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Encyclopedia > Ammonia
Ammonia
IUPAC name Azane
Other names Ammonia
Hydrogen nitride
Spirit of Hartshorn
Nitro-Sil
Vaporole [1]
Identifiers
CAS number [7664-41-7]
PubChem 222
RTECS number BO0875000
SMILES N
InChI 1/H3N/h1H3
Properties
Molecular formula NH3
Molar mass 17.0306 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas with strong pungent odor
Density 0.6942 [2]
Melting point

-77.73 °C (195.42 K) Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x764, 54 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ammonia ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x926, 198 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ammonia ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...

Boiling point

-33.34 °C (239.81 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 89.9 g/100 mL at 0 °C
Basicity (pKb) 4.75 (reaction with H2O)
Refractive index (nD) εr
Structure
Molecular shape Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment 1.42 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Hazardous gas, caustic, corrosive
NFPA 704
1
3
0
 
R-phrases R10, R23, R34, R50
(S1/2), S16, S36/37/39,
S45, S61
Flash point None[3]
Autoignition
temperature
651 °C
Related compounds
Other anions hydroxide (NH4OH)
Other cations Ammonium (NH4+)
Related chloride (NH4Cl)
Related compounds Hydrazine
Hydrazoic acid
Hydroxylamine
Chloramine
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, also is a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Four sp3 orbitals. ... In chemistry, a trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Main article: ammonia Ammonium hydroxide, although it doesnt exist as an isolatable chemical compound, is a name sometimes given to an aqueous solution of ammonia. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Hydrazoic acid is a colorless, volatile, and extremely explosive liquid at room temperature and pressure. ... Hydroxylamine is a reactive chemical with formula NH2OH. It can be considered a hybrid of ammonia and water due to parallels it shares with each. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Aroma redirects here. ...


Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at -33 °C, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. Its heat of vaporization is, however, sufficiently great that NH3 can be readily handled in ordinary beakers in a fume hood. "Household ammonia" or "ammonium hydroxide" is a solution of NH3 in water. The strength of such solutions is measured in units of baume (density), with 26 degrees baume (about 30 weight percent ammonia at 15.5 °C) being the typical high concentration commercial product.[4] Household ammonia ranges in concentration from 5 to 10 weight percent ammonia. (See Baumé scale) The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... A common modern fume hood. ... Main article: ammonia Ammonium hydroxide, although it doesnt exist as an isolatable chemical compound, is a name sometimes given to an aqueous solution of ammonia. ... A hydrometer scale developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé to measure density of various liquids. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... A hydrometer scale developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé to measure density of various liquids. ...

Contents

Structure and basic chemical properties

The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape, as predicted by VSEPR theory. The nitrogen atom in the molecule has a lone electron pair, and ammonia acts as a base, a proton acceptor. This shape gives the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar so that ammonia readily dissolves in water. The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion increases upon lowering the pH of the solution— at "physiological" pH (~7), about 99% of the ammonia molecules are protonated. Temperature and salinity also affect the proportion of NH4+. NH4+ has the shape of a regular tetrahedron. In chemistry, a trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base. ... Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) (1957) is a model in chemistry that aims to generally represent the shapes of individual molecules [1] . To achieve this, it is necessary to construct a valid Lewis structure that shows all of the bonds within the molecule and the locations of lone... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ...


The main use of ammonia is for fertilizer (83% in 2003). Another major application is its conversion to explosives, because nitric acid is made via oxidation of ammonia. The entire nitrogen content of all manufactured organic compounds is derived from ammonia.[5] Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...


Natural occurrence

Ammonia is found in small quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano. The kidneys secrete NH3 to neutralize excess acid.[6] Ammonium salts also are found distributed through all fertile soil and in seawater. Substances containing ammonia, or those that are similar to it, are called ammoniacal. Putrefaction is the decomposition of proteins, especially by anaerobic microorganisms. ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... Ammonium bicarbonate (also called bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, or powdered baking ammonia) is the bicarbonate salt of ammonia. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


History

The Romans called the ammonium chloride deposits they collected from near the Temple of Jupiter Amun (Greek Ἄμμων Ammon) in ancient Libya 'sal ammoniacus' (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple.[7] Salts of ammonia have been known from very early times; thus the term Hammoniacus sal[8] appears in the writings of Pliny, although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal-ammoniac.[8] Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... Ancient Map from Herodotus Ancient Libya was the region in the west of the Nile valley and ancient Egypt. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known to the alchemists as early as the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus.[9] It was also used by dyers in the Middle Ages in the form of fermented urine[9] to alter the colour of vegetable dyes. In the 15th century, Basilius Valentinus showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalis on sal-ammoniac. At a later period, when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name "spirit of hartshorn" was applied to ammonia.[9] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... 18th century illustration to 3rd key, in Duodecim Claves Basilius Valentinus, also known under his Anglisized name of Basil Valentine was a 15th-century alchemist. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Priestley in 1774 and was termed by him alkaline air; however it was acquired by the alchemist Basil Valentine.[10] Eleven years later in 1785, Claude Louis Berthollet ascertained its composition. Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Basil Valentine was a 15th-century alchemist. ... Claude Louis Berthollet. ...


