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Encyclopedia > Amiga
The Amiga 1000 (1985), the first model released
The Amiga 1000 (1985), the first model released

The Amiga is a family of personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation. Development on the Amiga began in 1982 with Jay Miner as the principal hardware designer. Commodore International bought Amiga Corporation and introduced the machine to the market in 1985. The name Amiga was chosen by the developers specifically from the Spanish and Portuguese word for a female friend,[1] and because it occurred before Apple and Atari alphabetically.[2] Look up amiga in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amiga Logo (1985) This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ... Amiga Corporation was a computer company formed in the early 1980s as Hi-Toro. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Amiga Corporation. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... Apple Inc. ... This article is about the corporate brand. ...


Based on the Motorola 68k series of microprocessors, the machine sported a custom chipset with advanced graphics and sound capabilities, and a pre-emptive multitasking operating system (now known as AmigaOS). While the M68k was a 32-bit processor, the version originally used in the Amiga, the 68000, had a 16-bit external data bus (that transferred 32 bit of data in two consecutive steps, a technique called multiplexing -- all this transparent to the software, what was 32-bit from the beginning), and the original machine (along with its contemporary, the Atari ST) was generally referred to in the press as a 16-bit computer;[3] later models sported fully 32-bit designs. The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers such as the Commodore 64, and the Amiga quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts, especially in Europe, and sold approximately 6 million units.[4] The Motorola 680x0, 0x0, m68k, or 68k family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... The Original Chip Set (OCS) was a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers. ... Pre-emptive multitasking is a form of multitasking. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Print media includes newspapers, magazines, and the like. ... C-64 redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


It also found a prominent role in the desktop video / video production and show control business, and was a less-expensive alternative to the Apple Macintosh and IBM-PC. The Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, although early Commodore advertisements attempted to place the Amiga into several different markets at the same time.[5][6] A video editor operating an AVID video software editing system in an editing suite. ... Show control is the use of technology to link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems in a coordinated manner. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The IBM PC (Personal Computer), was the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. ... This article is primarily about a certain class of Personal computers from the late 1970s to mid 1980s, see Domotics or Home servers for home computers used in home automation. ...


Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line. Eyetech sold Amiga hardware under the AmigaOne brand from 2002 to 2005. AmigaOne is the name used for a series of motherboards for PowerPC CPUs mainly intended to run AmigaOS version 4. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Amiga

The Amiga was originally designed by a small company called Amiga Corporation, and initially intended to be a next generation video game machine, but was later redesigned into a general purpose computer.[7][8] Before the machine was released into the market the company was purchased by Commodore. The first model, later known as the Amiga 1000, was released in 1985 first as a successor to the Commodore 64. And then came the rival Atari ST. Commodore later released several new Amiga models, both for low-end gaming use and high-end productivity use. Throughout the 1980s, the Amiga's combination of hardware and operating system software offered great value, but by the mid-nineties other platforms, most of all the PC, reduced this advantage. The history of the Amiga home computer product line has been very eventful from the middle 1980s up to today. ... Amiga Corporation was a computer company formed in the early 1980s as Hi-Toro. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ...


In 1994, Commodore filed for bankruptcy and its assets were purchased by Escom, a German PC manufacturer, who created the subsidiary company Amiga Technologies. They re-released the A1200 and A4000T, and introduced a new 68060 version of the A4000T. ESCOM, actually Eickmeyer Schmitt Computer Society Ltd. ... A subsidiary, in business, is an entity that is controlled by another entity. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ...


However, Escom in turn went bankrupt in 1997. The Amiga brand was then sold to another PC manufacturer, Gateway 2000, which had announced grand plans for it. However, in 2000, Gateway sold the Amiga brand. Gateway, Inc. ...

The current owner of the trademark, Amiga, Inc., has licensed the rights to make hardware using the Amiga brand to a UK computer vendor, Eyetech Group, Ltd, which was founded by some former UK employees of Commodore International. They are currently selling the AmigaOne via an international dealer network. The AmigaOne is a PowerPC computer designed to run the latest version of AmigaOS, which was itself licensed to a Belgian-German company, Hyperion Entertainment.[9] Amiga, Inc. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... AmigaOne is the name used for a series of motherboards for PowerPC CPUs mainly intended to run AmigaOS version 4. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ...


Hardware

At its core, the Amiga featured custom designed coprocessors, useful for handling tasks such as audio, video, encoding and animation. This freed up the Amiga's central processor for other tasks (given that the coprocessors could keep up with the central processor's demands) and gave the Amiga an edge on its competitors in many situations. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The platform also introduced other innovations. The Amiga CDTV, for example, was the first computer to feature a CD-ROM drive as standard, as well as being one of the earlier computers to no longer include a floppy drive in the standard configuration. The Amiga was also one of the first computers for which inexpensive sound sampling and video digitization accessories were available. The Amiga CDTV (for Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) was a computer made by Commodore International and launched in March 1991. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


Although it was once regarded as "unemulatable,"[10] since around 2000, hardware has developed to a point where many different platforms have Amiga emulation programs available that reproduce the Amiga's hardware functions in software. This allows users to run Amiga software without the need for an actual Amiga computer. Amiga emulation refers to the activity of emulating (mimicking the hardware of) a Commodore Amiga computer system using another computer platform. ...


Central processing unit

PowerPC processor.
PowerPC processor.

All Commodore Amiga models make use of Motorola Central Processing Units (CPUs) based on the Motorola 68k architecture. In desktop-style Amiga models, the CPU was fitted on a daughterboard (except the A2000) called a CPU card. Low-cost Amiga models came with CPUs either socketed or soldered onto the motherboard. On all Amiga models the CPU could be upgraded through an expansion card or direct CPU replacement. CPU cards were provided by both Commodore and third-party manufacturers. These cards often came with on-board memory slots and hard drive interfaces, alleviating those tasks from the base Amiga. Image File history File links Motorola_PowerPC_604e_233MHz. ... Image File history File links Motorola_PowerPC_604e_233MHz. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... A daughterboard or daughtercard is a circuit board meant to be an extension or daughter of a motherboard (or mainboard), or occasionally another card. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


The Amiga was not limited to solely the 68k CPU architecture; it was also possible to install a PowerPC coprocessor that could be used by PowerPC-aware software and libraries,[11] and later the AmigaOne used a PowerPC CPU instead of a 68k CPU. PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ...


