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Encyclopedia > Amish
Amish
Total population

198,000 (est. for U.S., ca. 2000) The Amish are an Anabaptist Christian denomination formed in 1693 by a schism among some German-speaking Mennonites over the practice of shunning. ... Image File history File links Lancaster_County_Amish_03. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Founder
Regions with significant populations
United States (notably Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Delaware, New York)

Canada (notably Ontario) This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Religions
Anabaptist
Scriptures
The Bible
Languages
Deitsch ("Pennsylvania Dutch"), Alemannic German, English

The Amish (Amisch or Amische, pronounced /ˈɑːmɪʃ/) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination, formed in 1693 by Swiss Mennonites led by Jacob Amman. They live in the United States and Canada and are divided into several major groups. The Old Order Amish use horses for farming and transportation, dress in a traditional manner, and forbid electricity or telephones in the home. Church members do not join the military, apply for Social Security benefits, take out insurance or accept any form of financial assistance from the government. Beachy Amish and New Order Amish groups have fewer limitations; some permit cars and electricity, and members may be difficult to distinguish from the general North American population, whom they refer to as "English". Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Jacob Amman (Jakob Ammann) was born circa 1644 in Erlenbach im Simmental, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from out of the Canton of Berne. ... The plain people is a generic term used to refer to Amish, Old Order, Conservative and Old Colony Mennonites, Old German Baptist Brethren and Old Order River Brethren in Pennsylvania. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is one of the largest New York based life insurance companies Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... The Beachy Amish Mennonite Church arose from a 1927 division in the (Casselman) River Old Order Amish congregation in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. ... Amish who maintain cultural ties to their religion while disbelieving many of its core tenets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


At home, most Amish speak a dialect known as Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvania German, or Deitsch. Children learn English in school. The Amish are divided into separate fellowships consisting of geographical districts or congregations. Each district is fully independent and has its own Ordnung, or set of mostly unwritten rules. Old Order churches may shun or expel members who violate these rules. Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Ordnung is the Amish rules of living. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ...

Contents

Population and distribution

The geographic and social isolation of Amish communities makes it difficult to determine their total population. In 2000, there were approximately 198,000 Old Order Amish in the United States, according to calculations based on the number of church districts and average district size in Raber's Almanac.[1] This number includes young people who have yet to be baptized, so the number of people who are actual baptized members would be significantly smaller. The Amish are among the fastest-growing populations in the world, with an average of 6.8 children per family.[2] Old Order Amish groups include the Byler group, Nebraska Amish in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, the Reno group, and the Swartzentruber Amish in Holmes County, Ohio. Rabers Almanac is an almanac used by many Old Order Amish, published by an Amish bookstore in Baltic, Ohio. ... The Nebraska Amish are perhaps the most conservative group of Old Order Amish, descendants of the Anabaptists and Mennonites. ... Mifflin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Reno County (standard abbreviation: RN) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... Holmes County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ...


There are Old Order communities in 21 states; Ohio has the largest population (55,000), followed by Pennsylvania (39,000) and Indiana (37,000). The largest Amish settlements are in Holmes County, Ohio, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and LaGrange, Indiana. With an average of seven children per family, the Amish population is growing rapidly, and new settlements are constantly being formed to obtain sufficient farmland. Notable Amish communities are located in Kent County, Delaware and Montgomery County, New York. A sizable Old Order community has been increasing in number in St. Lawrence County and Franklin County, New York. Some Beachy Amish have relocated to Central America, including a large community near San Ignacio, Belize. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Holmes County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... LaGrange is a town in LaGrange County, Indiana, United States. ... Kent County is a county located in the central part of the state of Delaware. ... Montgomery County is a county located in the state of New York. ... St. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of New York. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... view of part of San Ignacio Cayo San Ignacio Cayo is a town in the west of the nation of Belize; it is capital of Belizes Cayo District. ...


Most Old Order and conservative Amish groups do not proselytize, and conversion to the Amish faith is rare but not unheard of. The Beachy Amish, on the other hand, do pursue missionary work. Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... The Beachy Amish Mennonite Church arose from a 1927 division in the (Casselman) River Old Order Amish congregation in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


Ethnicity

Amish family at Niagara Falls in traditional dress

The Amish are united by a common Swiss-German ancestry, language, and culture, and they marry within the Amish community. The Amish therefore meet the criteria of an ethnic group. However, the Amish themselves generally use the term only to refer to accepted members of their church community, and not as an ethnic designation. Those who do not choose to live an Amish lifestyle and join the church are no longer considered Amish, just as those who live the plain lifestyle but are not baptized into the Amish Church are not Amish. Certain Mennonite churches were formerly Amish congregations. In fact, although more Amish immigrated to America in the 19th century than during the 18th century, most Amish today descend primarily from 18th century immigrants, since the Amish immigrants of the 19th century were more liberal and most of their communities eventually lost their Amish identity.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 434 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 741 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is my own work, Gila Brand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 434 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 741 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is my own work, Gila Brand. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... The plain people is a generic term used to refer to Amish, Old Order, Conservative and Old Colony Mennonites, Old German Baptist Brethren and Old Order River Brethren in Pennsylvania. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


In some circumstances, Mennonites of Amish descent may still consider themselves Amish, especially in Canada. The former Western Ontario Mennonite Conference (WOMC) was made up almost entirely of former Amish who reunited with the Mennonite Church in Canada. The author Orland Gingerich, for instance, wrote a book entitled The Amish of Canada which devoted the vast majority of its pages not to the Beachy or Old Order Amish (although it dealt with them too), but to congregations in the former WOMC.


History

Like some Mennonites, the Amish are descendants of Swiss Anabaptist groups formed in the early 16th century during the Radical Reformation. The Swiss Anabaptists or "Swiss Brethren" had their origins with Felix Manz (ca. 1498–1527) and Conrad Grebel (ca.1498-1526). The name "Anabaptism" means "baptised twice"; once as a young child, and again as an adult. The name "Mennonite" was applied later and came from Menno Simons (1496–1561). Simons was a Dutch Roman Catholic priest who converted to Anabaptism in 1536 and was baptized by Obbe Philips after renouncing his Catholic faith and office. He was a leader in the Lowland Anabaptist communities, but his influence reached Switzerland. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... Swiss Brethren were Anabaptists, a group of radical evangelical reformers who initially followed Huldrych Zwingli of Zürich. ... An allegorical portrait of Felix Manz, painted in the 20th century. ... Conrad Grebel (ca. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Obbe Philips (ca. ...


The Amish movement takes its name from that of Jacob Amman (c. 1656 – c. 1730), a Swiss-German Mennonite leader. Amman believed the Mennonites were drifting away from the teachings of Simons and the 1632 Mennonite Dordrecht Confession of Faith, particularly the practice of shunning excluded members (known as the ban or Meidung). However, the Swiss Mennonites (who, because of unwelcoming conditions in Switzerland, were by then scattered throughout Alsace and the Palatinate) never practiced strict shunning as the Lowland Anabaptists did. Amman insisted upon this practice, even to the point of expecting a spouse to refuse to eat with the banned member until he/she repented of his/her behaviour. This strict literalism brought about a division in the Swiss Mennonite movement in 1693 and led to the establishment of the Amish. Because the Amish are the result of a division with the Mennonites, some consider the Amish a conservative Mennonite group. Jacob Amman (Jakob Ammann) was born circa 1644 in Erlenbach im Simmental, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from out of the Canton of Berne. ... The Dordrecht Confession of Faith is a statement of religious beliefs adopted by Dutch Mennonite leaders at a meeting in Dordrecht, Netherland, on April 21, 1632. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ...

An old Amish cemetery in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1941. The stones are plain; the inscriptions are simple.