The Haber process to produce ammonia from the nitrogen in the air was developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in 1909 and patented in 1910. It was first used on an industrial scale by the Germans during World War I,[5] The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, important for fertilisers and explosives. ... Carl Bosch (August 27, 1874 – April 26, 1940) was a German chemist and engineer. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Synthesis and production

Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals. Dozens of chemical plants worldwide produce ammonia. The worldwide ammonia production in 2004 was 109 million metric tonnes.[11] The People's Republic of China produced 28.4% of the worldwide production followed by India with 8.6%, Russia with 8.4%, and the United States with 8.2%.[11] About 80% or more of the ammonia produced is used for fertilizing agricultural crops.[11] A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly-produced inorganic chemicals. ... A ton(ne) (symbol t) is a unit of mass. ...


Before the start of World War I, most ammonia was obtained by the dry distillation[12] of nitrogenous vegetable and animal waste products, including camel dung, where it was distilled by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with hydrogen; in addition, it was produced by the distillation of coal, and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides[13] such as quicklime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac) thus: “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ...

2 NH4Cl + 2 CaO → CaCl2 + Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH3

Today, the typical modern ammonia-producing plant first converts natural gas (i.e., methane) or liquified petroleum gas (such gases are propane and butane) or petroleum naphtha into gaseous hydrogen. Starting with a natural gas feedstock, the processes used in producing the hydrogen are: For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Naphtha (CAS No. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

  • The first step in the process entails removal of sulfur compounds from the feedstock, because sulfur deactivates the catalysts used in subsequent steps. Catalytic hydrogenation converts organosulfur compounds into gaseous hydrogen sulfide:
H2 + RSH → RH + H2S(g)
  • The hydrogen sulfide is then removed by passing the gas through beds of zinc oxide where it is absorbed and converted to solid zinc sulfide:
H2S + ZnO → ZnS + H2O
CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
  • The final step in producing the hydrogen is to use catalytic methanation to remove any small residual amounts of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide from the hydrogen:
CO + 3 H2 → CH4 + H2O
CO2 + 4 H2 → CH4 + 2 H2O
  • To produce the desired end-product ammonia, the hydrogen is then catalytically reacted with nitrogen (derived from process air) to form anhydrous liquid ammonia. This step is known as the ammonia synthesis loop (also referred to as the Haber-Bosch process):
3 H2 + N2 → 2 NH3

The steam reforming, shift conversion, carbon dioxide removal and methanation steps each operate at absolute pressures of about 25 to 35 bar, and the ammonia synthesis loop operates at absolute pressures ranging from 60 to 180 bar, depending upon which proprietary design is used. There are many engineering and construction companies that offer proprietary designs for ammonia synthesis plants. Haldor Topsoe of Denmark, Lurgi AG of Germany, Uhde of Germany, and Kellogg, Brown and Root of the United States are among the most experienced companies in that field.[14] This article is about the chemical element. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The water gas shift reaction is an organic reaction in which water and carbon monoxide react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (water splitting) CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 The water gas shift reaction is part of steam reforming of hydrocarbons and is involved in the chemistry of catalytic converters While... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). ... Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is a technology that is used to separate some species from a gas under pressure according to these species molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... Haldor Topsoe is a Danish catalyst company. ... LURGI AG is a German Engineering, Construction and Chemical Process Licensing comapny. ... ThyssenKrupp AG (ISIN: DE0007500001) is a very large German industrial conglomerate, with about 188,000 employees. ... KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown and Root) NYSE: KBR is an American engineering and construction company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton, based in Houston. ...


As the availability and usage of fossil fuel become problematic (see peak oil and climate change), the hydrogen required for ammonia synthesis could in principle be obtained from electrolysis (currently 4% of hydrogen production is from electrolysis) or thermal chemical cracking of water, but these alternatives are presently impractical. The heat needed for thermal cracking can be obtained from nuclear reaction, while the electricity needed for electrolysis can be obtained from various renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectricity, and various forms of ocean energy especially that of OTEC. A possible use for the excess electricity would be to use electrolysis on water to acquire the needed hydrogen. Alternatives to the production of ammonia from natural gas and air are uneconomic and the environmental benefits have not been established. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... The oceans have a tremendous amount of power and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. ...


Biosynthesis

In certain organisms, ammonia is produced from atmospheric N2 by enzymes called nitrogenases. The overall process is called nitrogen fixation. Although it is unlikely that biomimetic methods will be developed that are competitive with the Haber process, intense effort has been directed toward understanding the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. The scientific interest in this problem is motivated by the unusual structure of the active site of the enzyme, which consists of an Fe7MoS9 ensemble. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ...


Ammonia is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination. In humans, it is quickly converted to urea, which is much less toxic. This urea is a major component of the dry weight of urine. This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ...


Properties

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell similar to human urine, as urine decomposes to release ammonia. It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules; the liquid boils at -33.3 °C, and solidifies at -77.7 °C to a mass of white crystals. Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers (ε = 22), and solutions of salts in liquid ammonia have been much studied. Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in non-insulated vessels at room temperature, even though it is well above its boiling point. For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Urine is liquid waste product of the body secreted by the kidneys by a process of filtration from blood and excreted through the urethra. ... The expression lighter than air refers to objects, usually aircraft, that are buoyant in air because they have an average density that is less than that of air (usually because they contain gases that have a density that is lower than that of air). ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... This article is about common table salt. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the chemical. ...


