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Encyclopedia > Amine
The general structure of an amine
The general structure of an amine

Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. Structurally amines resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents such as alkyl and aryl groups. An important exception to this rule is that compounds of the type RC(O)NR2, where the C(O) refers to a carbonyl group, are called amides rather than amines. Amides and amines have different structures and properties, so the distinction is chemically important. Somewhat confusing is the fact that amines in which an N-H group has been replaced by an N-M group (M = metal) are also called amides. Thus (CH3)2NLi is lithium dimethylamide. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x657, 27 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x657, 27 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amine ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In the context of organic molecules, aryl refers to any member of the set of functional groups or substituents that are derived from a simple aromatic ring. ... In chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of an atom of carbon double-bonded to an atom of oxygen. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...


See the Category:Amines for a list of types of amine and some real examples of this class of chemical.

Contents

Introduction

Aliphatic Amines

As displayed in the images below, primary amines arise when one of three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an organic substituent. Secondary amines have two organic substituents bound to N together with one H. In tertiary amines all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents. Note: the subscripts on the R groups are simply used to differentiate the organic substituents . However, the number subscripts on the H atoms show how many H atoms there are in that group. It is also possible to have four alkyl substituents on the nitrogen. These compounds have a charged nitrogen center, and necessarily come with a negative counterion, so they are called quaternary ammonium salts. In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ...

Primary amine Secondary amine Tertiary amine
primary amine
secondary amine
tertiary amine

Similarly, an organic compound with multiple amino groups is called a diamine, triamine, tetraamine and so forth. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x700, 21 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x701, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x657, 27 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amine ...


Aromatic amines

Main article: Aromatic amines

Aromatic amines have the nitrogen atom connected to an aromatic ring as in anilines. The aromatic ring strongly decreases the basicity of the amine, depending on its substituents. Interestingly, the presence of an amine group strongly increases the reactivity of the aromatic ring, due to an electron-donating affect. One organic reaction involving aromatic amines is the Goldberg reaction. An aromatic amine is an amine with an aromatic substituent - that is -NH2, -NH- or nitrogen group(s) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon, whose structure usually contains one or more benzene rings. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2) is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as a substance that... Organic reactions are chemical reactions between organic compounds. ... The Goldberg reaction is a variation of the Ullmann reaction in which a primary aromatic amine is coupled to an aryl halide to a secondary amine in the presence of a copper compound. ...


Naming conventions

  • the prefix "N-" shows substitution on the nitrogen atom
  • as prefix: "amino-"
  • as suffix: "-amine"
  • remember that chemical compounds are not proper nouns, so lower case is indicated throughout.

Systematic names for some common amines:

Lower amines are named with the suffix -amine.


methylamine from meta File links The following pages link to this file: Amine Categories: GFDL images ...

Higher amines have the prefix amino as a functional group.


2-aminopentane
(or sometimes: pent-2-yl-amine or pentane-2-amine) from meta This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ...

Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... Ethanolamine, or 2-Amino ethanol, is a toxic flammable corrosive colorless viscous liquid with an odor similar to ammonia. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Tris is an abbreviation of the trivial name (trishydroxymethylaminomethane) for 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. ... HCL or HCl can stand for: Hardware Compatibility List Chemical symbol for hydrochloric acid, written HCl Higher Chinese Language, an academic subject in Singapore An Indian software company (previously Hindustan Computers Ltd. ... The correct title of this article is . ... A buffering agent adjusts the pH of a solution. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Safety (MSDS) data for dimethylamine General Synonyms: N-methyl-methanamine Molecular formula: C2H7N CAS No: 124-40-3 EINECS No: 204-697-4 EC index no: 612-001-00-9 Physical data Appearance: colourless gas with strong ammonia-like smell Melting point: -92 C Boiling point: 7. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Aziridine parent compound Aziridines are a group of organic compounds sharing the aziridine functional group which is a three membered heterocycle with one amine group and two methylene groups 1,2. ... Azetidine structure Azetidine (also known as Azacyclobutane, Azete, tetrahydro-, Trimethylenimine, 1,3-Propylenimine and Trimethylene imine) is an organic compound. ... Flash point 3 °C R/S statement R: 11 20/21/22 35 S: 16 26 28 36/37 45 RTECS number UX9650000 Related compounds Related compounds pyrrole piperidine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 16 °C RTECS number TM3500000 Related compounds Related compounds pyridine pyrrolidine piperazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula C5H11N... Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia-like odor in higher concentrations. ... Dimethylethanolamine is a nitrogen organic compound. ... Bis-tris is an abbreviation of the trivial name (Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methane) for 2-[Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol. ...