The first Amish began migrating to the colony of Pennsylvania in the 18th century, and were part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighbouring areas. They came, along with their non-Anabaptist neighbours, largely to avoid religious wars and poverty, but also to avoid religious persecution. The first immigrants went to Berks County, Pennsylvania, but later moved, motivated both by land issues and by security concerns tied to the French and Indian War. Many eventually settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Other groups later settled in or spread to Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Maryland, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Maine, and Canada. The Amish congregations left in Europe slowly merged with the Mennonites. The last Amish congregation to merge with the Mennonites was the Ixheim Amish congregation which merged with the neighbouring Mennonite Church in 1937. Some Mennonite congregations, including most in Alsace, are descended directly from former Amish congregations.[4] No Old Order movement ever developed in Europe; these communities are all in the Americas. Image File history File links Amish_cemetery. ... Image File history File links Amish_cemetery. ... Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Berks County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Most Amish communities that were established in North America did not ultimately retain their Amish identity. The original major split that resulted in the loss of identity occurred in the 1860s. During that decade Dienerversammlungen (ministerial conferences) were held in Wayne County, Ohio, concerning how the Amish should deal with the pressures of modern society. The meetings themselves were a progressive idea; that bishops should get together to discuss uniformity was an unprecedented notion in the Amish church. By the first several meetings, the conservative bishops agreed to boycott the Dienerversammlungen. Thus, the more progressive Amish within several decades became Amish Mennonite, and were then later absorbed into the Old Mennonites (not to be confused with Old Order Mennonites). The much smaller faction became the Amish of today. As the non-Amish world's usage of electricity and cars increased, a tourist industry sprang up around the Amish in places such as the Pennsylvania Dutch Country and Wayne County, Ohio and Holmes County, Ohio. North American redirects here. ... Wayne County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Amish Mennonite is an alternate name for a church fellowship also known as Beachy Amish. ... Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Pennsylvania Dutch Country refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that has a high percentage of Amish, Mennonite and Fancy Dutch inhabitants and where the Pennsylvania German language was historically common. ... Wayne County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Holmes County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ...


Religious practices

The Old Order Amish do not have churches, but hold their prayer services in private homes. Thus they are sometimes called "House Amish." This practice is based on a verse from the New Testament: "The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands..." (Acts 17:24). In addition, the early Anabaptists from whom the Amish are descended were religiously persecuted, and it was safer to pray in the privacy of a home.


Hochmut and Demut

Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut (pride, arrogance, haughtiness) and the high value they place on Demut or "humility" and Gelassenheit (German, meaning: calmness, composure, placidity) — often translated as "submission" or "letting-be," but perhaps better understood as a reluctance to be forward, self-promoting, or to assert oneself in any way. The willingness to submit to the Will of God, as expressed through group norms, is at odds with the individualism so central to the wider American culture. The Amish anti-individualist orientation is the motive for rejecting labor-saving technologies that might make one less dependent on community; or which, like electricity, might start a competition for status-goods; or which, like photographs, might cultivate individual or family vanity. It is also the proximate cause for rejecting education beyond the eighth grade, especially speculative study that has little practical use for farm life but may awaken personal and materialistic ambitions. The emphasis on competition and the uncritical assumption that self-reliance is a good thing — both cultivated in American high schools and exalted as an American ideal — are in direct opposition to core Amish values.


Separation from the outside world

The Amish often cite three Bible verses that encapsulate their cultural attitudes: For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

  • "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness?" (II Corinthians 6:14)
  • "Come out from among them and be ye separate, saith the Lord." (II Corinthians 6:17)
  • “And be ye not conformed to this world, but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.” (Romans 12:2)

Both out of concern for the effect of a parent's absence on family life, and in order to minimize contact with the "English" (the Amish term for "non-Amish," without reference to actual English ancestry or language), the Amish prefer to work at home. However, increased prices for farmland and decreasing revenues for low-tech farming have forced many Amish to work away from the farm, particularly in construction and factory-labor, and, in those areas where there is a significant tourist trade, to engage in shopwork and crafts for profit. The Amish are ambivalent about both the consequences of this contact and the commoditization of their culture. The decorative arts play little role in authentic Amish life (though the prized Amish quilts are a genuine cultural inheritance, unlike hex signs), and are in fact regarded with suspicion, as a field where egotism and a display of vanity can easily develop. See also: First Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Decorative metalwork designed in the Art Deco style by Maurice Ascalon and manufactured by the Pal-Bell Company during the 1940s. ... A quilt is a type of puppy with long fluffy ears. ... Hex signs are a form of folk art, thought by some to be of a talismanic nature, found in the Pennsylvania Dutch tradition. ...


Amish lifestyles vary between (and sometimes within) communities. These differences range from profound to minuscule. Beachy Amish drive black automobiles, while in some communities various groups differ over the number of suspenders males should wear, if any, or how many pleats there should be in a bonnet, or if one should wear a bonnet at all. Groups with similar policies are held to be "in fellowship" and consider each other members of the same Christian church. Groups in fellowship can intermarry and have communion with one another, an important consideration for avoiding problems that may result from genetically closed populations. Thus minor disagreements within communities, or within districts, over dairy equipment or telephones in workshops can create splinter churches and divide multiple communities.


Some of the strictest Old Order Amish groups are the Nebraska Amish ("White-top" Amish), Troyer Amish, the Swartzendruber Amish. Nearly all Old Order groups, besides the "Swiss Amish", speak Deitsch in the home, while more progressive Beachy Amish groups often use English in the home. Amish who leave the old ways often remain near their communities, and in general, there are levels of progression from strict Amish to more liberal groups (usually Mennonite). The Nebraska Amish are perhaps the most conservative group of Old Order Amish, descendants of the Anabaptists and Mennonites. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Swartzendruber Amish are the result of a division that occurred in Holmes County, Ohio in the middle of the 20th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


Baptism, rumspringa, and shunning

The Amish and other Anabaptists do not believe that a child can be meaningfully baptized; this is, in fact, reflected in the name Anabaptist (which means "rebaptizer", as the Anabaptists would baptize adults who had already been baptized as children). Amish children are expected to follow the will of their parents in all issues, but when they come of age, they are expected to make an adult, permanent commitment to God and the community.


Rumspringa (German/Deitsch, "running or jumping around") is the general term for adolescence and the period leading up to serious courtship during which rules may be relaxed a little. As in non-Amish families, it is understood as a practical matter that there will likely be a certain amount of misbehavior during this period, but it is neither encouraged nor overlooked. At the end of this period, Amish young adults are expected to find a spouse and be baptized. A small number choose not to join the church, but to live the rest of their lives in wider society. Some Amish communities will actively shun those who decide to leave the church after having been baptized, even those going to a different Amish congregation with different doctrines. Still other communities practice hardly any shunning, keeping close family and social contact with those who leave the church, even after baptism. Some communities have split in the last century over how they apply the practice of shunning, as in the case of Swartzendruber Amish who split from the wider Amish community over the strict-shunning issue. Shunning is also sometimes imposed by bishops on church members guilty of offenses such as using forbidden technology. Church members may also be called to confess before the congregation. According to widespread belief, rumschpringe is a traditional rite of passage in the Amish religious denomination, and describes a period lasting months or years during which adolescents are released from the church and its rules. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ...


Religious services

The Old Order Amish have worship services every other Sunday at private homes. Since the average district has 169 members, they are often seated in several different rooms,[1] Worship begins with a short sermon by one of several preachers or the bishop of the church district, followed by scripture reading and silent prayer, and another, longer sermon. The service is interspersed with hymns from the Ausbund, sung without instrumental accompaniment or harmony. Singing is usually very slow, and a single hymn may take 15 minutes to finish. Worship is followed by lunch and socializing. The service and all hymns are in Deitsch. Amish preachers and deacons are selected by lot[5] out of a group of men nominated by the congregation. They serve for life and have no formal training. Amish bishops are similarly chosen by lot from those selected as preachers. For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... The Ausbund is the oldest Anabaptist hymnal and the oldest Christian song book in continuous use. ...