It is miscible with water. Ammonia in an aqueous solution can be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g /cm³ and is often known as '.880 Ammonia'. Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel to air mixtures from 15-25% air. When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame. At high temperature and in the presence of a suitable catalyst, ammonia is decomposed into its constituent elements. Chlorine catches fire when passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrochloric acid; unless the ammonia is present in excess, the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed. The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. ...


The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature - that is, the nitrogen atom passes through the plane of symmetry of the three hydrogen atoms; a useful analogy is an umbrella turning itself inside out in a strong wind. The energy barrier to this inversion is 24.7 kJ/mol in ammonia, and the resonance frequency is 23.79 GHz, corresponding to microwave radiation of a wavelength of 1.260 cm. The absorption at this frequency was the first microwave spectrum to be observed.[15] In chemistry, a nitrogen compound like ammonia in a trigonal pyramid geometry undergoes rapid nitrogen inversion whereby the molecule turns inside out. ... In 3-dimensional geometry, a plane of symmetry is a 2-dimensional flat dividing surface placed such that things on one side are symmetrical (mirror image) to things on the other side. ... An umbrella or parasol (sometimes colloquially, gamp, brolly, or bumbershoot) is a canopy designed to protect against precipitation or sunlight. ... In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to absorb more energy when the frequency of its oscillations matches the systems natural frequency of vibration (its resonant frequency) than it does at other frequencies. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... Rotational spectroscopy studies the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules. ...


Formation of salts

One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its power of combining directly with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. However perfectly dry ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride, a gas, moisture being necessary to bring about the reaction.[16] For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

NH3 + HClNH4Cl

The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the ammonium ion (NH4+). Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


Acidity

Although ammonia is well-known as a base, it can also act as an extremely weak acid. It is a protic substance, and is capable of dissociation into the amide (NH2) ion, for example when solid lithium nitride is added to liquid ammonia, forming a lithium amide solution: For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Lithium nitride is a compound of lithium and nitrogen with the formula Li3N. It is the only stable alkali metal nitride. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...

Li3N(s)+ 2 NH3 (l) → 3 Li+(am) + 3 NH2(am)

This is a Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction in which ammonia is acting as an acid. In chemistry, the Brønsted-Lowry system defines acids and alkalis. ...


Formation of other compounds

In organic chemistry, ammonia can act as a nucleophile in substitution reactions. Amines can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides, although the resulting –NH2 group is also nucleophilic and secondary and tertiary amines are often formed as by-products. An excess of ammonia helps minimise multiple substitution, and neutralises the hydrogen halide formed. Methylamine is prepared commercially by the reaction of ammonia with chloromethane, and the reaction of ammonia with 2-bromopropanoic acid has been used to prepare racemic alanine in 70% yield. Ethanolamine is prepared by a ring-opening reaction with ethylene oxide: the reaction is sometimes allowed to go further to produce diethanolamine and triethanolamine. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrohalic acid. ... Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , Flash point -46 °C Autoignition temperature 625 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Chloromethane, also called Methyl chloride, or simply R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a secondary amine and a dialcohol. ... Triethanolamine, often abbreviated as TEA, is an organic chemical compound which is both a tertiary amine and a tri-alcohol. ...


Amides can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with a number of carboxylic acid derivatives. Acyl chlorides are the most reactive, but the ammonia must be present in at least a twofold excess to neutralise the hydrogen chloride formed. Esters and anhydrides also react with ammonia to form amides. Ammonium salts of carboxylic acids can be dehydrated to amides so long as there are no thermally sensitive groups present: temperatures of 150–200 °C are required. Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... General Chemical Structure of an Acyl Chloride In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound which is a reactive derivative of a carboxylic acid. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Structure of anhydride. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH2, and potassamide, KNH2, are formed. Where necessary in substitutive nomenclature, IUPAC recommendations prefer the name azane to ammonia: hence chloramine would be named chloroazane in substitutive nomenclature, not chloroammonia. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Magnesium nitride Chemical Formula: Mg3N2 Molecular Weight: 100. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ...


Ammonia as a ligand

Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

Ammonia can act as a ligand in transition metal complexes. It is a pure σ-donor, in the middle of the spectrochemical series, and shows intermediate hard-soft behaviour. For historical reasons, ammonia is named ammine in the nomenclature of coordination compounds. Some notable ammine complexes include: armchair conformational isomerism of Cyclohexane. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x602, 107 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ammonia Tollens reagent ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x602, 107 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ammonia Tollens reagent ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands based on ligand strength. ... The HSAB concept, also known as HSAB theory, is widely used in chemistry for explaining stability of compounds, reaction paths etc. ... complex In chemistry, a complex is a structure composed of a central metal atom or ion, generally a cation, surrounded by a number of negatively charged ions or neutral molecules possessing lone pairs. ...