Physical properties

General properties

  1. Hydrogen bonding significantly influences the properties of primary and secondary amines as well as the protonated derivatives of all amines. Thus the boiling point of amines is higher than those for the corresponding phosphines, but generally lower than the corresponding alcohols. Alcohols, or alkanols, resemble amines but feature an -OH group in place of NR2. Since oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen, RO-H is typically more acidic than the related R2N-H compound.
  2. Methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl-, and ethylamine are gases under standard conditions, while diethylamine and triethylamine are liquids. Most other common alkyl amines are liquids; high molecular weight amines are, of course, solids.
  3. Gaseous amines possess a characteristic ammonia smell, liquid amines have a distinctive "fishy" smell.
  4. Most aliphatic amines display some solubility in water, reflecting their ability to form hydrogen bonds. Solubility decreases with the increase in the number of carbon atoms, especially when the carbon atom number is greater than 6.
  5. Aliphatic amines display significant solubility in organic solvents, especially polar organic solvents. Primary amines react with ketones such as acetone, and most amines are incompatible with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.
  6. The aromatic amines, such as aniline, have their lone pair electrons conjugated into the benzene ring, thus their tendency to engage in hydrogen bonding is diminished. Otherwise they display the following properties:
    • Their boiling points are usually still high due to their larger size.
    • Diminished solubility in water, although they retain their solubility in suitable organic solvents only.
    • They are toxic and are easily absorbed through the skin: thus hazardous.

In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with electronegativity. ... Ethylamine is a volatile amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NH2. ... Diethylamine is a secondary amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NHCH2CH3. ... Triethylamine, also known as N,N-diethylethanamine, TEN or N,N,N-Triethylamine, is a colorless, volatile liquid with a strong, unpleasant and fishy smell reminiscent of ammonia. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Ketone group A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... For the song Chloroform by Spoon, see A Series of Sneaks Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point non flammable RTECS number FG4900000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2) is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Chirality

Tertiary amines of the type NHRR' and NRR'R" are chiral: the nitrogen atom bears four distinct substituents counting the lone pair. The energy barrier for the inversion of the stereocenter is relatively low, e.g. ~7 kcal/mol for a trialkylamine. The interconversion of the stereoisomers has been compared to the inversion of an open umbrella in to a strong wind. Because of this low barrier, amines such as NHRR' cannot be resolved optically and NRR'R" can only be resolved when the R, R', and R" groups are constrained in cyclic structures. Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) whereby the different 2 isomers are the same in every way except being non-superimposable mirror images* of each other. ... In chemistry, a nitrogen compound like ammonia in a trigonal pyramid geometry undergoes rapid nitrogen inversion whereby the molecule turns inside out. ...


Properties as bases

Like ammonia, amines act as bases and are reasonably strong (see table for examples of conjugate acid Ka values). The basicity of amines depends on: Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as a substance that... Within the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. ...

  1. The availability of the lone pair of electrons on the Nitrogen atom.
  2. The electronic properties of the substituents (alkyl groups enhance the basicity, aryl groups diminish it).
  3. The degree of solvation of the protonated amine.

The nitrogen atom features a lone electron pair that can bind H+ to form an ammonium ion R3NH+. The lone electron pair is represented in this article by a two dots above or next to the N. The water solubility of simple amines is largely due to hydrogen bonding between protons on the water molecules and these lone electron pairs. A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ...