An Amish hymnal or Ausbund

Image File history File linksMetadata AmishHymnal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AmishHymnal. ...

Communion

Generally, the Amish hold communion in the spring and the autumn, and not necessarily during regular church services. Communion is only held open to those who have been baptized. As with regular services, the men and women sit in separate rooms. The ritual ends with members washing and drying each other's feet.[6] For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Baptism

The Amish practice of adult baptism is part of the admission into the church. Admission is taken seriously; those who choose not to join the Church can still visit their friends and family, but those who leave the church after joining are shunned by the entire Amish community. Those who come to be baptized sit with one hand over their face, to represent their submission and humility to the church. Typically, a Deacon will ladle water from a bucket into the Bishop's hand, and the Bishop will sprinkle the head three times, in the name of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, after which he blesses each new male member of the church and greets each into the fellowship of the church with a holy kiss. His wife similarly blesses and greets each new female church member. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The Holy Kiss is a punk rock band from San Francisco, California whose members include Matty Rue Morgue (vox, slide guitar), who, channels the grit and grace of Tom Waits through the body of a modern-day Lestat. ...


Weddings

Weddings are typically held on Tuesdays and Thursdays in November to early December, after the harvest is in. The bride wears a new blue linen dress that will be worn again on other formal occasions. She wears no makeup, and will not receive an engagement or wedding ring because the Ordnung prohibits personal jewelry. The marriage ceremony itself may take several hours, followed by a community reception that includes a banquet, singing and storytelling. Newlyweds spend the wedding night at the home of the bride's parents. Celery is one of the symbolic foods served at Amish weddings. Celery is also placed in vases and used to decorate the house instead of flowers.[7] Rather than immediately taking up housekeeping, the newlywed couple will spend several weekends visiting the homes of friends and relatives who attended the wedding. Ordnung is the Amish rules of living. ...


Funerals

A modern Amish cemetery in 2006. Stones are still plain, small, and simple.
A modern Amish cemetery in 2006. Stones are still plain, small, and simple.

Funeral customs appear to vary more from community to community than other religious services. In Allen County, Indiana, for example, the Amish engage Hockemeyer Funeral Home, the only local funeral director who offers a horse-drawn hearse and embalms the body. The Amish hold funeral services in the home, however, rather than using the funeral parlor. Instead of referring to the deceased with stories of his life, eulogizing him, services tend to focus on the creation story and biblical accounts of resurrection. After the funeral, the hearse carries the casket to the cemetery for a reading from the Bible; perhaps a hymn is read (rather than sung) and the Lord's Prayer is recited. The Amish usually, but not always, choose Amish cemeteries, and purchase gravestones which are uniform, modest, and plain; in recent years, they have been inscribed in English. The deceased are dressed by family members of the same sex: men and unmarried women in white clothing, and married women in their wedding outfits. After a funeral, the community gathers together to share a meal. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 588 KB) Summary amish Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 588 KB) Summary amish Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Allen County is the largest county (by area) located in the U.S. state of Indiana. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...


Family

Amish children playing baseball, Lyndonville, New York.
Amish children playing baseball, Lyndonville, New York.

Having children, raising them, and socialization with neighbors and relatives are the greatest functions of the Amish family. The main purposes of ‘family’ can be illustrated within the Amish culture in a variety of ways. The family has authority over the individual, not only during infancy and in youth, but throughout life. Loyalties to parents, grandparents, and relatives may change over time, but they will never cease. A church district is measured by the number of families (households), rather than by the number of baptized persons. Families take turns hosting the bi-weekly preaching service. Once a couple has married, it is understood that the most important family function is childbearing. Parents stress their responsibilities and obligations for the correct nurture of their children. They consider themselves accountable to the Lord for the spiritual welfare of their children. Lyndonville is a village located in Orleans County, New York. ...


Lifestyle and culture

Amish lifestyle is dictated by the Ordnung (German, meaning: order), which differs slightly from community to community, and, within a community, from district to district. What is acceptable in one community may not be acceptable in another. No summary of Amish lifestyle and culture can be totally adequate, because there are few generalities that are true for all Amish. Groups may separate over matters such as the width of a hat-brim, the color of buggies, or various other issues. The use of tobacco (excluding cigarettes, which are considered "worldly")[8] and moderate use of alcohol[9] are generally permitted, particularly among older and more conservative groups. Ordnung is the Amish rules of living. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Modern technology

Modern and Amish transportation in Pennsylvania.
Modern and Amish transportation in Pennsylvania.

The Amish, especially those of the Old Order, are probably best known for their avoidance of certain modern technologies. The avoidance of items such as automobiles and electricity is largely misunderstood by outsiders. The Amish do not view technology as evil, and individuals may petition for acceptance of a particular technology in the local community. In some communities, the church leaders meet annually to review such proposals. In others, it is done whenever necessary. Because the Amish, like some Mennonite groups, and unlike the Catholic or Anglican Churches, do not have a hierarchical governing structure, differing communities often have different ideas as to which technological items are acceptable. ImageMetadata File history File links Amish_vs_modern_transportation. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Amish_vs_modern_transportation. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...

Telephone booth set up by an "English" farmer for emergency use by local Amish families.
Telephone booth set up by an "English" farmer for emergency use by local Amish families.

Electricity, for instance, is viewed as a connection to, and reliance on, "the World," the "English," or "Yankees" (the outside world), which is against their doctrine of separation. The use of electricity also could lead to the use of worldly household appliances such as televisions, which would complicate the Amish tradition of a simple life, and introduce individualist competition for worldly goods that would be destructive of community. In certain Amish groups, however, electricity can be used in very specific situations: for example, if electricity can be produced without access to outside power lines. Twelve-volt batteries, with their limited applications, are acceptable to these groups. Electric generators can be used for welding, recharging batteries, and powering milk stirrers. In certain situations, outdoor electrical appliances may be used: lawn mowers (riding and hand-pushed) and string trimmers, for example, are known to be used in some communities. Some Amish families have non-electric versions of vital appliances, such as kerosene-powered refrigerators. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x903, 344 KB) Phone booth in Marshall County, Indiana on the property of an English farmer, set up for emergency use by local Amish families. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x903, 344 KB) Phone booth in Marshall County, Indiana on the property of an English farmer, set up for emergency use by local Amish families. ...


Amish communities often adopt compromise solutions involving technology, which may seem strange to outsiders. For example, many communities will allow gas-powered farm equipment such as tillers or mowers, but only if they are pushed by a human or pulled by a horse. The reasoning is that Amish farmers will not be tempted to purchase more land in order to out-compete other farmers in their community if they still have to move the equipment manually. Many Amish communities also accept the use of chemical pesticides and GM crops, forgoing more common Amish organic farming techniques. A genetically modified food is a food product containing some quantity of any genetically modified organism (GMO) as an ingredient. ...

Amish family farming with horses
Amish family farming with horses

The Ordnung is the guide to community standards, rather than doctrine that defines sin. For example, the four Old Order Amish communities of Allen County, Indiana, are more conservative than most; they use open buggies, even during the winter, and they wear black leather shoes even in the hot summer. The restrictions are not meant to impose suffering. In the 1970s, for example, a farmer near Milan Center, Indiana, was ordered by his bishop to buy a conventional tractor. He had severe progressive arthritis, and with no sons to harness the horses for him, the tractor was seen as a need, rather than a vanity. The rest of the community continued farming with horses. Ordnung is the Amish rules of living. ... Allen County is the largest county (by area) located in the U.S. state of Indiana. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Although most Amish will not drive cars, they will hire drivers and vans, for example, for visiting family, monthly grocery shopping, or commuting to the workplace off the farm — though this too is subject to local regulation and variation. The practice increases the geographic reach of the Amish, and decreases isolation: a horse can travel only about 25 miles (40 km), and then it must rest for a considerable period, restricting the Amish to a radius of 12.5 miles (20.1 km) from home. Moreover, a horse and buggy can only sustain 10 mph (16 km/h) over an extended distance, and thus is impractical for emergencies.[10] Regular bus service between Amish communities has been established in some areas, and train travel is accepted. Hiring a taxi is forbidden on Sundays, as is any transfer of money.