  • Tetraamminediaquacopper(II), [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+, a characteristic dark blue complex formed by adding ammonia to solution of copper(II) salts.
  • Diamminesilver(I), [Ag(NH3)2]+, the active species in Tollens' reagent. Formation of this complex can also help to distinguish between precipitates of the different silver halides: AgCl is soluble in dilute (2M) ammonia solution, AgBr is only soluble in concentrated ammonia solution while AgI is insoluble in aqueous solution of ammonia.

Ammine complexes of chromium(III) were known in the late 19th century, and formed the basis of Alfred Werner's theory of coordination compounds. Werner noted that only two isomers (fac- and mer-) of the complex [CrCl3(NH3)3] could be formed, and concluded that the ligands must be arranged around the metal ion at the vertices of an octahedron. This has since been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+ Tollens reagent is usually ammoniacal silver nitrate, but can also be other things, as long as there is an aqueous diamminesilver(I) complex. ... Related Compounds Other anions silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. ... Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light. ... Silver iodide (AgI) is a chemical compound used in photography, an antiseptic in medicine, rainmaking and cloud seeding. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Alfred Werner (December 12, 1866 - November 15, 1919) was a German Nobel prize-winning chemist. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...


An ammine ligand bound to a metal ion is markedly more acidic than a free ammonia molecule, although deprotonation in aqueous solution is still rare. One example is the Calomel reaction, where the resulting amidomercury(II) compound is highly insoluble. For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2. ...

Hg2Cl2 + 2 NH3 → Hg + HgCl(NH2) + NH4+ + Cl

Uses

Nitric Acid production

The most important single use of ammonia is in the production of nitric acid. A mixture of one part ammonia to nine parts air is passed over a platinum gauze catalyst at 700 °C - 850 °C, ~9 atm[17], whereupon the ammonia is oxidized to nitric oxide. The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of...

4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2
2 NO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HNO3 + H2

The catalyst is essential, as the normal oxidation (or combustion) of ammonia gives dinitrogen and water: the production of nitric oxide is an example of kinetic control. As the gas mixture cools to 200–250 °C, the nitric oxide is in turn oxidized by the excess of oxygen present in the mixture, to give nitrogen dioxide. This is reacted with water to give nitric acid for use in the production of fertilizers and explosives. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Thermodynamic reaction control or kinetic reaction control in a chemical reaction can decide the composition in a reaction product when competing reactions lead to different products under different reaction conditions. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


Fertilizer

In addition to serving as a fertilizer ingredient, ammonia can also be used directly as a fertilizer by forming a solution with irrigation water, without additional chemical processing. This later use allows the continuous growing of nitrogen dependent crops such as maize (corn) without crop rotation but this type of use leads to poor soil health. This article is about the maize plant. ... Agriculture refers to the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


Refrigeration

Ammonia's thermodynamic properties made it one of the refrigerants commonly used in refrigeration units prior to the discovery of dichlorodifluoromethane[18] in 1928, also known as Freon or R12. Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane, commonly known as CFC, used as a refrigerant and... Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant. ...


But ammonia is toxic, gaseous, irritant, and corrosive to copper alloys, and over a kilo is needed for even a miniature fridge. With an ammonia refrigerant, the ever present risk of an escape brings with it a risk to life. However data on ammonia escapes has shown this to be an extremely small risk in practice, and there is consequently no control on the use of ammonia refrigeration in densely populated areas and buildings in almost all jurisdictions in the world. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...


Its use in domestic refrigeration has been mostly replaced by CFCs and HFCs in the first world, which are more or less non-toxic and non-flammable, and butane and propane in the 3rd world, which despite their high flammability do not seem to have produced any significant level of accidents. Ammonia has continued to be used for miniature and multifuel fridges, such as minibars and caravan refrigerators. Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ...


These ammonia absorption cycle domestic refrigerators do not use compression and expansion cycles, but are driven by temperature differences. However the energy efficiency of such refrigerators is relatively low. Today the smallest refrigerators mostly use solid state peltier thermopile heat pumps rather than the ammonia absorption cycle. tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Battle between persian and greece forces took place at Thermoopile ...


Ammonia continues to be used as a refrigerant in large industrial processes such as bulk icemaking and industrial food processing. Since the implication of haloalkanes being major contributors to ozone depletion, ammonia is again seeing increasing use as a refrigerant. Ammonia is increasingly popular in commercial applications, such as in grocery store freezer cases and refrigerated displays. A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths...


Neutralizer of Diesel engine emissions

Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engine tailpipes.[19]


Disinfectant

It is also sometimes added to drinking water along with chlorine to form chloramine, a disinfectant. Unlike chlorine alone, chloramine does not combine with organic (carbon containing) materials to form carcinogenic halomethanes such as chloroform. However, chlorine and ammonia should never be mixed in an uncontrolled environment because they cause a chemical reaction that releases toxic gas. See Safety precautions for more information. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Halomethane compounds are molecules of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


Fuel

Ammonia was used during World War II fuel shortages to power buses in Belgium and used in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. Liquid ammonia was used as the fuel of the rocket airplane, the X-15. Although not as powerful as other fuels, it left no soot in the reusable rocket engine and its density approximately matches that for the oxidizer, liquid oxygen, which simplified the aircraft's design. Ammonia is proposed as a practical, clean (CO2-free), alternative to fossil fuel for internal combustion engines.[20] In 1981 a Canadian company converted a 1981 Chevrolet Impala to operate using ammonia as fuel.[21][22] Ammonia is marketed as a low-emission fuel.[23] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ...