Ions of compound Kb
Ammonia NH3 1.8·10-5 M
Methylamine CH3NH2 4.4·10-4 M
propylamine CH3CH2CH2NH2 4.7·10-4 M
2-propylamine (CH3)2CHNH2 5.3·10-4 M
diethylamine (CH3)2NH 9.6·10-4 M
+I effect of alkyl groups raises the energy of the lone pair of electrons, thus elevating the basicity.
Ions of compound Kb
Ammonia NH3 1.8·10-5 M
Aniline C6H5NH2 3.8·10-10 M
4-methylphenylamine 4-CH3C6H4NH2 1.2·10-9 M
+M effect of aromatic ring delocalise the lone pair electron into the ring, resulting in decreased basicity.

The degree of protonation of protonated amines: The inductive effect is associated with the dipole moment of the compound R-X. If X is at the negative end of a dipole moment, it will draw electrons from the ring and produce -I effect. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... Propylamine, also known as n-Propylamine, is an amine with the chemical formula C3H9N. Alkaline Properties Propylamine is a weak base with its Kb (Acid dissociation constant) equaling 4. ... Diethylamine is a secondary amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NHCH2CH3. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2) is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ...

Ions of compound Maximum number of H-bond
NH4+ 4 Very Soluble in H2O
RNH3+ 3
R2NH2+ 2
R3NH+ 1 Least Soluble in H2O

Synthesis

The following laboratory methods exist for the preparation of amines:

Nitriles are reduced to amines using hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst, although acidic or alkaline conditions should be avoided to avoid hydrolysis of -CN group. LiAlH4 is more commonly employed for the reduction of nitriles on the laboratory scale. Similarly, LiAlH4 reduces amides to amines:
Reduction of amides to amines
The reduction of nitro compounds to amines can be accomplished with elemental zinc, tin or iron with an acid.
For more details on this topic, see Reduction of nitro compounds.
  • Nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes. Primary amines can also be synthesized by alkylaton of ammonia.Haloalkanes react with amines to give a corresponding alkyl-substituted amine, with the release of a halogen acid. Such reactions, which are most useful for alkyl iodides and bromides, are rarely employed because the degree of alkylation is difficult to control. If the reacting amine is tertiary, a quaternary ammonium cation results. Many quaternary ammonium salts can be prepared by this route with diverse R groups and many halide and pseudohalide anions.
  • via halides and hexamine in the Delepine reaction
  • aryl amines can be obtained from amines and aryl halides in the Buchwald-Hartwig reaction

The Gabriel Synthesis provides primary amines using phthalimide, which is made as shown: phthalic acid + NH3 → H2O + phthalimide The sodium or potassium salt of the product reacts with a primary alkyl halide to form an alkyl phthalic imide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1777x480, 6 KB) Summary Description: Reaction scheme of the Gabriel synthesis. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... The Staudinger ligation or Staudinger reaction or Staudinger reduction is a chemical reaction in which the combination of an azide with a phosphine or phosphite produces a phosphorimidate . Combined with the hydrolysis of the phosphorimidate, to produce a phosphine oxide and an amine, this reaction is a mild method of... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The Schmidt reaction is an organic reaction involving alkyl migration over the carbon to nitrogen chemical bond in an azide with expulsion of nitrogen [1]. A key reagent introducing this azide group is hydrazoic acid and the reaction product depends on the type of reactant: carboxylic acids form amines through... An allyl group is an alkene hydrocarbon group with the formula H2C=CH-CH2-. It is made up of a vinyl group, CH2=CH-, attached to a methylene -CH2. ... An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... The Aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction or aza-BH reaction in organic chemistry is a variation of the Baylis-Hillman reaction and describes the reaction of an electron deficient alkene usually an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound with an imine in the presence of a nucleophile. ... The Hofmann rearrangement is an organic reaction in which a primary amide is converted to an amine upon treatment with bromine and a suitable base. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1307x220, 3 KB) Summary Description: Reaction scheme of the Hofmann rearrangement. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... Hofmann elimination provides the dealkylation of quaternary ammonium salts to tertiary amines due to the scheme: quaternary ammonium salt via 1. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2). ... Image File history File links Nitrile_reduction. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Image File history File links Reduction-of-amide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Acidity redirects here. ... The chemical reactions described as reduction of nitro compounds can be facilitated by many different reagents and reaction conditions. ... Haloalkane, halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides are compounds derived from alkanes by substituting one or more hydrogen atoms with halogen atoms. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Delépine Reaction or Delepine reaction is the organic synthesis of primary amines (4) by acid hydrolysis of a quaternary hexamethylenetetramine salt (3), obtained from alkylation of hexamethylenetetramine (2) with benzyl or alkyl halides (1) [1] [2]. Advantages of this reaction are selective access to the primary amine without... The Buchwald-Hartwig reaction in its original scope is an organic reaction describing a coupling reaction between an aryl halide and an amine in presence of base and a palladium catalyst. ...