The avoidance of telephone technology is also often misunderstood. The Amish dislike the telephone because it interferes with their separation from the world: it brings the outside world into the home, it is an intrusion into the privacy and sanctity of the family, and it interferes with social community by eliminating face-to-face communication. However, some Amish, such as many of those in Lancaster County, use the telephone primarily for outgoing calls, but with the added restriction that the telephone not be inside the home, but rather in a phone "booth" or shanty (actually just a small out-building), placed far enough from the house as to make its use inconvenient. Commonly, these private phone shanties are shared by more than one family, fostering a sense of community. This allows the Amish to control their communication, and not have telephone calls invade their homes, but also to conduct business, as needed. In the past, the use of public pay phones in town for such calls was more common; today, with dwindling availability of pay phones because of increased cellphone use by the non-Amish population, Amish communities are seeing an increase in the private phone shanties.[11] Many Amish, particularly those who run businesses, use voicemail service.[12] The Amish will also use trusted "English" neighbors as contact points for passing on family emergency messages. Some New Order Amish will use cellphones and pagers, but most Old Order Amish will not.[13]


Language

In addition to English, most Amish speak a distinctive German dialect called Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch, which they call Deitsch ("German"). It is not descended from the Dutch language, but is closest to the German dialect Schwäbisch or Swabian,[citation needed] the dialect of German spoken by the Donauschwaben (Danube Swabians). The English term "Dutch" originally referred to all forms of the German language, whose own name for itself is Deutsch. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ...


Although now limited primarily to the Amish, and to the Old Order Mennonites, Pennsylvania German was originally spoken by many German-American immigrants in Pennsylvania, especially by those who came prior to 1800. The so-called Swiss Amish speak an Alemannic German dialect that they call "Swiss." Beachy Amish, especially those who were born roughly after 1960, tend to speak predominantly in English at home. All other Amish groups use either Pennsylvania German or "Swiss" German as their in-group language of discourse. There are small dialectal variations between communities, such as Lancaster County and Indiana speech varieties. The Amish themselves are aware of regional variation, and occasionally experience difficulty in understanding speakers from outside their own area. Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... German Americans (German Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of the U.S. population. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ...


Deitsch is distinct from Plautdietsch and Hutterite German dialects spoken by other Anabaptist groups. Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a language (or groups of dialects of Low German) spoken in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Honduras, Belize, and Argentina by over 300,000 Mennonites, members of a religious group that fled from Holland and Belgium in the 1500s to escape... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ...


Dress

Dress code for some groups includes prohibitions against buttons, allowing only hooks and eyes to keep clothing closed; others may allow small undecorated buttons in a dark color. In some groups, certain articles can have buttons and others cannot. The restriction on buttons is attributed in part to their association with military uniforms, and also to their potential for serving as opportunities for vain display. Straight-pins are often used to hold articles of clothing together. In all things, the aesthetic value is "plainness": clothing should not call attention to the wearer by cut, color, or any other feature. Prints such as florals, stripes, polka-dots, etc., are not allowed in Amish dress, although these styles have been adopted by fellow Mennonites. Image File history File links Lancaster_County_Amish_02. ... Image File history File links Lancaster_County_Amish_02. ... Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ...


Women wear calf-length plain-cut dresses in a solid color, such as blue. Aprons are often worn at home, usually in white or black, and are always worn when attending church. A cape, which consists of a triangular piece of cloth, is usually worn, beginning around the teenage years, and pinned into the apron. In the colder months, a long woolen cloak is worn. Heavy bonnets are worn over the prayer coverings when Amish women are out and about in cold weather, with the exception of the Nebraska Amish, who do not wear bonnets. When a girl becomes available to be courted, she wears a black bonnet[citation needed]. These unmarried women also wear a white cape.[citation needed]


Men typically wear dark-colored trousers and a dark vest or coat, suspenders (Brit. braces), broad-rimmed straw hats in the warmer months, and black felt hats in the colder months. Single Amish men are clean-shaven; if they are available to court women, they will put a dent in their hat. Married men grow a beard. In some more traditional communities, a man will grow a beard after he is baptized. Moustaches are not allowed, because they are associated with the military, and because they give opportunity for vanity. The avoidance of military styles has origins in the religious and political persecution in 16th and 17th century Europe. Men of the nobility and upper classes, who often served as military officers, wore moustaches but not beards, and the pacifist Amish avoid moustaches because of this association. The wearing of beards, however, is largely based on the same beliefs against shaving that lead Hasidic Jews and conservative Muslims not to shave their beards. (Amish men who wear beards do not abhor shaving: some men grow a fringe of beard around the edge of the face while shaving the hair off the front of the face, including the moustache. These men refrain from shaving the throat.) A straw hat is a large brimmed hat that is woven out of straw. ... For other uses, see Beard (disambiguation). ... Joseph Stalin, one of the most famous historical figures with a moustache For the Swedish heavy metal band, see Mustasch. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


During the summer months, the majority of Amish children go barefoot, including to school. The prevalence of the practice is attested in the Pennsylvania Deitsch saying, "Deel Leit laafe baarfiessich rum un die annre hen ken Schuh." (Some people walk around barefooted, and the rest have no shoes.) The amount of time spent barefoot varies, but most children and adults go barefoot whenever possible. Walking barefoot Going barefoot means not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ...

Health issues

Some Amish are afflicted by heritable genetic disorders, including dwarfism (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome), have the highest incidence of twins in a human population, various metabolic disorders, and unusual distribution of blood-types. Amish represent a collection of different demes or genetically-closed communities.[14] Since almost all Amish descend from about 200 18th century founders, genetic disorders from inbreeding exist in more isolated districts. Some of these disorders are quite rare, or unique, and are serious enough to increase the mortality rate among Amish children. The majority of Amish accept these as "Gottes Wille" (God's will); they reject use of preventive genetic tests prior to marriage and genetic testing of unborn children to discover genetic disorder. Amish are willing to participate in studies of genetics diseases and their extensive family histories are useful to researchers investigating diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and macular degeneration. A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome (also called chondroectodermal dysplasia or mesoectodermal dysplasia) is a rare genetic disorder of the skeletal dysplasia type, with numerous anomalies including post-axial polydactyly, congenital heart defects (most commonly an atrial septal defect producing a common atrium, occurring in 60% of affected individuals), pre-natal tooth... For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Parkinsons disease (PD; paralysis agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia of the brain). ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-07-19, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Amish are conscious of the advantages of exogamy. A common bloodline in one community will often be absent in another, and genetic disorders can be avoided by choosing spouses from unrelated communities. For example, the founding families of the Lancaster County Amish are unrelated to the founders of the Perth County, Ontario Amish community. Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ... Perth County, Ontario is a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. ...