Cigarettes

During the 1960s, tobacco companies such as Brown & Williamson and Philip Morris began using ammonia in cigarettes.[citation needed] Many hypotheses have appeared in the media and technical literature that ammonia enhances the amount of nicotine available to the smoker, nicotine's bioavailability, and the reinforcing or addictive ability.[24] In contrast, a number of recent publications in the scientific literature have demonstrated that ammonia-forming compounds in tobacco and ammonia in mainstream tobacco smoke do not increase either the total amount or total rate of nicotine to the bloodstream or brains of smokers.[25]. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Brown & Williamson is an American tobacco company, which produces cigarette brands. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...


Illicit Drug Manufacture

  • Largely before the popularization of crack cocaine, ammonium hydroxide was commonly used in the production of "freebase cocaine"
  • Conversely (when noting the presence or absence of water in the solution), anhydrous ammonia is often used in one of the most dangerous methods for the production of methamphetamine

A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a solid, smokeable form of cocaine and is a highly addictive drug popular for its intense psychoactive high. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Main article: ammonia Ammonium hydroxide, although it doesnt exist as an isolatable chemical compound, is a name sometimes given to an aqueous solution of ammonia. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...

Ammonia's role in biologic systems and human disease

Ammonia is an important source of nitrogen for living systems. Although atmospheric nitrogen abounds, few living creatures are capable of utilizing this nitrogen. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. Some plants rely on ammonia and other nitrogenous wastes incorporated into the soil by decaying matter. Others, such as nitrogen-fixing legumes, benefit from symbiotic relationships with rhizobia which create ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen.[26] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ...


Ammonia also plays a role in both normal and abnormal animal physiology. Ammonia is created through normal amino acid metabolism and is toxic in high concentrations.[27] The liver converts ammonia to urea through a series of reactions known as the urea cycle. Liver dysfunction, such as that seen in cirrhosis, may lead to elevated amounts of ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia). Likewise, defects in the enzymes responsible for the urea cycle, such as ornithine transcarbamylase, lead to hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia contributes to the confusion and coma of hepatic encephalopathy as well as the neurologic disease common in people with urea cycle defects and organic acidurias.[28] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... The reactions of the urea cycle. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Hyperammonemia is a metabolic disturbance characterised by an excess of ammonia in the blood. ... Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) (also called ornithine carbamoyltransferase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and ornithine (Orn) to form citrulline (Cit) and phosphate (Pi). ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Hepatic encephalopathy is a potentially reversible neuropsychiatic abnormality in the setting of liver failure, whether chronic (as in cirrhosis), or acutely. ... Organic acidurias are a class of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by urinary excretion of abnormal amounts or types of organic acids. ...


Ammonia is important for normal animal acid/base balance. After formation of ammonium from glutamine, α-ketoglutarate may be degraded to produce two molecules of bicarbonate which are then available as buffers for dietary acids. Ammonium is excreted in the urine resulting in net acid loss. Ammonia may itself diffuse across the renal tubules, combine with a hydrogen ion, and thus allow for further acid excretion.[29] Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q; Glx or Z represents either glutamine or glutamic acid) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... Ketoglutaric acid is refers to either of two crystalline ketone derivatives of glutaric acid which differ only by the position of the ketone functional group. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ...


Theoretical role in alternative biochemistry

Ammonia has been proposed as a possible replacement for water as a bodily solvent in the theoretical alternative biochemistries of lifeforms that do not use carbon for cellular structure and water as a solvent to dissolve bodily solutes and allow essential parts of metabolic processes to occur. It has been suggested that ammonia would be most favorable for lifeforms that live in temperatures below the freezing point of water[citation needed]. Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Liquid ammonia as a solvent

See also: Inorganic nonaqueous solvent

Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied non-aqueous ionizing solvent. Its most conspicuous property is its ability to dissolve alkali metals to form highly coloured, electrically conducting solutions containing solvated electrons. Apart from these remarkable solutions, much of the chemistry in liquid ammonia can be classified by analogy with related reactions in aqueous solutions. Comparison of the physical properties of NH3 with those of water shows that NH3 has the lower melting point, boiling point, density, viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker H bonding in NH3 and the fact that such bonding cannot form cross-linked networks since each NH3 molecule has only 1 lone-pair of electrons compared with 2 for each H2O molecule. The ionic self-dissociation constant of liquid NH3 at −50 °C is approx. 10-33 mol²·l-2. An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound. ... The solvated electron in water and liquid ammonia is blue. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant or an ionization constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant used for reversible reactions or processes. ...