Reactions

Amines react in a variety of ways:

Because amines are basic, they neutralize carboxylic acids to form the corresponding ammonium carboxylate salts. Upon heating to 200 °C, the primary and secondary amine salts dehydrate to form the corresponding amides.
  • By ammonium salt formation. Amines R3N react with strong acids such as hydroiodic acid, hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid in neutralization reactions forming ammonium salts R3NH+.
  • By diazonium salt formation. Nitrous acid with formula HNO2 is unstable, therefore usually a mixture of NaNO2 and dilute hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid is used to produce nitrous acid indirectly. Primary aliphatic amines with nitrous acid give very unstable diazonium salts which spontaneously decompose by losing N2 to form carbonium ion. The carbonium ion goes on to produce a mixture of alkenes, alkanols or alkyl halides, with alkanols as the major product. This reaction is of little synthetic importance because the diazonium salt formed is too unstable, even at cold conditions.
NaNO2 + HCl → HNO2 + NaCl
Nitrous acid reaction
Primary aromatic amines, such as aniline (phenylamine) form more stable diazonium ions at 0–5 °C. Above 5 °C, they will decompose to give phenol and N2. Arenediazonium salts can be isolated in the crystalline form but are usually used in solution immediately after preparation, due to rapid decomposition on standing even when cold. The solid arenediazonium salt is explosive upon shock or mild warming. Because of their greater stability, arenediazonium salts are more synthetically useful than their alliphatic counterparts. Since it is not necessary to isolate the diazonium salt, once it is formed another reagent such as cuprous cyanide can simply be added to the mixture, and with gentle heating of the solution, a replacement reaction takes place along with the evolution of nitrogen. In addition, arenediazonium ions can also undergo a coupling reaction with a highly activated aromatic compound such as a phenol to form an azo compound.
RNH2 + R'2C=O → R'2C=NR + H2O
Secondary amines react with ketones and aldehydes to form enamines
R2NH + R'(R"CH2)C=O → R"CH=C(NR2)R' + H2O

Nucleophilic acyl substitution is a type of substitution reaction between nucleophiles and acyl compounds. ... General Chemical Structure of an Acyl Chloride In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound which is a reactive derivative of a carboxylic acid. ... Acid anhydrides are chemical compounds that look like, and sometimes are, the product resulting from dehydration of an acid. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... Benzoyl chloride, also known as benzenecarbonyl chloride, is a colourless, fuming liquid, C6H5COCl, with an irritating odour. ... In chemistry, acylation is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. ... Image File history File links Amide_formation_from_amine. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... Image File history File links hi Chemical reaction: Carboxylic Acid neutralizes Amine to Salt; then Salt dehydrates to Amide H Padleckas created this image file (finished on January 26, 2005) especially for the article Amine in Wikimedia. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa oasis in western Egypt. ... In chemistry, azo compounds generally have a molecular formula of the form R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aromatic or aliphatic. ... Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Image File history File links Nitrous_acid_with_n-amine. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2) is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ... Phenyldiazonium cation Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the characteristic structure of R-N2+ X- where R can be any organic residue such alkyl or aryl and X is an inorganic or organic anion such as a halogen. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Copper(I) cyanide (CuCN), also copper cyanide, cuprous cyanide, or cupricin (CAS number [1], EINECS number 208-883-6) is a white to cream colored or sometimes greenish powdery solid that is insoluble in water. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... Image File history File links Aromatic_diazonium_salt. ... Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution in organic chemistry is the organic reaction of carbonyl compounds with amines to imines . ... Ketone group A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... An aldehyde. ... An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... Trimer might refer to: trimer (chemistry), a reaction product composed of three identical molecules trimer (biochemistry), a compound of three macromolecules non-covalently bound This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... An enamine is an unsaturated compound derived by the reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine followed by loss of H2O. Form Categories: Functional groups | Stub ... Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. ... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... Peroxymonosulfuric acid, also known as persulfuric acid and as Caros acid, is H2SO5, a colorless solid melting at 45 °C. In this acid, the S(VI) center adopts its characteristic tetrahedral geometry; the connectivity is indicated by the formula HO-O-S(O)2-OH. H2SO5 is sometimes confused... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... The Emde degradation (also called Emde-reaction or Emde-reduction) is a method for the reduction of a quaternary ammonium cation to a tertiary amine with sodium amalgam [1] [2] [3] Ths organic reaction was first described in 1909 by the German chemist Hermann Emde and was for a long... The Hofmann-Martius rearrangement in organic chemistry is a rearrangement reaction converting an N-alkylated aniline to the corresponding ortho and / or para aryl-alkylated aniline. ... The Zincke reaction is an organic reaction in which a pyridine is alkylated to form a pyridinium salt by reaction of another pyridium salt intermediate usually a 2,4-dinitrobenzene with a primary amine [1]. The reaction proceeds through a nucleophilic addition, ring opening and ring closing step (ANRORC mechanism). ...