Amish do not carry private commercial health insurance. About two-thirds of the Amish in Lancaster County participate in Church Aid, an informal self-insurance plan for helping members with catastrophic medical expenses.[15] A handful of American hospitals, starting in the mid-1990s, created special outreach programs to assist the Amish. The first of these programs was instituted at the Susquehanna Health System in central Pennsylvania by James Huebert. This program has earned national media attention in the United States, and has spread to several surrounding hospitals.[16] Treating genetic problems is the mission of Clinic for Special Children in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, which has developed effective treatments for such problems as maple syrup urine disease, a previously fatal disease. The clinic is embraced by most Amish, ending the need for parents to leave the community to receive proper care for their children, an action that might result in shunning. For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... The Clinic for Special Children is one of the most advanced gene research clinics in the country and a model for rural health care. ... Ice Cream Shop in central Strasburg on a rainy spring Saturday evening, 2007 Strasburg is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of amino acid metabolism. ...


DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children, is located in Middlefield, Ohio has been treating special-needs children with inherited or metabolic disorders since May 2002.[17] The DDC Clinic provides treatment, research, and educational services to Amish and non-Amish children and their families. Location in the state of Ohio Founded 1799 County Geauga County Mayor William Poole, Jr. ...


Although not forbidden or thought of as immoral, most Amish do not practice any form of birth control, hence their large families. They are against abortion and also find "artificial insemination, genetics, eugenics, and stem cell research" to be "inconsistent with Amish values and beliefs".[18] For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


Suicide rates for the Amish of Lancaster County were 5.5 per 100,000 in 1980, about half that of the general population.[19]


Education

Amish schoolhouse in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1941.
Amish schoolhouse in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1941.
Amish schoolchildren
Amish schoolchildren

The Amish do not educate their children past the eighth grade, believing that the basic knowledge offered up to that point is sufficient to prepare one for the Amish lifestyle.[20][21] Almost no Amish go to high school, much less to college. In many communities, the Amish operate their own schools, which are typically one-room schoolhouses with teachers from the Amish community. These schools provide education in many crafts, and are therefore eligible as vocational education, fulfilling the nationwide requirement of education through the 10th grade or its equivalent. There are Amish children who go to non-Amish public schools, even schools that are far away and that include a very small Amish population. For instance, there have been some Amish children who have attended Leesburg Elementary School in Leesburg, Indiana (about 12 miles (19 km) from Nappanee, Indiana), because their families lived on the edge of the school district. In the past, there have been major conflicts between the Amish and outsiders over these matters of local schooling. But for the most part, they have been resolved, and the educational authorities allow the Amish to educate their children in their own ways. Sometimes, there are conflicts between the state-mandated minimum age for discontinuing schooling, and the younger age of children who have completed the eighth grade. This is often handled by having the children repeat the eighth grade until they are old enough to leave school. However, in the past, when comparing standardized test scores of Amish students, the Amish have performed above the national average for rural public school pupils in spelling, word usage, and arithmetic. They performed below the national average, however, in vocabulary.[22] Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, known as the Garden Spot of America since the 18th century, is located in the southeastern part of the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1103x1435, 842 KB) Image:Amish - On the way to school by Gadjoboy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1103x1435, 842 KB) Image:Amish - On the way to school by Gadjoboy. ... Eighth grade is a year of primary education in the United States and Canada (in Canada its often referred to as Grade 8). ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... Williamson School was a one-room school in Blanch, Caswell County, North Carolina One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland and Ireland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Leesburg is a town located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. ... Nappanee from above. ...


On May 19, 1972, Jonas Yoder and Wallace Miller of the Old Order Amish, and Adin Yutzy of the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, were each fined $5 for refusing to send their children, aged 14 and 15, to high school. In Wisconsin v. Yoder, the Wisconsin Supreme Court overturned the conviction, and the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed this, finding that the benefits of universal education do not justify a violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding The Wisconsin Compulsory School Attendance Law violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment because required attendance past the eighth grade interfered with the right of Amish parents to direct the religious upbringing of their children. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The Bill of Rights, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed in 1789 includes the Free Exercise Clause which guarantees the freedom of religion: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court quoted sociology professor John A. Hostetler (1918–2001), who was born into an Amish family, wrote several books about the Amish, Hutterites, and Old Order Mennonites, and was then considered the foremost academic authority on the Amish. Donald Kraybill, Distinguished College Professor and Senior Fellow in the Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies at Elizabethtown College, is one of the most active scholars studying the Amish today. John A. Hostetler (1918-2001) was an author, educator, and leading scholar of Amish and Hutterite societies. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... Donald B. Kraybill is a prolific author, lecturer, and educator on Anabaptist faiths and living. ... Elizabethtown College is a small comprehensive college located in Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania in Lancaster County. ...


Relations with the outside world

Amish buggy rides offered in tourist-oriented Shipshewana, Indiana.
Amish buggy rides offered in tourist-oriented Shipshewana, Indiana.

The Amish feel the pressures of the modern world. Child labor laws, for example, are seriously threatening their long-established ways of life. Amish children are taught at an early age to work hard. Parents will supervise the children in new tasks, to ensure that they learn to do them effectively and safely. The modern child labor laws conflict with allowing the Amish parents to decide whether their children are competent to perform hazardous tasks. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1667, 853 KB) Summary Amish buggy offering tourist rides in Shipshewana, Indiana. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1667, 853 KB) Summary Amish buggy offering tourist rides in Shipshewana, Indiana. ... Yoders Dutch Country Store. ... The United States has adopted numerous statutes and rules regulating the employment of minors, called child labor laws. ... Categories: Stub | United States law | U.S. history of labor relations ...


Contrary to popular belief, some of the Amish vote, and they have been courted by national parties as potentially swing voters: their pacifism and social conscience cause some of them to be drawn to left-of-center politics, while their generally conservative outlook causes others to favor the right wing. They are nonresistant, and rarely defend themselves physically or even in court; in wartime, they take conscientious objector status; their own folk-history contains tales of heroic nonresistance, such as the insistence of Jacob Hochstetler (1704-1775) that his sons stop shooting at hostile Indians, who proceeded to kill some of the family and take others captive.[23] Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Swing vote is a multi-genre band with Jack, Marc, Ryan and Alex hailing from New Jersey. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


Like many Mennonites, Amish rely on their church and community for support, and thus reject the concept of insurance. An example of such support is barn raising, in which the entire community gathers together to build a barn in a single day. It means coming together to celebrate with family and friends. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Barn raising, DeKalb County, Indiana, USA, about 1900 A Barn raising is an event during which a community comes together to assemble a barn for one or more of its households, particularly in 18th- and 19th-century rural North America. ...

Amish Acres, an Amish crafts and tourist attraction in Nappanee, Indiana.
Amish Acres, an Amish crafts and tourist attraction in Nappanee, Indiana.

In 1961, the United States Internal Revenue Service announced that since the Amish refuse United States Social Security benefits and have a religious objection to insurance, they need not pay these taxes. In 1965, this policy was codified into law.[24] Self-employed individuals in certain sects do not pay into, nor receive benefits from, United States Social Security, nor do their similarly-exempt employees. Amish employees of non-exempt employers are taxed, but they do not apply for benefits. A provision of this law mandates that the sect provide for their elderly and disabled; one visible sign of the care Amish provide for the elderly are the smaller Grossdaadi Heiser or Daadiheiser ("grandfather house"), often built near the main dwelling. The Amish are not the only ones exempt from Social Security in the United States. Ministers, certain church employees, and Christian Science practitioners may qualify for exemption under a similar clause. The Amish pay other taxes the same as other American citizens. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x1022, 627 KB) Rural tourist attraction for Amish crafts: Amish Acres in Nappanee, Indiana. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2009x1022, 627 KB) Rural tourist attraction for Amish crafts: Amish Acres in Nappanee, Indiana. ... Nappanee from above. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ... Taxes redirects here. ...