Solubility of salts

  Solubility (g of salt per 100 g liquid NH3)
Ammonium acetate 253.2
Ammonium nitrate 389.6
Lithium nitrate 243.7
Sodium nitrate 97.6
Potassium nitrate 10.4
Sodium fluoride 0.35
Sodium chloride 3.0
Sodium bromide 138.0
Sodium iodide 161.9
Sodium thiocyanate 205.5

Liquid ammonia is an ionizing solvent, although less so than water, and dissolves a range of ionic compounds including many nitrates, nitrites, cyanides and thiocyanates. Most ammonium salts are soluble, and these salts act as acids in liquid ammonia solutions. The solubility of halide salts increases from fluoride to iodide. A saturated solution of ammonium nitrate contains 0.83 mol solute per mole of ammonia, and has a vapour pressure of less than 1 bar even at 25 °C. Ammonium acetate is the salt of ammonia and acetic acid. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Lithium nitrate is an oxidizing agent used in the manufacture of fireworks and flares. ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula NaBr. ... Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... R-phrases 20/21/22-32-52/53 S-phrases 13-61 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium thiocyanate is the chemical compound with the formula NaSCN. This colourless deliquescent salt is one... Trinitrate redirects here. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor. ...


Solutions of metals

See also: Solvated electron, metallic solution

Liquid ammonia will dissolve the alkali metals and other electropositive metals such as calcium, strontium, barium, europium and ytterbium. At low concentrations (<0.06 mol/L), deep blue solutions are formed: these contain metal cations and solvated electrons, free electrons which are surrounded by a cage of ammonia molecules. The solvated electron in water and liquid ammonia is blue. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... The solvated electron in water and liquid ammonia is blue. ...


These solutions are very useful as strong reducing agents. At higher concentrations, the solutions are metallic in appearance and in electrical conductivity. At low temperatures, the two types of solution can coexist as immiscible phases.


Redox properties of liquid ammonia

See also: Redox.
  E° (V, ammonia) E° (V, water)
Li+ + e Li −2.24 −3.04
K+ + e K −1.98 −2.93
Na+ + e Na −1.85 −2.71
Zn2+ + 2e Zn −0.53 −0.76
NH4+ + e ½ H2 + NH3 0.00
Cu2+ + 2e Cu +0.43 +0.34
Ag+ + e Ag +0.83 +0.80

The range of thermodynamic stability of liquid ammonia solutions is very narrow, as the potential for oxidation to dinitrogen, E° (N2 + 6NH4+ + 6e 8NH3), is only +0.04 V. In practice, both oxidation to dinitrogen and reduction to dihydrogen are slow. This is particularly true of reducing solutions: the solutions of the alkali metals mentioned above are stable for several days, slowly decomposing to the metal amide and dihydrogen. Most studies involving liquid ammonia solutions are done in reducing conditions: although oxidation of liquid ammonia is usually slow, there is still a risk of explosion, particularly if transition metal ions are present as possible catalysts. ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... It has been suggested that Electrode potential be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Electrode potential be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... It has been suggested that Electrode potential be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ...


Detection and determination

Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute traces, by the addition of Nessler's solution, which gives a distinct yellow coloration in the presence of the least trace of ammonia or ammonium salts. Sulfur sticks are burnt to detect small leaks in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime, when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent. The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulfuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium hexachloroplatinate, (NH4)2PtCl6. In analytical chemistry Nesslers reagent is a reagent used to detect small concentrations of ammonia. ... Sulfur sticks are used in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems to detect minor ammonia leaks. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... John Dalton was English meteorologist who switched to chemistry when he saw the applications for of his ideas about the atmosphere. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Ammonium hexachloroplatinate is an inorganic compound composed of ammonia, platinum and chlorine which forms orange-red crystals or yellow powder used in platinum plating. ...


Interstellar space

Ammonia was first detected in interstellar space in 1968, based on microwave emissions from the direction of the galactic core.[30] This was the first polyatomic molecule to be so detected. The sensitivity of the molecule to a broad range of excitations and the ease with which it can be observed in a number of regions has made ammonia one of the most important molecules for studies of molecular clouds.[31] The relative intensity of the ammonia lines can be used to measure the temperature of the emitting medium. This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... Polyatomic ions are ions which have more than one atom in them. ... A molecular cloud is a type of interstellar cloud whose density and size permits the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2). ...


The following isotopic species of ammonia have been detected:

NH3, 15NH3, NH2D, NHD2, and ND3

The detection of triply-deuterated ammonia was considered a surprise as deuterium is relatively scarce. It is thought that the low-temperature conditions allow this molecule to survive and accumulate.[32] The ammonia molecule has also been detected in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, including Jupiter, along with other gases like methane, hydrogen, and helium. The interior of Saturn may include frozen crystals of ammonia.[33] Nitrogen (N) Standard atomic mass: 14. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ...


Safety precautions

Toxicity and storage information

Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.

The toxicity of ammonia solutions does not usually cause problems for humans and other mammals, as a specific mechanism exists to prevent its build-up in the bloodstream. Ammonia is converted to carbamoyl phosphate by the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthase, and then enters the urea cycle to be either incorporated into amino acids or excreted in the urine. However fish and amphibians lack this mechanism, as they can usually eliminate ammonia from their bodies by direct excretion. Ammonia even at dilute concentrations is highly toxic to aquatic animals, and for this reason it is classified as dangerous for the environment. Ammonium compounds should never be allowed to come in contact with bases (unless in an intended and contained reaction), as dangerous quantities of ammonia gas could be released. Image File history File links Open tube of ammonia fumes when held near open beaker of hydrochloric acid File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Open tube of ammonia fumes when held near open beaker of hydrochloric acid File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Carbamoyl phosphate is a molecule that is involved in ridding the body of excess nitrogen in the urea cycle, and also in the synthesis of pyrimidines. ... Insert non-formatted text here--212. ... The reactions of the urea cycle. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ...