Biological activity

Amines have strong, characteristic, disagreeable odors, and are toxic. The smells of ammonia, fish, urine, rotting flesh and semen are all mainly composed of amines. Many kinds of biological activity produce amines by breakdown of amino acids. Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ...


Use of amines

Dyes

Primary aromatic amines are used as a starting material for the manufacture of azo dyes. It reacts with nitric(III) acid to form diazonium salt which can undergo coupling reaction to form azo compound. As azo-compounds are highly coloured, they are widely used in dyeing industries, such as: In chemistry, azo compounds generally have a molecular formula of the form R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aromatic or aliphatic. ...

Methyl Orange is a pH indicator frequently used in titrations. ... Sudan I Sudan I (also commonly known as CI Solvent Yellow 14 and Solvent Orange R), is a lysochrome, an azo dye with a chemical formula of 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol. ... Ponceau S Ponceau S, Acid Red 112, or C.I. 27195 is a sodium salt of a diazo dye that may be used to prepare a stain for rapid reversible detection of protein bands on nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes (Western blotting), as well as on cellulose acetate membranes. ...

Drugs

  • Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that helps to relieve allergic disorders due to cold, hay fever, itchy skin, insect bites and stings.
  • Chlorpromazine is a tranquillizer that sedates without inducing sleep. It is used to relieve anxiety, excitement, restlessness or even mental disorder.
  • Ephedrine and Phenylephrine, as amine hydrochlorides, are used as decongestants.
  • Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Methcathinone are amines that are listed as controlled substances by the DEA.

Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Phenylephrine or neosynephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and, rarely, to increase blood pressure. ... Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), is a stimulant that is now primarily used to treat narcolepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...

Gas Treatment

  • Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), diglycolamine (DGA), diethanolamine (DEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are widely used industrially for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from natural gas streams and refinery process streams. They may also be used to remove CO2 from combustion gases / flue gases and may have potential for abatement of greenhouse gases.

Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ...

See also

  • IUPAC nomenclature for the official naming rules for amines.
  • Biogenic amine
  • Acid-base extraction

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tyrosine codon corresponds to topa quinone at the active site of copper amine oxidases -- Mu et al. 267 (12): 7979 -- ... (510 words)
eukaryotes, we have isolated yeast amine oxidase from H. polymorpha.
serum amine oxidase implicates tyrosine as the precursor to topa quinone in
Biosynthesis of Topa Quinone Cofactor in Bacterial Amine Oxidases
Amine Reactivity (3885 words)
Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogens has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group.
The basicity of amines (next section) allows them to be dissolved in dilute mineral acid solutions, and this property facilitates their separation from neutral compounds such as alcohols and hydrocarbons by partitioning between the phases of non-miscible solvents.
The relationship of amine basicity to the acidity of the corresponding conjugate acids may be summarized in a fashion analagous to that noted earlier for acids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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