The Amish have, on occasion, encountered discrimination and hostility from their neighbors. During the World Wars, Amish nonresistance sparked many incidents of harassment, and young Amish men forcibly inducted into the services were subjected to various forms of ill treatment. In the present day, anti-Amish sentiment has taken the form of pelting the horse-drawn carriages used by the Amish with stones or similar objects as the carriages pass along a road, most commonly at night. A 1988, made-for-TV film, A Stoning In Fulham County, is based on a true story involving one such incident, in which a six-month-old Amish girl was struck in the head by a rock and died from her injuries. In 1997, Mary Kuepfer, a young Amish woman in Milverton, Ontario, Canada, was struck in the face by a beer bottle believed to have been thrown from a passing car;[25] she required thousands of dollars' worth of surgery to her face (which was paid for by an outpouring of donations from the public). A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Milverton is a village in Perth County, Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Portrayal in popular entertainment

Film

Peter Weir's 1985 acclaimed drama Witness is set and filmed in the Amish community of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The story focuses on the interaction and culture clash of an Amish family with a Philadelphia detective hiding among them while he investigates a murder that an Amish boy witnessed. The film won an Oscar for screenwriting, and it was nominated for several other Academy Awards. Harvest of Fire is a 1996 Hallmark Hall of Fame made-for-TV movie about an FBI agent's investigation of cases of suspected arson in an Amish farming community, and the relationship she develops with an Amish woman who helps her to uncover the truth. The 2002 documentary Devil's Playground follows a group of Amish teenagers during rumspringa, and it portrays their personal dilemma with both the 'English' world and the decision on whether or not to be baptized as adult members of the church. For other persons named Peter Weir, see Peter Weir (disambiguation). ... Witness is a 1985 movie released by Paramount Pictures, starring Harrison Ford, Kelly McGillis, and Lukas Haas. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Hallmark Hall of Fame is a long running anthology program on American television. ... Devils Playground is a 2002 documentary film by Lucy Walker about the alleged Amish rite of passage called Rumspringa. ... According to widespread belief, rumschpringe is a traditional rite of passage in the Amish religious denomination, and describes a period lasting months or years during which adolescents are released from the church and its rules. ...


Some comic movie portrayals of the Amish include Randy Quaid’s Amish character "Ishmael Boorg" in Kingpin, directed by the Farrelly brothers in 1996, and the 1997 For Richer or Poorer, starring Tim Allen and Kirstie Alley, also about city folk hiding among the Amish. Rob Reiner's 1994 comedy, North, includes a short vignette sequel to Witness, with two of the original actors, Kelly McGillis and Alexander Godunov, portraying what might have happened to their characters after the end of Witness. The 1968 comedy The Night They Raided Minsky's is the story of an Amish girl who goes to New York in the 1920s to be a dancer, and ends up as a burlesque stripper. Randall Rudy Randy Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and comedian. ... Kingpin is a 1996 Farrelly brothers film starring Woody Harrelson, Bill Murray, Vanessa Angel, and Randy Quaid. ... The Farrelly brothers, Peter (b. ... For Richer or Poorer is a (1997) comedy film starring Tim Allen and Kirstie Alley. ... -1... Kirstie Louise Alley (born January 12, 1951 in Wichita, Kansas) is an American actress best known for her role in the TV show Cheers. ... Robert Rob Reiner (born March 6, 1945) is an American actor, director, producer, writer, childrens advocate and political activist. ... North is a 1994 motion picture directed by Rob Reiner, and starring Elijah Wood. ... Witness is a 1985 movie released by Paramount Pictures, starring Harrison Ford, Kelly McGillis, and Lukas Haas. ... Kelly McGillis (born July 9, 1957 in Newport Beach, California, USA) is an American actress, whose notable movies include Witness (for which she received a Golden Globe nomination), Top Gun and The Accused. ... Alexander Borisovich Godunov (Russian: Александр Борисович Годунов, 29 November 1949, Sakhalin, USSR — 18 May 1995,Los Angeles, Califorinia) was a Russian ballet dancer and actor, whose defection caused a diplomatic incident between the USA and the USSR. He joined the Bolshoi Ballet in 1971 and rose to become premier dancer before defecting to... The Night They Raided Minskys is a 1968 film that purports to show the story of how striptease was invented at Minskys Burlesque circa 1927. ... For other uses, see Burlesque (disambiguation). ...


Literature

Modern novels

Amish farmers involved in murder mysteries are also central to Paul Levinson's 1999 Locus Award-winning novel The Silk Code, a science-fiction mystery about biotechnology and mysterious deaths, and Jodi Picoult's 2000 novel (and 2004 TV movie) Plain Truth, a crime drama about the death of a newborn infant on an Amish farm. The Amish are portrayed in other novels, including Lurlene McDaniel's 2002 The Angels Trilogy, and Beverly Lewis' extensive series of Amish romantic fiction. Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... The Locus Awards are presented to winners of Locus Magazines annual readers poll, which was established in the early 70s specifically to provide recommendations and suggestions to Hugo Awards voters. ... Dr. Phil D’Amato is a fictional NYPD forensic detective who has a penchant for strange cases. ... Jodi Picoult Jodi Picoult (IPA pronunciation: [1]) (born 1966) is an American author. ... For the magazine of the same name see The Plain Truth Plain Truth is a 2000 novel written by Jodi Picoult about a murder on an Amish farm. ... Lurlene McDaniel (born c. ... Beverly Marie (Jones) Lewis, a former schoolteacher and musician, is a Christian fiction novelist and childrens author of over 70 books; much of her work focuses on the Anabaptist heritage and the Old Order Amish. ...


Older novels

Helen Reimensnyder Martin's 1905 novel Sabina, A Story of the Amish, like her 1904 novel Tillie, a Mennonite Maid, so harshly depicted its subjects as to provoke cries of misrepresentation. Anna Balmer Myers' 1920 novel Patchwork; a Story of "the Plain People," like her 1921 novel Amanda: A Daughter of the Mennonites, are generally regarded as gentle correctives to the work of Martin. Ruth Lininger Dobson's 1937 novel Straw in the Wind, written while she was still a student at the University of Michigan and receiving that school's Hopwood Award, so harshly depicted the Amish of Indiana that Joseph Yoder was motivated to correct its harsh stereotypes with a better book about Amish life; thus, in 1940, he wrote the gentler Rosanna of the Amish, a story of his mother's life (and his own). He later wrote a sequel, Rosanna's Boys (1948), as well as other books presenting and recording what he regarded as a truer picture of Amish culture. Helen Reimensnyder Martin (1868-1939) was an American author. ... Anna Balmer Myers was an American author of romantic novels featuring the local color of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... The Hopwood Awards are a major scholarship program at the University of Michigan, founded by Avery Hopwood. ... Joseph Yoder (1872 September 22 - 1956 November 13) was an educator, musicologist, and writer, the first successful Mennonite literary figure in the United States, especially known for his semi-fictional account of his mothers life, Rosanna of the Amish (1940), and for his investigation of the sources of the...


Children's literature

An Amish family is tenderly portrayed in Marguerite de Angeli's 1936 children's story Henner's Lydia. Many of the author's illustrations were sketched at the site of the little red schoolhouse still standing at the intersection of PA route 23 and Red Schoolhouse Road west of Morgantown, Pennsylvania; the building is today known as the Amish Mennonite Information Center. The Lancaster County landscape portrayed in the end papers of the book can be recognized in the landscape today. De Angeli's illustrations of a nearby bank barn were sketched just hours before the barn was destroyed by fire. She incorporated the incident in her 1944 Caldecott Honor book Yonie Wondernose, a story about a curious Amish boy, younger brother to the Lydia of Henner's Lydia. Marguerite de Angeli (March 14, 1889 - June 16, 1987) was a bestselling author and illustrator of childrens books including the 1950 Newbery Award winning book The Door in the Wall. ... Henners Lydia is a 1936 childrens story book written and illustrated by Marguerite de Angeli, who later won the Newbery Medal for excellence in American childrens literature for another book, her 1950 The Door in the Wall. ... Caldecott redirects here. ...