Custom chipset

The Amiga's custom chipset, as the name implies, consists of a number of chips.


There are three generations of chipsets used in the various Amiga models. The first was the OCS, followed by the ECS and finally the AGA. What all these chipsets have in common is that they handle raster graphics, digital audio and communication between various peripherals (e.g., CPU, memory and floppy disks) in the Amiga. The Original Chip Set (OCS) was a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers. ... Enhanced Chip Set (ECS) is the name used for the enhanced version of the Amiga computers original chipset (OCS). ... Advanced Graphics Architecture (AGA) was the name used for the improved graphics chipset of the third generation Amiga computers at the beginning of the 1990s. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ...


Graphics

All Amiga systems can display full-screen animated graphics with 32, 64 (EHB Mode) or 4096 colors (HAM Mode). Models with the AGA chipset (A1200 and A4000) also have 128, 256 and 262,144 color modes and a palette expanded from 4096 to 16.8 million colors. The Amiga chipset could genlock — adjust its own screen refresh timing to match an NTSC or PAL video signal. When combined with setting transparency, this allowed an Amiga to overlay an external video source with graphics. This ability made the Amiga popular for many applications, and provided the ability to do character generation and CGI effects far more cheaply than earlier systems. Some frequent users of this ability included wedding videographers, TV stations and their weather forecasting divisions (for weather graphics and radar), advertising channels, music video production, and 'desktop video'. The NewTek Video Toaster was made possible by the genlock ability of the Amiga. The Amiga version of SimCity in halfbrite mode (with 64 colors). ... A 4,096 color HAM picture from 1989 Hold-and-Modify (more commonly known as HAM) is a screenmode of the Commodore Amiga computer. ... Color depth is a computer graphics term describing the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer. ... Genlock (for Generator Lock) is a common technique where the video output of one source, or a specific reference signal, is used to synchronize other television picture sources together. ... A character generator (CG for short) is a device or software that produces static or animated text (such as crawls and rolls) for keying into a video stream. ... CGI may mean: Computer-generated imagery, a film-making technology Common Gateway Interface, a technology used in web servers CGI.pm, a Perl module used for dealing with it CGI Group, a Canadian headquartered information management company (formerly ) Computer graphics interface, a low-level interface between the Graphical Kernel System... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... Founded in 1985 in Kansas, USA, by Tim Jenison, NewTek produces video post-production and imaging tools for personal computers. ... It has been suggested that ToasterEdit, ToasterCG be merged into this article or section. ...


Sound

The sound chip, named Paula, supports four sound channels (two for the left speaker and two for the right) with 8-bit resolution for each channel and a 6-bit volume control per channel. The analog output is connected to a low-pass filter, which filters out high-frequency aliases when the Amiga is using a lower sampling rate (see Nyquist limit). The brightness of the Amiga's power LED is used to indicate the status of the Amiga’s low-pass filter. The filter is active when the LED is at normal brightness, and deactivated when dimmed (or off on older A500 Amigas). On Amiga 1000, the power LED had no relation to the filter's status, you had to manually solder a wire between pins on the sound chip to disable the filter. Paula can read directly from the system's RAM, using direct memory access (DMA), making sound playback without CPU intervention possible. The Nyquist frequency, named after Harry Nyquist or the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, is half the sampling frequency of a discrete signal processing system. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although the hardware is limited to four separate sound channels, software such as OctaMED uses software mixing to allow eight or more virtual channels, and it was possible for software to mix two hardware channels to achieve a single 14-bit resolution channel by playing with the volumes of the channels in such a way that one of the source channels contributes the most significant bits and the other the least ones. OctaMED is a popular music tracker for the Commodore Amiga, written by Teijo Kinnunen. ...


The quality of the Amiga's sound output, and the fact that the hardware is ubiquitous and easily addressed by software, were standout features of Amiga hardware unavailable on PC platforms for years. Third-party sound cards exist that provide DSP functions, multi-track direct-to-disk recording, multiple hardware sound channels and 16-bit and beyond resolutions. A retargetable sound API called AHI was developed allowing these cards to be used transparently by the OS and software.


ROM

The classic Amiga Operating System consisted of Kickstart (including System API) and Workbench. In the Amiga 1000 model, Kickstart was first loaded from a floppy disk, followed by Workbench, or other bootable disk. Later models held Kickstart (and system API) on a ROM, improving start-up times. Models could be upgraded by changing the ROM.


The early ROMs were generally known as "Kickstart" and started with version 1.0 (A1000 floppy) and ending with Kickstart 3.1. There are hardware and software packages that can "shadow" Kickstart into memory. This resulted in faster operation for functions dependent on the ROM, at the cost of system memory to store the ROM data.


Three finger salute

The Amiga's three-finger salute (CTRL plus the two "Amiga" keys), which reboots the system (but does not erase or reload the Kickstart software), is actually implemented in hardware common to the Apple II (CTRL-Open Apple-Reset), but unlike the IBM PC (whose Ctrl-Alt-Del is implemented in software). Another kind of three-finger salute (CTRL plus the two "Alt" keys) was introduced with AmigaOS 4.0 which resets the machine entirely, forcing a reload of the Kickstart. In computing, the three-finger salute is a jocular term for the keyboard combination that forces a soft reboot, brings up the process manager (on Windows, BeOS or Mac OS X) or a jump to ROM monitor. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ...


Third party hardware

Many expansion boards were produced for Amiga computers to improve the performance and capability of the hardware, such as memory expansions, SCSI controllers, CPU boards, and graphics boards. Other upgrades included genlocks, ethernet cards, modems, sound cards and samplers, video digitizers, USB cards, extra serial ports, and IDE controllers. Scuzzy redirects here. ...


The most popular upgrades were memory, SCSI controllers and CPU accelerator cards. These were sometimes combined into the one device, particularly on big-box Amigas like the A2000, A3000 and A4000.


