oklahoma City Bombing, because ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) are readily available in bulk. For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... The Oklahoma City bombing was an attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... ANFO stands for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (most often diesel fuel, sometimes kerosene or even molasses). ...


Ammonium nitrate is used in military explosives such as the daisy cutter bomb, and as a component of amatol. Military mixtures are often spiked with ~20% aluminium powder as well, increasing the blast power, but with some loss of brisance. One example of this is Ammonal, which contains ammonium nitrate, TNT & aluminium. Aluminised mixtures are very effective under confinement, as in underwater demolition, torpedoes, and rock blasting. Very cheap water-based blasting slurries tap the power of an aluminium-water reaction with enough ammonium nitrate added to burn off the resulting hydrogen. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Amatol is a highly explosive material, a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate, and used as an explosive in military weapons. ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ... Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an explosive develops its maximum pressure. ... Ammonal is an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminium dust and stearic acid. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ...


Ammonium nitrate is also an explosive in its purest form although it is an unusually insensitive one. Explosive properties become much more evident at elevated temperatures. When ammonium nitrate is fused and "boiled" to generate nitrous oxide, it has been claimed to be as sensitive as dynamite at the ~240 °C operating temperature. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...


This exothermic reaction can run away and reach detonation velocities (without proper temperature controls). The extent of this possibility has been demonstrated several times, most notably at the Ohio Chemical plant in Montreal in 1966. Millions of pounds of relatively pure ammonium nitrate have been (accidentally) detonated when subjected to severe heat and/or shocks; see "Disasters" below. Ammonium nitrate has also found use as a solid rocket propellant, but for a while ammonium perchlorate was frequently considered preferable due to higher performance and faster burn rates. Lately, favor has been swinging back towards ammonium nitrate in rocketry, as it delivers almost as much thrust without producing an exhaust jet full of gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) and without the extra expense and sensitivity hazards. Fertiliser-grade ammonium nitrate (FGAN) is manufactured in more compact form, with much lower porosity, in order to achieve more stability and less sensitivity to detonation, whereas technical grade ammonium nitrate (TGAN) prills are made to be porous for better absorption of fuel and higher reactivity. In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... Ammonium perchlorate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4ClO4. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


Other Use

Ammonium nitrate is also used in instant cold packs.[1] In this use, ammonium nitrate is mixed with water in an endothermic reaction, which absorbs 26.2 kilojoules of heat per mole of reactant. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In Chemistry an endothermic reaction is one in which the reactants have less energy than the products, and thus a net input of energy, usually in the form of heat, is required. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...


Products of ammonium nitrate reactions are used in airbags. When sodium azide (NaN3) is used in airbags, it decomposes to Na (s) and N2 (g), the sodium forms a fine dust composed of sodium salts, which is not preferred by the airbag producers. Sodium azide (NaN3) is a highly toxic chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ...


Ammonium nitrate is used in the treatment of some titanium ores. General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Image:Ti, 22. ...


Ammonium nitrate is used in the preparation of nitrous oxide (N2O): For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...

NH4NO3(aq) -> N2O(g) + 2H2O(l)

Ammonium nitrate is used in survival kits mixed with zinc dust and ammonium chloride because it will ignite on contact with water. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting, slightly sour taste. ...


Ammonium nitrate can be used to make anhydrous ammonia, a chemical often used in the production of methamphetamine. This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Production

Industrial production is chemically quite simple, although technologically challenging. The acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid gives a solution of ammonium nitrate: HNO3(aq) + NH3(g) → NH4NO3(aq). For industrial production, this is done using anhydrous ammonia gas and concentrated nitric acid. This reaction is violent and very exothermic. After the solution is formed, typically at about 83% concentration, the excess water is evaporated to an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95 to 99.9% concentration (AN melt), depending on grade. The AN melt is then made into "prills" or small beads in a spray tower, or into granules by spraying and tumbling in a rotating drum. The prills or granules may be further dried, cooled, and then coated to prevent caking. These prills or granules are the typical AN products in commerce. The processes involved are simple in principle, but certainly not easy. Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ...