Theatre

An early portrayal of the Amish, the 1955 Broadway musical show Plain and Fancy, is also set in Lancaster County, but with a much lighter tone: it tells the story of a couple from New York who encounter the quaint Amish lifestyle when they arrive to sell off some property. This show brought depictions of shunning and barn-raising to the mainstream American audience for the first time. Another play that features the Amish people is Quiet in the Lands, a Canadian play about the Amish struggles in World War II. For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Plain and Fancy is a Broadway musical with a book by Joseph Stein and Will Glickman, music by Albert Hague, and lyrics by Arnold Horwitt. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Television

In 1988 NBC aired a family drama called Aaron's Way about an Amish family who move to California and have to adjust to a non-Amish lifestyle; numerous TV shows have had individual episodes with Amish characters and storylines, including Pinky and the Brain, Arthur (TV series), Picket Fences, Murder She Wrote, MacGyver, Grey's Anatomy, Tales of the Gold Monkey and Cold Case, among others.[26] In the summer of 2004, a controversial reality-television program called Amish in the City was aired on UPN, where Amish teenagers are exposed to non-Amish culture, by living together with "English" teens while the Amish teens decide if they want to be baptized into their church. A similar miniseries called The Outsiders was broadcast by ABC in 2008. It should be noted that the conduct of the teenagers involved, and the allowance of the community for the teens to participate, would not be condoned by the majority of the Amish. On October 7, 2007, the CBS TV show Cold Case featured the episode "Running Around," in which the team re-opens the 2006 case of a missing Amish girl who was murdered during her rumspringa journey to Philadelphia. This article is about the television network. ... Aarons Way was a family drama series that ran in 1988 on American television, starring Merlin Olsen as Aaron Miller, the husband and father of an Amish family, which he moved to California and had to adapt to technology and situations that Amish traditionally shun. ... This article describes both the animated television series, and the characters from that series. ... Arthur is an American and Canadian educational television series for children, which airs primarily on PBS in the United States; Radio-Canada, Knowledge Network and TVO in Canada; and BBC One in the UK, among other stations and networks. ... Picket Fences is a 60-minute drama which initially ran from September 18, 1992 to June 26, 1996 on the CBS television network in the United States. ... Categories: Television stubs | Crime television series ... MacGyver is an American adventure television series, produced in the United States and Canada, about the laid-back, extremely resourceful secret agent MacGyver, played by Richard Dean Anderson. ... This article is about the television series. ... Tales of the Gold Monkey was a 1982 television show broadcast by ABC. The networks attempt to capitalize on the fame of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark the previous year featured an ex-Flying Tigers Indiana Jones-like operator of an air cargo delivery service named Jake... For other uses, see Cold case (disambiguation). ... Amish in the City was an American reality television series by UPN which involved five Amish teenagers living in a house in the Hollywood Hills to experience English (non-Amish) culture. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) was a television network in over 200 markets in the United States. ... Look up ABC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... For other uses, see Cold case (disambiguation). ...


Music

"Weird Al" Yankovic's 1996 parody Amish Paradise and the accompanying music video was an affectionate send-up of Coolio's earlier hip-hop song Gangsta's Paradise, with Yankovic in Amish garb, and lyrics reflecting Amish themes. This article is about the musician. ... Amish Paradise is Weird Al Yankovics parody of the hip hop song Gangstas Paradise by Coolio. ... This article is about the hip hop artist. ... Gangstas Paradise is the second album by rapper Coolio. ...


Similar groups

As Anabaptist religious groups that avoid automobiles and live apart from the outside world, Old Order Mennonites, Hutterites, and Old German Baptist Brethren are sometimes considered by outsiders to be the same as the Old Order Amish. However, all were distinct groups before emigrating from Europe, with different dialects and separate cultural and religious traditions. The Hutterites, who live communally, come from the same broad Anabaptist background, but were never Mennonites. They use the most modern farming methods on their colonies' farms, including extended- and crew-cab pickup trucks for personal transportation. Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... Old German Baptist Brethren (OGBB) descend from a pietist movement in Schwarzenau, Germany, in 1708, when Alexander Mack founded a fellowship with 8 believers. ...


Quakers are unrelated to the Amish, although the early Quakers were influenced to some degree by the Anabaptists, and were also "plain people" in manner and lifestyle. Most modern Quakers have since abandoned their traditional dress. Quaker redirects here. ... The plain people is a generic term used to refer to Amish, Old Order, Conservative and Old Colony Mennonites, Old German Baptist Brethren and Old Order River Brethren in Pennsylvania. ...


Despite the vast differences between the two groups, the French and Romanian version of the film Witness mistranslated "Amish" as "Mormon." Witness is a 1985 movie released by Paramount Pictures, starring Harrison Ford, Kelly McGillis, and Lukas Haas. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...


Abuse controversy

Several recent high-profile cases have brought attention to sexual abuse of children among the Amish in some of the smaller more isolated communities, which has been called "almost a plague in some communities."[27] Bishops and preachers of Old Order groups settle conflicts and mete out punishment for sins (generally in the form of shunning), and sexual abuse may therefore be less-often reported to law enforcement. Those who are mistreated have little recourse, and may be shunned for seeking outside help. Mary Byler was raped over a hundred times between the ages of 8 and 14 by her brothers; she was excommunicated and shunned for reporting her abusers.[28] David Yoder, who grew up in a conservative Swartzentruber Amish family, recalls one man who committed incest with his daughter, and was punished with 90 days of shunning.[29] Another young woman was repeatedly raped by her brother-in-law, who was eventually punished by being shunned for two-and-a-half months.[30] Some groups have also been accused of tolerating severe physical abuse of children.[31] Although the rate of physical or sexual abuse does not appear to be higher in the Amish community than in the general public, their physical and social isolation from the outside world makes it difficult for victims to seek help. Bad Touch redirects here. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... David E. Yoder (born October 13, 1956) is an advocate Amish victims of child abuse and a former member of ultra-conservative Swartzendruber Amish community. ... Child abuse is the physical, psychological or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ...


The Lancaster, Pennsylvania-based Intelligencer Journal published a four-part series on domestic abuse, child abuse, and child sexual abuse inside Amish (and Mennonite) families from the heart of PA Dutch country. These articles suggested that abuse may be systematically silenced inside Amish (and Mennonite) churches, because of the emphasis on Gelassenheit and male authority in the church. The series, published on August 4, 2004, won a state-wide award for Best Public Service reporting in Pennsylvania. It began with an article entitled "Silenced by Shame: Hidden in Plain Sight," and ended with an article entitled "The Ties That Bind Can Form the Noose." As the article "Beliefs, Culture Can Perpetuate Abuse in Families, Churches" makes clear, child and spousal abuse is often concealed and denied in the service of other church ends. One reaction from an Old Order woman was the following: "They made Plain women look too stupid and ignorant to know how to get help."[32] , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ...


The Amish community recently has started to address the issue of abuse awareness. The Amish publisher Pathway Publishers, for example, has run several series in its magazine Family Life that touch on the subjects of sexual and physical abuse. Pathway Publishers has also distributed free-of-charge resources for the abused and their families. Some Amish communities have objected to the articles, preferring that the subject not be raised, and claiming that these problems exist only among the "English".[33] Pathway Publishing Company of Ontario, Canada, is the major publisher of Amish written material ... Family Life is a magazine published by, and primarily for, the Old Order Amish. ...