Early CPU accelerator cards featured full 32-bit CPUs of the 68000 family such as the Motorola 68020 and Motorola 68030, almost always with 32-bit memory and usually with FPUs and MMUs or the facility to add them. Later designs featured the Motorola 68040 and Motorola 68060. Both CPUs featured integrated FPUs and MMUs. Many CPU accelerator cards also had integrated SCSI controllers. Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ...


Phase5 designed the PowerUp boards (BlizzardPPC and CyberstormPPC) featuring both a 68k (a 68040 or 68060) and a PPC (603 or 604) CPU, which are able to run the two CPUs at the same time (and share the system memory). The PPC CPU on PowerUp boards is usually used as a coprocessor for heavy computations (a powerful CPU is needed to run for example MAME, but even decoding JPEG pictures and MP3 audio was considered heavy computation in those years). It is also possible to ignore the 68k CPU and run Linux on the PPC (project Linux APUS), but a PPC-native Amiga OS was not available when the PPC boards first appeared. MAME is an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten. ... JPG redirects here. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


24-bit graphics cards and video cards were also available. Graphics cards are designed primarily for 2D artwork production, workstation use, and later, gaming. Video cards are designed for inputting and outputting video signals, and processing and manipulating video.


Perhaps the most famous video card in the North American market was the NewTek Video Toaster. This was a powerful video effects board which turned the Amiga into an affordable video processing computer which found its way into many professional video environments. Due to its NTSC-only design it did not find a market in countries that used the PAL standard, such as in Europe. In PAL countries the OpalVision card was popular, although less featured and supported than the Video Toaster. Low-cost time base correctors (TBCs) specifically designed to work with the Toaster quickly came to market, most of which were designed as standard Amiga bus cards. It has been suggested that ToasterEdit, ToasterCG be merged into this article or section. ... Timebase correction is a technique to reduce or eliminate errors present in all analog recordings on mechanical media, including video tape recorders and videocassette recorders, caused by mechanical instability. ...


Various manufacturers started producing PCI busboards for the A1200 and A4000, allowing standard Amiga computers to use PCI cards such as Voodoo graphic cards, Sound Blaster sound cards, 10/100 ethernet cards, and TV tuner cards. The Sound Blaster logo The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was for many years the de facto standard for audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, before PC audio became commoditized, and backward-compatibility became less of a feature. ...


PowerPC upgrades with Wide SCSI controllers, PCI busboards with ethernet, sound and 3D graphics cards, and tower cases allowed the A1200 and A4000 to survive well into the late nineties.


Expansion boards were made by Richmond Sound Design that allowed their show control and sound design software to communicate with their custom hardware frames either by ribbon cable or fiber optic cable for long distances, allowing the Amiga to control up to eight million digitally controlled external audio, lighting, automation, relay and voltage control channels spread around a large theme park, for example. See Amiga software for more information on these applications. Richmond Sound Design Ltd. ... Show control is the use of technology to link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems in a coordinated manner. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ... Amiga software covers a wide range of software for the Amiga computer, both productivity and games, both commercial and hobbyist. ...


Models and variants

The Amiga 500 (1987) was the most popular variant of the Amiga.
The Amiga 500 (1987) was the most popular variant of the Amiga.[12]

The "classic Amiga" models[13] were produced from 1985 to 1996. They are, in order of appearance: 1000, 2000, 500, 1500, 2500, 3000, 3000UX, 500+, 3000T, CDTV, 600, 4000, 1200, CD32, and 4000T. The PowerPC based AmigaOne was later produced from 2002 to 2005. Some companies have also released Amiga clones. This is a list of models and variants of Amiga computers. ... Commodore Amiga 500 system File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Commodore Amiga 500 system File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ... The A2000, also known as the Commodore Amiga 2000, is the high-end Amiga personal computer that was released in 1987 at the same time as the low-end high-volume model A500. ... Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... The A1500, also known as the Commodore Amiga 1500, was an 16-bit home/personal computer released in 1990. ... The Amiga 2500, also known as the A2500, was not a distinct Amiga model, but simply a marketing name for a Commodore Amiga 2000 bundled with a Motorola 68020 or 68030-based accelerator card. ... The Amiga 3000T, a towerized version of the A3000. ... The A3000UX is a model of the Amiga computer family that was released with Commodore Amiga Unix installed instead of AmigaOS, a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4. ... The Commodore Amiga 500 Plus, (A500+) is a enhanced version of the original Amiga 500. ... The Amiga 3000T is the tower version of the Commodore Amiga 3000. ... The Amiga CDTV (for Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) was a computer made by Commodore International and launched in March 1991. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ... The A4000, or Commodore Amiga 4000, was the successor of the A2000 and A3000 computers. ... The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amiga 4000T The A4000T, also known as the Commodore Amiga 4000T, was a tower version of the A4000 computer. ... AmigaOne is the name used for a series of motherboards for PowerPC CPUs mainly intended to run AmigaOS version 4. ... The Jargon File has this definition for clone: An exact duplicate: Our product is a clone of their product. ...


The Amiga 500 was Commodore’s best-selling Amiga model. Early units, at least, had the words "B52/ROCK LOBSTER"[14] silk-screen printed onto their printed circuit board, a reference to the popular song by the rock band the B-52's. Commodore's two subsequent console style models also carried a reference to the same band on their motherboards - the Amiga 600 had "JUNE BUG" and the Amiga 1200 had "CHANNEL Z"[15]. Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board; a populated PCB, showing the conductive traces, vias (the through-hole paths to the other surface), and some mounted electrical components PCB Layout Program A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board; a populated PCB, showing the conductive traces, vias (the through-hole paths to the other surface), and some mounted electrical components PCB Layout Program A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using... Rock Lobster is The B-52s first single, released in 1978 and in a longer version placed on the bands self-titled debut album, The B-52s, one year later. ... This article is about the genre. ... The B-52s are a New Wave rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, an important center of alternative rock. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ... The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ...


The Amiga 500+ was the shortest lived model, replacing the Amiga 500 and lasting only six months until it was phased out and replaced by the Amiga 600.[16] The Commodore Amiga 500 Plus, (A500+) is a enhanced version of the original Amiga 500. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ...