The Haber process combines nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia, part of which can be oxidised to nitric acid and combined with the remaining ammonia to produce the nitrate. Another production method is used in the so-called Odda process. The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson in the city of Odda, Norway around 1927. ...


Crystalline phases

Transformations of the crystal states due to changing conditions (temperature, pressure) affect the physical properties of ammonium nitrate. The following crystalline states have been identified:

System Temperature (°C) State Volume Change (%)
- >169.6 liquid -
I 169.6 to 125.2 cubic +2.1
II 125.5 to 84.2 tetragonal -1.3
III 84.2 to 32.3 α-rhombic +3.6
IV 32.3 to −16.8 β-rhombic −2.9
V −16.8 tetragonal -

The type V crystal form was reported by M. Herrmann, W. Engel, J. Schneider and H. Goebel, Materials Science Forum, 1994, 166, 489. This is a quasi-cubic form which is related to cesium chloride, the nitrogens of the nitrates and the ammoniums are at the sites in a cubic array where Cs and Cl would be in the CsCl lattice. See C.S. Choi and H.J. Prask, Acta Crystallographica B, 1983, 39, 414-420. Cubic can mean several things: cubic polynomial, a polynomial with a degree of at most three. ... to get this template </nowiki> --> Caesium chloride is an ionic compound best known as a structural type. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ...


Disasters

Ammonium nitrate decomposes into gases including oxygen when heated (non-explosive reaction); however, ammonium nitrate can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation. Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947, which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. This article is about Disasters caused by ammonium nitrate. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The Texas City Disaster of April 16, 1947, started with the mid-morning fire and detonation of approximately 17,000,000 pounds (8,500 tons) of ammonium nitrate on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp in the port at Texas City, Texas, killing 581 people. ...


There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions:

  • In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. The examples are Kriewald, Morgan (present-day Sayreville, New Jersey) Oppau, Tessenderlo and Traskwood.
  • In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate itself (Texas City, Brest, Oakdale), or from a mixture of ammonium nitrate with a combustible material during the fire (Repauno, Cherokee, Nadadores). The fire must be confined at least to a degree for successful transition from a fire to an explosion (a phenomenon known as "transition from a decomposition or deflagration", or DDT). Pure, compact AN is stable and very difficult to initiate. However, there are numerous cases when even impure AN did not explode in a fire.

Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present (combustible materials, acids, metal ions, chlorides. ..) the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, SSD). This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilisers, and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. Sayreville is a borough located on the Raritan River, near Raritan Bay in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Crater after the Oppau explosion. ... Tessenderlo is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. ... Traskwood is a town in Saline County, Arkansas, United States. ... The Texas City Disaster of April 16, 1947, started with the mid-morning fire and detonation of approximately 17,000,000 pounds (8,500 tons) of ammonium nitrate on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp in the port at Texas City, Texas, killing 581 people. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Oakdale is the name of several places in the United States of America: Oakdale, California Oakdale, Connecticut Oakdale, Illinois (also an unrelated setting in the soap opera As the World Turns. ... Nadadores is a town in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. ...


References

  • Properties: UNIDO and International Fertilizer Development Center (1998), Fertilizer Manual, Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0-7923-5032-4.
  1. ^ Marshall Brain. Cold Packs. How Refrigerators Work. Howstuffworks.com.

Howstuffworks. ...

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0216
  • "Storing and Handling Ammonium Nitrate", UK Health and Safety Executive publication INDG230 (1986)

This information was useful to me. Useful:1 (please add) Didn't Help: (please add) The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ammonium nitrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2495 words)
Ammonium nitrate is used in military explosives such as the daisy cutter bomb, and as a component of amatol.
Ammonium nitrate has also found use as a solid rocket propellant, but for a while ammonium perchlorate was frequently considered preferable due to higher performance and faster burn rates.
Ammonium nitrate is used in the treatment of titanium ores.
Encyclopedia4U - Ammonium nitrate - Encyclopedia Article (262 words)
Ammonium nitrate decomposes into gases including oxygen when heated (non-explosive reaction); however, ammonium nitrate can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation.
Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947, which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling.
Ammonium Nitrate is also used in instant cold packs, as it dissolves in water endothermically, absorbing 26.2 kilojoules per mole of heat to do so.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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