Household use

Solutions of ammonia (5–10% by weight) are used as household cleaners, particularly for glass. These solutions are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (respiratory and digestive tracts), and to a lesser extent the skin. They should never be mixed with chlorine-containing products or strong oxidants, for example household bleach, as a variety of toxic and carcinogenic compounds are formed (e.g., chloramine, hydrazine, and chlorine gas). Ammonia and sodium hypochlorite react to form a number of products, depending on the temperature, concentration, and how they are mixed.[34] The main reaction is chlorination of ammonia, first giving chloramine (NH2Cl), then NHCl2 and finally nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). These materials are very irritating to eyes and lungs and are toxic above certain concentrations. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ... Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. ...


Laboratory use of ammonia solutions

The hazards of ammonia solutions depend on the concentration: "dilute" ammonia solutions are usually 5–10% by weight (<5.62 mol/L); "concentrated" solutions are usually prepared at >25% by weight. A 25% (by weight) solution has a density of 0.907 g/cm³, and a solution which has a lower density will be more concentrated. The European Union classification of ammonia solutions is given in the table. Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ...

Concentration
by weight
Molarity Density
Mass/Volume
Classification R-Phrases
5–10% 2.87–5.62 mol/L 48.9–95.7 g/L Irritant (Xi) R36/37/38
10–25% 5.62–13.29 mol/L 95.7–226.3 g/L Corrosive (C) R34
>25% >13.29 mol/L >226.3 g/L Corrosive (C)
Dangerous for
the environment (N)
R34, R50
S-Phrases: (S1/2), S16, S36/37/39, S45, S61.

The ammonia vapour from concentrated ammonia solutions is severely irritating to the eyes and the respiratory tract, and these solutions should only be handled in a fume hood. Saturated ("0.880") solutions can develop a significant pressure inside a closed bottle in warm weather, and the bottle should be opened with care: this is not usually a problem for 25% ("0.900") solutions. For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ...


Ammonia solutions should not be mixed with halogens, as toxic and/or explosive products are formed. Prolonged contact of ammonia solutions with silver, mercury or iodide salts can also lead to explosive products: such mixtures are often formed in qualitative chemical analysis, and should be acidified and diluted before disposal once the test is completed. This article is about the chemical series. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Density, Hardness 10490 kg/m3, 2. ... This article is about the element. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... The term qualitative research has at least three meanings: Qualitative research is an umbrella term used, especially in the social sciences, to describe various research methods or approaches. ...


Laboratory use of anhydrous ammonia (gas or liquid)

Anhydrous ammonia is classified as toxic (T) and dangerous for the environment (N). The gas is flammable (autoignition temperature: 651 °C) and can form explosive mixtures with air (16–25%). The permissible exposure limit (PEL) in the United States is 50 ppm (35 mg/m³), while the IDLH concentration is estimated at 300 ppm. Repeated exposure to ammonia lowers the sensitivity to the smell of the gas: normally the odour is detectable at concentrations of less than 0.5 ppm, but desensitized individuals may not detect it even at concentrations of 100 ppm. Anhydrous ammonia corrodes copper- and zinc-containing alloys, and so brass fittings should not be used for handling the gas. Liquid ammonia can also attack rubber and certain plastics. The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for personal exposure to a substance, usually expressed in parts per million (ppm). ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH or NIOSH IDLH) is a limit for personal exposure to a substance defined by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), normally expressed in parts per million (ppm). ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance copper, metallic Atomic mass 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Brazen redirects here. ...


Ammonia reacts violently with the halogens. Nitrogen triiodide is formed when ammonia comes in contact with iodine. It causes the explosive polymerization of ethylene oxide. It also forms explosive fulminating compounds with compounds of gold, silver, mercury, germanium or tellurium, and with stibine. Violent reactions have also been reported with acetaldehyde, hypochlorite solutions, potassium ferricyanide and peroxides. Nitrogen triiodide, also called nitrogen iodide, is the chemical compound with the formula NI3. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... Stibine is a colourless gas formed by the reaction of certain antimony compounds with water or reducing agents. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) also known as red prussiate, Prussian red or potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), is a coordination compound that is stable at room temperature and pressure and forms ruby red crystals and powder. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ...