Commodore released three significant upgrades: the Amiga 2000 in 1987, the Amiga 3000 in 1990, and the Amiga 4000 in 1992. These upgrades improved the platform's graphical abilities, allowing for more colors and different display modes, and added expansion slots and ports. The best selling models, however, were the much cheaper but still versatile console models - the Amiga 500 (1987) and the Amiga 1200 (1992). The A2000, also known as the Commodore Amiga 2000, is the high-end Amiga personal computer that was released in 1987 at the same time as the low-end high-volume model A500. ... The Amiga 3000T, a towerized version of the A3000. ... The A4000, or Commodore Amiga 4000, was the successor of the A2000 and A3000 computers. ... Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ...


In 2006, PC World rated the Amiga 1000 as the seventh greatest PC of all time, stating "Years ahead of its time, the Amiga was the world's first multimedia, multitasking personal computer".[17] PC World is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG. It offers advice on various aspects of PCs and related items, the Internet, and other personal-technology products and services. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ...


AmigaOS 4 systems

AmigaOS 4 is designed for PowerPC Amiga systems and currently runs on both Amigas equipped with CyberstormPPC or BlizzardPPC accelerator boards, and on the PPC Teron series based AmigaOne computers built by Eyetech under license by Amiga Inc. AmigaOS 4.0 had been available only in developer pre-releases for numerous years until the final update was 'released' in December 2006. Due to the nature of some provisions of the contract between Amiga Inc. and Hyperion Entertainment the Belgian-German firm which is developing the OS, the commercial AmigaOS had only been available licensed to buyers of AmigaOne motherboards. AmigaOne is the name used for a series of motherboards for PowerPC CPUs mainly intended to run AmigaOS version 4. ... Hyperion Entertainment developes Amiga, Linux and Macintosh games. ...


AmigaOS 4.0 for Classic Amigas equipped with PPC (Cyberstorm PPC or BlizzardPPC) accelerator boards was released commercially in November 2007, prior to this it was available only to developers and beta-testers.


There have been no major changes or feature enhancements to Amiga OS 4.0 since December, 2006, and no new hardware released since the AmigaOne, despite rumors of several PowerPC-based motherboards.


Amiga hardware clones

Long-time Amiga developer MacroSystems entered the Amiga-clone market with their DraCo nonlinear video edit system. It appeared in two versions, initially a tower model and later a cube. DraCo expanded upon and combined a number of earlier expansion cards developed for Amiga (VLabMotion, Toccata, WarpEngine, RetinaIII) into a true Amiga-clone powered by Motorola's 68060 processor. The DraCo can run AmigaOS 3.1 up through AmigaOS 3.9. It is the only Amiga-based system to support FireWire for video I/O. DraCo also offers an Amiga-compatible ZORRO-II expansion bus and introduced a faster custom DraCoBus, capable of 30 MB/sec transfer rates (faster than Commodore's ZORRO-III). The technology was later used in the Casablanca system, a set-top-box also designed for non-linear video editing. A non-linear editing system (NLE) is a video editing (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) system which can perform random access on the source material. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire 400 Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... Zorro II is the name of the general purpose expansion bus used by the Amiga 2000 computer. ... Released as the expansion bus of the Commodore International Amiga 3000 in 1990, the Zorro III computer bus was used to attach peripheral devices to an Amiga motherboard. ...


In 1998, Index Information released the Access, an Amiga-clone similar to the A1200, but on a motherboard which could fit into a standard 5 1/4" drive bay. It featured either a 68020 or 68030 CPU, with a redesigned AGA chipset, and ran AmigaOS 3.1. The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ... Full-height, 2 half-height, and 3. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... Advanced Graphics Architecture (AGA) is the third generation Amiga graphic chip set, first used in the Amiga 4000 in 1992. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ...


In 2006, two new Amiga-clones were announced. The Minimig is a personal project of Dutch engineer Dennis van Weeren. Minimig replicates the Amiga OCS custom chipset inside an FPGA. The original model was built on a Xilinx Spartan 3 development board, but now a dedicated board has been demonstrated. The design for Minimig was released as Open Source on July 25, 2007. In December, 2007, an Italian company Acube Systems announced plans to commercially produce the original Minimig. In February 2008 Acube began selling Minimig boards. Minimig 120x120mm PCB board [1] Minimig (short for Mini Amiga) is an open source exact FPGA re-implementation of an Amiga 500. ... The Original Chip Set (OCS) was a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers and defined the Amigas graphics and sound capabilities. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ... Xilinx, Inc. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Individual Computers has announced development of the Clone-A system. As of mid 2007 it has been shown in its development form, with FPGA-based boards replacing the custom chips in an Amiga 500. Individual Computers is a German computer hardware company specializing in retrocomputing accessories for the Commodore 64, Amiga, and PC platforms. ...


Operating systems

AmigaOS

Main article: AmigaOS

At the time of release AmigaOS put an OS that was well ahead of its time into the hands of the average consumer. It was the first commercially available consumer operating system for personal computers to implement preemptive multitasking[18]. Other features included combining a graphical user interface with a command-line interface, allowing long filenames permitting whitespace and not requiring a file extension and the use of information files associated with other files to store icons, launch and other desktop data. AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Pre-emption as used with respect to operating systems means the ability of the operating system to preempt or stop a currently scheduled task in favour of a higher priority task. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... GUI redirects here. ... A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... A filename is a special kind of string used to uniquely identify a file stored on the file system of a computer. ... For other uses, see white space. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ... Several desktop icons from the Windows operating system A computer icon is a small graphic, usually ranging from 16 pixels by 16 pixels up to 128 pixels by 128 pixels, which represents a file, folder, application or device on a computer operating system. ... It has been suggested that Desktop metaphor,Paper paradigm be merged into this article or section. ...