See also

Amish music is primarily German in origin, and includes ancient singing styles not found anywhere in Europe, as well as modern hymns derived from the Pennsylvania German culture. ... The Amish school shooting occurred on the morning of Monday, October 2, 2006, when a gunman took hostages and eventually killed five girls (aged 7–13) and then killed himself at West Nickel Mines School, a one-room Amish schoolhouse in Nickel Mines, a village in Bart Township of Lancaster... Northkill Amish Settlement was the first organized Amish settlement in America. ... The term Fancy Dutch refers to the Pennsylvania Germans who belonged to the Reformed and Lutheran churches. ... The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documented the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists. ... Amish furniture is a distinctive style of furniture made by the Amish primarily of Ohio and Indiana. ... Ordnung is the Amish rules of living. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Amish Country News — Ask Uncle Amos
  2. ^ Julia A. Ericksen; Eugene P. Ericksen, John A. Hostetler, Gertrude E. Huntington (July 1979). "Fertility Patterns and Trends among the Old Order Amish". Population Studies (33): 255–76. ISSN 00324728. OCLC 39648293. 
  3. ^ Nolt, S. M. A History of the Amish, Intercourse:Good Books, 1992, p. 104
  4. ^ Nolt, S. M. A History of the Amish, Intercourse: Good Books, 1992
  5. ^ Based on Acts 1:23-26
  6. ^ Brad Igou (1995). Amish Religious Traditions. Amish Country News. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  7. ^ See this page and this page for more about the tradition associating celery with Amish weddings.
  8. ^ "The Amish vs. Tobacco." by Brad Igou. 1992. Amish Country News. [1]
  9. ^ "Ohio's Amish seek help for underage drinking." By Amy Beth Graves (AP). Sunday, May 21, 2000. Cincinnati Enquirer [2]
  10. ^ Purdue University
  11. ^ See, for example, [Dan Morse "Still Called by Faith to the Booth: As Pay Phones Vanish, Amish and Mennonites Build Their Own"], The Washington Post, September 3, 2006, p. C1; see also Diane Zimmerman Umble's work on the subject of the Amish and telephones
  12. ^ Kraybill, Donald Amish Enterprise: From Plows to Profits, Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004
  13. ^ Howard Rheingold "Look Who's Talking", Wired, January, 1999, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/7.01/amish.html
  14. ^ Hostetler, J.A. Amish Society 4ed., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, p. 328
  15. ^ Rubinkam, Michael (October 5, 2006). Amish Reluctantly Accept Donations. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  16. ^ The Daily Item — Doctors make house calls in barn
  17. ^ DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children
  18. ^ Margaret M. Andrews and Joyceen S. Boyle (2002). Transcultural concepts in nursing care. Lippincott. Retrieved on 2008-01-19. 
  19. ^ The overall suicide rate in 1980 in the USA was 12.5 per 100,000. Kraybill et al. "Suicide Patterns in a Religious Subculture: The Old Order Amish," International Journal of Moral and Social Studies 1 (Autumn 1986).
  20. ^ Dewalt, Mark W (April 10, 2001). Amish Schools in the United States and Canada — Abstract. Education Resources Information Center.
  21. ^ Ediger, Marlow (1992). Reading in Old Order Amish Schools — Abstract. Education Resources Information Center.
  22. ^ Hostetler, John A. (1993). Amish Society 4th ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 188.
  23. ^ Nolt, pp. 66-67
  24. ^ U.S. Code collection
  25. ^ "Amish girl hit with beer bottle"
  26. ^ Brad Igou, "The Amish in the Media," Amish County News, 2001/2005
  27. ^ Legal Affairs — The Gentle People
  28. ^ ABC News: Sexual Abuse in the Amish Community and ABC News: Sex Abuse Case Shocks Amish Community
  29. ^ Amish Deception 1: Learn the truth about the Swartzentruber Amish community in Ohio: Chapter 5 Page 2
  30. ^ Amish Deception 1: Learn the truth about the Swartzentruber Amish community in Ohio: Chapter 5 Page 3
  31. ^ Amish Abuse: Amish Deception
  32. ^ Kraybill, D.B. and J.P. Hurd (2006). Horse-and-Buggy Mennonites : hoofbeats of humility in a postmodern world. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, p. 159-160.
  33. ^ Rensberger, Susan. (2003) The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Amish. New York, Alpha Books (Penguin Group), p. 181 - 183

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cincinnati Enquirer is a daily morning newspaper published at Cincinnati, Ohio. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Die Botschaft (Lancaster, PA 17608-0807; 717-392-1321). Magazine for Old Order Amish published by non-Amish; only Amish may place advertisements.
  • The Budget (P.O. Box 249, Sugarcreek, OH 44681; 330-852-4634). Weekly newspaper by and for Amish.
  • The Diary (P.O. Box 98, Gordonville, PA 17529). Monthly newsmagazine by and for Old Order Amish.
  • DeWalt, Mark W. Amish Education in the United States and Canada. Rowman and Littlefield Education, 2006. 224 pp.
  • Garret, Ottie A and Ruth Irene Garret. True Stories of the X-Amish: Banned, Excommunicated and Shunned, Horse Cave, KY: Neu Leben, 1998.
  • Garret, Ruth Irene. Crossing Over: One Woman's Escape from Amish Life, Thomas More, 1998.
  • Good, Merle and Phyllis. 20 Most Asked Questions about the Amish and Mennonites. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1979.
  • Hostetler, John A. ed. Amish Roots: A Treasury of History, Wisdom, and Lore. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 319 pp.
  • Hostetler, John A. Amish Society, 4th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. 435 pp.
  • Igou, Brad. The Amish in Their Own Words: Amish Writings from 25 Years of Family Life, Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1999. 400 pp.
  • Johnson-Weiner, Karen M. Train Up a Child: Old Order Amish and Mennonite Schools. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. 304 pp.
  • Keim, Albert. Compulsory Education and the Amish: The Right Not to be Modern. Beacon Press, 1976. 211 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. The Riddle of Amish Culture. Rev. ed.: Baltimore, Md.; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. 397 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. The Amish of Lancaster County. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. ed. The Amish and the State. Foreword by Martin E. Marty. 2nd ed.: Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 351 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Marc A. Olshan, ed. The Amish Struggle with Modernity. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1994. 304 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Carl D. Bowman. On the Backroad to Heaven: Old Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. 330pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Steven M. Nolt. Amish Enterprise: From Plows to Profits. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. 286 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B., Steven M. Nolt and David L. Weaver-Zercher. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness Transcended Tragedy. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2006. 256 pp.
  • Nolt, Steven M. A history of the Amish. Rev. and updated ed.: Intercourse, Pa.: Good Books, 2003. 379 pp.
  • Nolt, Steven M. and Thomas J. Myers. Plain Diversity: Amish Cultures and Identities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 256 pp.
  • Schachtman, Tom. Rumspringa: To be or not to be Amish. New York: North Point Press, 2006. 286 pp.
  • Schlabach, Theron F. Peace, Faith, Nation: Mennonites and Amish in Nineteenth-Century America. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1988. 415 pp.
  • Schmidt, Kimberly D., Diane Zimmerman Umble, and Steven D. Reschly, eds. Strangers at Home: Amish and Mennonite Women in History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. 416 pp.
  • Scott, Stephen. The Amish Wedding and Other Special Occasions of the Old Order Communities. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1988. 128pp.
  • Stevick, Richard A. Growing Up Amish: the Teenage Years. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 320 pp.
  • Umble, Diane Zimmerman. Holding the Line: the Telephone in Old Order Mennonite and Amish Life. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. 192 pp.
  • Umble, Diane Zimmerman and David L. Weaver-Zercher, eds. The Amish and the Media. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. 288 pp.
  • Weaver-Zercher, David L. The Amish in the American Imagination. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. 280 pp.

External links

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The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... Howard Rheingold at the Ars Electronica in 2004 Howard Rheingold (born July 7, 1947) is a leading thinker and writer on the cultural, social and political implications of modern communications media such as the Internet, mobile telephony and virtual communities (a term he is credited with inventing). ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ...


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