Safety

The U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a 15-minute exposure limit for gaseous ammonia of 35 ppm by volume in the environmental air and an 8-hour exposure limit of 25 ppm by volume.[35] Exposure to very high concentrations of gaseous ammonia can result in lung damage and death.[35] Although ammonia is regulated in the United States as a non-flammable gas, it still meets the definition of a material that is toxic by inhalation and requires a hazardous safety permit when transported in quantities greater than 13,248 L (3,500 gallons).[36] OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


References

  1. ^ Ammonia data at NIST WebBook, last accessed May 7 2007.
  2. ^ NIST Chemistry WebBook (website page of the National Institute of Standards and Technology) URL last accessed May 15 2007
  3. ^ MSDS Sheet from W.D. Service Co.
  4. ^ Ammonium hydroxide physical properties
  5. ^ a b Max Appl “Ammonia” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH Verlag; Weinheim, 2002.DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a02_143.pub2
  6. ^ electrolytes and the urine anion and osmolar gaps.
  7. ^ Ammonia. h2g2 Eponyms. BBC.CO.UK (January 11, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  8. ^ a b Webmineral website URL last accessed August 27 2006
  9. ^ a b c Absolouteastronomy.com URL last accessed April 24 2006
  10. ^ Abraham, Lyndy. Marvell and alchemy. Aldershot Scolar 1990.
  11. ^ a b c United States Geological Survey publication
  12. ^ Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1918) - Haber process. URL last accessed April 24 2006
  13. ^ BBC.co.uk URL last accessed April 24 2006
  14. ^ Kellogg Brown's Ammonia Process URL last accessed April 24 2006
  15. ^ C. E. Cleeton & N. H. Williams, 1934 - Online version; archive. URL last accessed May 8, 2006
  16. ^ Baker, H. B. (1894). J. Chem. Soc. 65: 612.
  17. ^ C.Y.Tong: "New Syllabus A-Level Inorganic Chemistry Problems and Solutions", page 99. Greenwood Press, 1995
  18. ^ Dichlorodifluoromethane by Aaron Vorderstrasse, Western Oregon University.
  19. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/mar2008/db20080321_748642_page_3.htm
  20. ^ Iowa Energy Center, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Research, Education and Demonstration - Related Renewable Energy - Ammonia 2007
  21. ^ YouTube - Ammonia Powered Car
  22. ^ Greg Vezina
  23. ^ Hydrofuel Inc. - The World's leading developer of ammonia fuel and energy technologies - ammonia car technology - Home
  24. ^ Alix M. Freedman, "'Impact Booster': Tobacco Firm Shows How Ammonia Spurs Delivery of Nicotine", The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 28, 1995.
  25. ^ Jeffrey Seeman, "Possible Role of Ammonia on the Deposition, Retention, and Absorption of Nicotine in Humans while Smoking", Chem. Res. Toxicol., 20 (3), 326 -343, 2007. 10.1021/tx600290v S0893-228x(60)00290-7, 2007.
  26. ^ M.B. Adjei, K.H. Quesenberry and C.G. Chamblis. Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage Legumes University of Florida IFAS Extension June 2002.
  27. ^ PubChem Substance Summary, last accessed May 7 2007
  28. ^ Zschocke, Johannes, and Georg Hoffman. Vademecum Metabolism. Friedrichsdorf, Germany: Milupa GmbH, 2004.
  29. ^ Rose, Burton, and Helmut Rennke. Renal Pathophysiology. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins, 1994.
  30. ^ A.C. Cheung, D.M. Rank, C.H. Townes, D.D. Thornton, and W.J. Welch, 1968, "Detection of NH3 molecules in the interstellar medium by their microwave emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1701.
  31. ^ P. T. P. Ho and C.H. Townes, 1983, "Interstellar ammonia, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., vol. 21, pp. 239-70.
  32. ^ T. J. Millar, "Deuterium Fractionation in Interstellar Clouds", Space Science Reviews, Vol. 106, Issue 1, pp 73-86.
  33. ^ Edited by Kirk Munsell. Image page credit Lunar and Planetary Institute. NASA. "NASA's Solar Exploration: Multimedia: Gallery: Gas Giant Interiors". URL accessed April 26, 2006.
  34. ^ Rizk-Ouaini, Rosette (1986). "Oxidation reaction of ammonia with sodium hypochlorite. Production and degradation reactions of chloramines.". Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France 4: 512–21. 
  35. ^ a b Toxic FAQ Sheet for Ammonia published by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), September 2004
  36. ^ Hazardous Materials (HM) Safety Permits from the website of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR), is directed by congressional mandate to perform specific functions concerning the effect on public health of hazardous substances in the environment. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. ...

See also

This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia. ... Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly-produced inorganic chemicals. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ...

Bibliography

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edn., Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  • Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Harlow (UK): Prentice Education. ISBN 0-582-31080-6. 
  • (1986) in Bretherick, L.: Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, 4th Edn., London: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85186-489-9. 
  • Weast, R. C. (Ed.) (1972). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (53rd Edn.). Cleveland: Chemical Rubber Co.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Ammonia (917 words)
Ammonia is found throughout the environment in the air, soil, and water, and in plants and animals including humans.
Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, and plants.
Ammonia is found throughout the environment in air, water, soil, animals, and plants.
Ammonia - MSN Encarta (278 words)
Ammonia was known to the ancients, who derived both the name and the substance from sal ammoniac, which was produced at the Temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya by the distillation of camel dung.
Ammonia is an important refrigerant (see Refrigeration) and is widely used in the chemical industries, especially in the manufacture of fertilizer, nitric acid, and explosives.
Ammonia melts at -77.7° C (-107.9° F), boils at -33.35° C (-28.03° F), and has a density of 0.68 at its boiling point and 1 atmosphere (1,013 millibars) of pressure.
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