John C. Dvorak stated in 1996 that AmigaOS "remains one of the great operating systems of the past 20 years, incorporating a small kernel and tremendous multitasking capabilities the likes of which have only recently been developed in OS/2 and Windows NT. The biggest difference is that the AmigaOS could operate fully and multitask in as little as 250 K of address space."[19] John C. Dvorak in July 2007 John Charles Dvorak [1] (born 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is an American columnist and broadcaster in the areas of technology and computing. ... Multitasking may refer to any of the following: Computer multitasking - the apparent simultaneous performance of two or more tasks by a computers central processing unit. ... OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


Like other operating systems of the time, the OS lacked memory protection. This was necessary also because the 68000 CPU of the first Amiga computers did not include a memory management unit, and because there was no way of enforcing use of flags indicating memory to be shared.[20] Although it eased interapplication communication (programs could communicate by simply passing a pointer back and forth), the lack of memory protection made the Amiga OS more vulnerable to crashes from badly behaving programs, and fundamentally incapable of enforcing any form of security model since any program had full access to the system. Later this memory protection feature was implemented in Amiga OS 4. Memory protection is a system that prevents one process from corrupting the memory of another process running on the same computer at the same time. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-Bit [1] CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... It has been suggested that Software pointer be merged into this article or section. ... A crash in computing is a condition where a program (either an application or part of the operating system) stops performing its expected function and also stops responding to other parts of the system. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ...


The problem was somewhat exacerbated by Commodore's initial decision to release documentation relating not only to the OS's underlying software routines, but also to the hardware itself, enabling intrepid programmers who cut their teeth on the Commodore 64 to POKE the hardware directly, as was done on the older platform. While the decision to release the documentation was a popular one and allowed the creation of fast, sophisticated sound and graphics routines in games and demos, it also contributed to system instability as some programmers lacked the expertise to program at this level. For this reason, when the new AGA chipset was released, Commodore declined to release documentation for it, forcing most programmers to adopt the approved software routines. In computing, PEEK is a BASIC programming language function used for reading the contents of a memory cell at a specified address. ... Advanced Graphics Architecture (AGA) was the name used for the improved graphics chipset of the third generation Amiga computers at the beginning of the 1990s. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ...


Following Commodore's bankruptcy, two main clones of AmigaOS were developed: MorphOS, which runs on Amiga and Pegasos machines, and the free software AROS project. MorphOS is a mixed proprietary and open source operating system produced for the Pegasos PowerPC (PPC)-processor-based computer, most models of PPC-accelerated classic Amiga computers, and the EFIKA PPC consumer device. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... What is AROS? AROS (Amiga Research Operating System) is an open source implementation of the AmigaOS 3. ...


Unix and Unix-like systems

Commodore-Amiga produced Amiga Unix, informally known as Amix, based on AT&T SVR4. It supported the Amiga 2500 and Amiga 3000 and was included with the Amiga 3000UX. Among other unusual features of Amix was a hardware-accelerated windowing system which could scroll windows without copying data. Amix was not supported on the later Amiga systems based on 68040 or 68060 processors. Commodore-Amiga, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Traditional Unix be merged into this article or section. ... The Amiga 2500, also known as the A2500, was not a distinct Amiga model, but simply a marketing name for a Commodore Amiga 2000 bundled with a Motorola 68020 or 68030-based accelerator card. ... The A3000UX is a model of the Amiga computer family that was released with Commodore Amiga Unix installed instead of AmigaOS, a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ...


Other, still maintained, operating systems are available for the classic Amiga platform, including Linux and NetBSD. Both require a CPU with MMU such as the 68020 with 68851 or full versions of the 68030, 68040 or 68060. There is also a version of Linux for Amigas with PowerPC accelerator cards. Debian and Yellow Dog Linux can run on the AmigaOne. NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... This is an external Memory Management Unit chip for Motorola 68020 CPUs. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... Yellow Dog Linux (often abbreviated YDL) is a free software, open-source Linux distribution for Power Architecture hardware. ...


There is an official, older version of OpenBSD. The last Amiga release is 3.2. Minix 1.5.10 also runs on Amiga.[21] OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... MINIX is a free/open source, Unix-like operating system (OS) based on a microkernel architecture. ...


Emulating other systems

The Amiga is able to emulate other computer platforms ranging from many 8-bit systems such as the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Nintendo Game Boy, Nintendo Entertainment System, Apple II and the TRS-80, to platforms such as the IBM PC and Apple Macintosh. MAME (the arcade machine emulator) is also available for Amiga systems with PPC accelerator card upgrades. The Amiga computer could be used to emulate several other computer platforms, including legacy platforms such as the Commodore 64, and its contemporary rivals such as the IBM PC and the Apple Macintosh. ... The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... For the Chicago-based electronica group, see TRS-80 (group). ... MAME is an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten. ...


Amiga software

Main article: Amiga software

The Amiga was a primary target for productivity and game development during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Software was often developed for the Amiga and the Atari ST simultaneously, since the ST shared a similar architecture. Amiga software covers a wide range of software for the Amiga computer, both productivity and games, both commercial and hobbyist. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ...


Much of the freely available software was available on Aminet. Until around 1996, Aminet was the largest public archive of software for any platform. Aminet is the worlds largest archive of Amiga-related software and files. ...


Bootblock

If an Amiga 500 is rebooted or powered without a floppy this screen is displayed. The displayed OS is Kickstart 34.5 (AmigaOS 1.3), included in the Amiga 500 ROM.
If an Amiga 500 is rebooted or powered without a floppy this screen is displayed. The displayed OS is Kickstart 34.5 (AmigaOS 1.3), included in the Amiga 500 ROM.

When an Amiga is reset, the Kickstart code selects a boot device (floppy or hard drive), loads the first two sectors of the disk or partition (the bootblock), and passes control to it. Normally this code passes control back to the OS, continuing to boot from the device or partition it was loaded from. The first production Amiga, the Amiga 1000, needed to load Kickstart from floppy disk into 256 kilobytes of RAM reserved for this purpose, but subsequent Amigas held Kickstart in ROM. Some games and demos for the A1000 (notably Dragon's Lair) provided an alternative code-base in order to use the extra 256 kilobytes of RAM for data. Amiga kickstart 34. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Dragons Lair was one of the first laserdisc video games, released in June 1983 by Cinematronics. ...


A floppy disk or hard drive partition bootblock normally contains code to load the 'dos.library' (AmigaDOS) and then exit to it, invoking the GUI. Any such disk, no matter what the other contents of the disk, was referred to as a "Boot disk", "bootable disk" or "Workbench disk". (A bootblock could be added to a disk by use of the "install" command.) Some entertainment software contains custom bootblocks. The game or demo then takes control of memory and resources to suit itself, effectively disabling AmigaOS and the Amiga GUI. A demo is a non-interactive multimedia presentation made within the computer subculture known as the demoscene. ...


The bootblock became an obvious target for virus writers. Some games or demos that used a custom bootblock would not work if infected with a bootblock virus, as the virus's code replaced the original. The first such virus was the SCA virus. Anti-virus attempts included custom bootblocks. These amended bootblock advertised the presence of the virus checker while checking the system for tell-tale signs of memory resident viruses and then passed control back to the system. Unfortunately these could not be used on disks that already relied on a custom bootblock, but did alert users of potential trouble. Several of them also replicated themselves across other disks, becoming little more than viruses in their own right. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... The SCA virus was the first computer virus created for the Commodore Amiga. ... Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware). ...


Boing Ball

The Boing Ball[22] has been synonymous with Amiga since its public release in 1985. It has been a popular theme in computer demo effects since the 1950s, when a bouncing ball demo was released for Whirlwind computers. Commodore released a bouncing ball demo at the 1978 Consumer Electronics Show, to illustrate the capabilities of the VIC chip. A similar theme was used to demonstrate the capabilities of the Amiga computer at the 1984 Consumer Electronics Show. It was a real-time animation showing a red-and-white balloon bouncing forth and back off the edges of the screen, as a deep 'boing!' sound played on each impact. Since then, the Boing Ball became one of the most well-known symbols for Amiga and compatible computers. Within the context of this tradition of bouncing ball demos at the Consumer Electronics Show, CBS Electronics also showed a Bouncing Ball demo for the Atari VCS/2600, with a spinning and bouncing ball, at the same event. Demo effects are computer-based real-time visual effects found in demos created by the demoscene. ... Whirlwind may refer to: An atmospheric phenomenon, see whirlwind (atmospheric phenomenon) Several aircraft, see Westland Whirlwind MITs pioneering Whirlwind computer The Whirlwinds are the mascot of Floydada high school in Texas Jimmy White, a famous British Snooker player, is nicknamed The Whirlwind due to his speedy technique of play... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ...


The 1984 Boing Ball demo was one of the very first demos shown on the Amiga. It was specifically designed to take advantage of the Amiga's custom graphics and sound hardware, achieving a level of speed and smoothness not previously seen on a home computer. This demo operated in an Intuition Screen, allowing the higher resolution Amiga Workbench screen to be dragged down to make the Boing Ball visible from behind, bouncing up above the Workbench while the Workbench remained fully active. Since the Boing Ball used almost no CPU time, this made a particularly impressive demonstration of multitasking at the time. Amiga Workbench (1985) The Amiga computer was launched by Commodore in 1985 with a GUI called Workbench based on an internal engine which drives all the input events called Intuition, and developed almost entirely by RJ Mical. ...


Despite its popularity in the Amiga community, the Boing Ball itself was never officially adopted as a trademark by Commodore. The official Amiga trademark was a rainbow-colored double checkmark. After the bankruptcy of Commodore, the Boing Ball remained in use as one of the symbols for Amiga-related systems on hundreds of web sites and products by different companies and individuals. “(TM)” redirects here. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Rainbow (disambiguation). ...


The demo was once ported to the Atari 2600 under the title Boing.[23] The porter impressed himself so much that he added a little Easter Egg, which he referred to as lame (When you hold down the game reset switch, the checkered ball turns into a message that says HAPPY XMAS 1999!-----FROM ROB KUDLA and Jingle Bells starts playing. You also won't hear the bounce sound effect. Releasing the switch stops the music, turns the message back into the checkered ball, and the boing sound effect is played again when the ball bounces). The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ...


Amiga community

When Commodore went bankrupt in 1994, there was still a very active Amiga community, and it continued to support the platform long after mainstream commercial vendors abandoned it. The most popular Amiga magazine, Amiga Format, continued to publish editions until 2000, some six years after Commodore filed for bankruptcy. Another magazine, Amiga Active, was launched in 1999 and was published until 2001. Interest in the platform is high enough to sustain a specialist column in the UK weekly magazine Micro Mart. Amiga Format was a British computer magazine for Amiga computers, published by Future Publishing. ... Amiga Active was a monthly computer magazine published by Pinprint Publishing, it launched at a time when most other Amiga magazines had already closed, and as a result only had one major competitor Amiga Format. ... Micro Mart is a weekly computer magazine published in the United Kingdom by Trinity Publications Limited[1] (as subsiduary of Trinity Mirror) and features news and reviews from both the hardware and software realms of computing. ...


As of mid-2006, there was enough demand for Amiga expansion hardware to keep some small scale manufacturers in business.


Notable historic uses

The Amiga series of computers found a place in early computer graphic design and television presentation. Below are some examples of notable uses and users.

  • Early episodes of the television series Babylon 5 were rendered on Amigas running Video Toasters.[24] Other television series using Amigas for special effects included SeaQuest DSV[25] and Max Headroom.[26]
  • Director Steven Spielberg used Amigas in Jurassic Park for pre-visualization, in the seaQuest DSV TV series for special effects and rendering of underwater craft, and in the TV cartoon Animaniacs.
  • The Amiga 1000 & 2000 computers appeared multiple times on the Miami Vice TV series (Seasons 4 & 5). The Amiga 1000 was shown the most residing in the Miami PD, whilst another was used in several office settings. The 2000 was shown once in a separate household.
  • Richmond Sound Design (RSD) created both show control (a.k.a. MSC or "MIDI Show Control") and theater sound design software which was used extensively in the theater, theme park, display, exhibit, stage managing, show and themed entertainment industries in the 1980s and 1990s and at one point in the mid 90s, there were many high profile shows at major theme parks around the world being controlled by Amigas through software simply called Stage Manager which then evolved into its Microsoft Windows version called ShowMan. There were dozens at Walt Disney World alone and more at all other Disney, Universal Studios, Six Flags and Madame Tussauds properties as well as in many venues in Las Vegas including The Mirage hotel Volcano and Siegfried and Roy show, the MGM Grand EFX show, Broadway theater, London's West End, the Royal Shakespeare Company's many venues, most of Branson, Missouri's theaters, and scores of theaters on cruise ships, amongst hundreds of others. RSD purchased used Amigas on the web and reconditioned them to provide enough systems for all the shows that specified them and only stopped providing new Amiga installations in 2000. There are still an unknown number of shows on cruise ships and in themed venues being run by Amigas.

In addition, many other celebrities and notable individuals have made use of the Amiga:[27] Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... It has been suggested that ToasterEdit, ToasterCG be merged into this article or section. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... It has been suggested that 20 Minutes into the Future be merged into this article or section. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... This article is about the television series. ... Richmond Sound Design Ltd. ... Show control is the use of technology to link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems in a coordinated manner. ... MIDI Show Control, or MSC, is a significant Real Time System Exclusive extension of the international Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) standard. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ... Stage management is a sub-discipline of stagecraft. ... Stage management is a sub-discipline of stagecraft. ... Showman or Travelling Showmen are people who organise and run fairgrounds. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... Disney redirects here. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... For the national flags of Texas, see Six flags over Texas. ... Tussauds redirects here. ... For the band, see The Mirage (band) The Mirage is a 3,044 room hotel and casino resort located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada (though like most hotels on the Strip, it uses a Las Vegas mailing address). ... Siegfried & Roy are longtime Las Vegas headliners whose longrunning illusion and magic act closed October 3, 2003 after “Roy” was mauled by one of the acts performing white tigers during a performance. ... ... Note on spelling: While most Americans use er (as per American spelling conventions), the majority of venues, performers and trade groups for live theatre use re. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... The Titanic Museum is shaped to look like the real Titanic and is a popular tourist attraction in Branson The Duttons performing their famous song where they all play each others violins at their theater in Branson Missouri Herkimer and Cecil are performing at the Presleys Country Jubilee Branson is...

  • Andy Warhol, the famous pop artist, was an early user of the Amiga and appeared at the launch.[28] Warhol used the Amiga to create a new style of art made with computers, and he was the author of a multimedia opera called "you are the one" which represents an animated sequence featuring images of actress Marilyn Monroe assembled in a short movie with soundtrack. The video was discovered on two old Amiga floppies in a drawer in Warhol's studio and repaired in 2006 by the Detroit Museum Of New Art.[29] The pop artist also stated: "The thing I like most about doing this kind of work on the Amiga is that it looks like my work in other media."[30][31]
  • Laurence Gartel who is considered a pioneer of the Digital Art movement, was the artist who physically taught Andy Warhol how to use Amiga[32] at its best, due to the fact he was one of the pioneers using and enjoying Amiga.
  • Actor Dick Van Dyke is a self-described "rabid" user of the Amiga.[33][34]
  • Amigas were used in various NASA laboratories to keep track of multiple low orbiting satellites, and were still used up to 2003/04 (dismissed and sold in 2006). This is another example of long lifetime reliability of Amiga hardware, as well as professional use. Amigas were also used at Kennedy Space Center to run strip-chart recorders, to format and display data, and control stations of platforms for Delta rocket launches.[35]
  • Artist Jean "Moebius" Giraud credits the Amiga he bought for his son as a bridge to learning about "using paint box programs".[36] He uploaded some of his early experiments to the file sharing forums on CompuServe.
  • Tom Fulp is noted as saying he used the Amiga as his first computer for creating cartoons and animations.[37]
  • London Transport Museum developed their own interactive multi-media software for the CD32. The software included a walkthrough of various exhibits and a virtual tour of the museum.[38]
  • The "Weird Al" Yankovic film UHF contains a spoof of the computer-animated video of the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing." According to the DVD commentary track, this spoof was created on an Amiga home computer.[39]
  • Rolf Harris used an Amiga to digitize his hand-drawn art work for animation on his television series, Rolf's Cartoon Club.
  • Todd Rundgren's video "Change Myself" was produced with Toaster and Lightwave
  • An Amiga 1000 can be seen in the movie Disorderlies in the background running a heart animation.

Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] baptised Norma Jeane Baker June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning,[2] critically-acclaimed[3][4][5] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[6] cultural icon, fashion icon,[7] pop icon,[8] film executive[9] and sex symbol. ... Laurence Gartel is considered to be the father of the Digital Art movement around the world for over 25 years. ... Computer-generated image created by Gilles Tran using POV-Ray 3. ... Richard Wayne “Dick” Van Dyke (born December 13, 1925) is an Emmy Award-winning American actor, presenter and entertainer, with a career spanning 5 decades. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Jean Henri Gaston Giraud (born May 8, 1938) is a French comics artist. ... CompuServe, (in full, CompuServe Information Services, or CIS), was the first major commercial online service in the United States. ... This page has been protected from editing to deal with vandalism. ... Londons Transport Museum, formerly known as the London Transport Museum, is a museum which seeks to conserve and explain the transport heritage of London, the capital city of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the musician. ... UHF (also known as The Vidiot from UHF in Australia, New Zealand and parts of Europe, and Los Telelocos in Mexico) is a comedy film made in 1989. ... This article is about the band. ... The music video for the song featured early computer animation illustrating the lyrics. ... Disorderlies is a 1987 comedy film starring the rap group, The Fat Boys, and Ralph Bellamy. ...

References

  1. ^ Gareth Knight. The Twists and Turns of the Amiga Saga. Amiga History Guide. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  2. ^ DeMaria and Wilson (2003) ""High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games" p.109 ISBN 0-072-23172-6
  3. ^ Knight, Gareth. The One for 16-bit Games. Amiga History Guide. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  4. ^ Jeremy Reimer. Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures. Ars Technica. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  5. ^ [1] Youtube video Commodore advert 1987 - Celebrities
  6. ^ [2] Youtube video Commodore advert 1987 - TV spot version of 20 minute presentation
  7. ^ Gareth Knight. Amiga Lorraine. Amiga History Guide. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  8. ^ Amiga Forever - Amiga Games
  9. ^ Hyperion Entertainment
  10. ^ Amiga Emulators. emulation.net. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  11. ^ The Big Book of Amiga Hardware [3] [4]
  12. ^ [5]
  13. ^ Knight, Gareth, Amiga history guide, <http://www.amigau.com/aig/comamiga.html>. Retrieved on 29 September 2007 
  14. ^ [6]
  15. ^ Knight, Gareth, References to B52 songs on Amiga Motherboards, <http://www.amigahistory.co.uk/b52board.html>. Retrieved on 20 May 2008 
  16. ^ Commodore Amiga 500+
  17. ^ PC World, The 25 Greatest PCs of All Time
  18. ^ http://www.amiga.com/amigaos/
  19. ^ From PC Magazine, October 22, 1996 Inside Track By John C. Dvorak
  20. ^ Adding Memory Protection (MP) to the Amiga. groups.google.com. Retrieved on December 30, 2006.
  21. ^ Minix Comp Wisdon
  22. ^ YouTube video of Boing Ball demo, Boing ball projected on Icosahedron for handicrafts
  23. ^ Old Videogames
  24. ^ The Lurker's Guide to Babylon 5
  25. ^ Interview with Matt Gorner
  26. ^ 'Max Headroom' on TechTV
  27. ^ For other notable users see Famous Amiga Users at AmigaHistory.
  28. ^ Amiga Andy article. Artnode online.
  29. ^ Artdaily article about the discover and repair of "you are the one". Artdaily. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  30. ^ Interview with Andy Warhol. Amiga World Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  31. ^ Cynthia Goodman. The Digital Revolution: Art in the Computer Age. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  32. ^ galleriiizu
  33. ^ Dick van Dyke at SIGGRAPH. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
  34. ^ Katie Hafner. "The Return of a Desktop Cult Classic (No, Not the Mac)]", New York Times, 2000-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-01-07. 
  35. ^ Reportage: l'Amiga à la NASA.
  36. ^ Moebius.
  37. ^ Tol Fulp interview
  38. ^ CD32: The Hyper-Museum Project
  39. ^ UHF DVD commentary track

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Famous Amiga Uses
  • Amiga, Inc.
  • Amiga Hardware Database - details of Amiga hardware
  • Amiga Games List - all games released on the Amiga platform
  • Big Book of Amiga Hardware - Big Book of Amiga Hardware
  • Amiga Lorraine: finally, the next generation Atari? John J. Anderson, Creative Computing, April 1984
  • The Amiga A3000+ System Specification Dave Haynie, 1991 DevCon Release, July 17, 1991
  • On the Edge: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore Bagnall, Brian (2005), Variant Press, ISBN 0-9738649-0-7.
  • Amiga History
  • Amiga History Video
  • Amiga emulators at emulation.net

John J. Anderson (1956 – October 17, 1989) was a writer and editor covering computers and technology. ... Creative Computing was one of the earliest magazines covering the personal computer revolution. ... Dave Haynie Dave Haynie is the former Commodore International chief engineer on high end and advanced projects. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Commodore Amiga
The Amiga 500 running Leander (1991) Amiga games are computer games compatible with the Commodore Amiga. ... Minimig 120x120mm PCB board [1] Minimig (short for Mini Amiga) is an open source exact FPGA re-implementation of an Amiga 500. ... Hold-and-Modify (more commonly known as HAM) is a screenmode of the Commodore Amiga computer. ... What is AROS? AROS (Amiga Research Operating System) is an open source implementation of the AmigaOS 3. ... The Mindset was sold around 1984 as a high-end graphics workstation which was somewhat PC compatible. Based on Intels 80186, it had proprietary chips that enhanced and sped up the graphics. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... The KIM-1, short for Keyboard Input Monitor, was a small 6502-based microcomputer kit developed and produced by MOS Technology, Inc. ... The PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home-/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in the late 1970s. ... The Commodore CBM-II series was a short-lived range of 8-bit personal computers from Commodore Business Machines (CBM), intended as a follow-on to the Commodore PET series, released in 1982. ... The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer. ... C-64 redirects here. ... Commodore SX-64 The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, was a portable, briefcase/suitcase-size luggable version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and holds the distinction of being the first full-color portable computer. ... The Commodore 16 was a home computer made by Commodore with a 6502-compatible 7501 CPU, released in 1984. ... Commodore Plus/4. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-Bit [1] CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The A1000, or Commodore Amiga 1000, was Commodores initial Amiga personal computer, introduced on July 24, 1985 at the Lincoln Center in New York City. ... Missing image A500 The A500, also known as the Amiga 500, was the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16_bit multimedia home/personal computer model. ... The A2000, also known as the Commodore Amiga 2000, is the high-end Amiga personal computer that was released in 1987 at the same time as the low-end high-volume model A500. ... The Amiga 2500, also known as the A2500, was not a distinct Amiga model, but simply a marketing name for a Commodore Amiga 2000 bundled with a Motorola 68020 or 68030-based accelerator card. ... The A1500, also known as the Commodore Amiga 1500, was an 16-bit home/personal computer released in 1990. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amiga 3000T, a towerized version of the A3000. ... The A3000UX is a model of the Amiga computer family that was released with Commodore Amiga Unix installed instead of AmigaOS, a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4. ... The Amiga 3000T is the tower version of the Commodore Amiga 3000. ... The Commodore Amiga 500 Plus, (A500+) is a enhanced version of the original Amiga 500. ... The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed June Bug after a B-52s song), was a home computer introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. ... The Amiga 1200, or A1200, was Commodore Internationals third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. ... The A4000, or Commodore Amiga 4000, was the successor of the A2000 and A3000 computers. ... Amiga 4000T The A4000T, also known as the Commodore Amiga 4000T, was a tower version of the A4000 computer. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... Hyperion Entertainment developes Amiga, Linux and Macintosh games. ... This article is about the machine. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Amiga Workbench (1985) Workbench is the name given to both the core AmigaOS software that is not stored in the Kickstart ROM (the Workbench disk), and also the native graphical shell for the Amiga computer. ... Amiga Workbench (1985) The Amiga computer was launched by Commodore in 1985 with a GUI called Workbench based on an internal engine which drives all the input events called Intuition, and developed almost entirely by RJ Mical. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers. ... ARexx is the Amiga version of scripting language REXX by IBM. It has been not licensed from IBM, but it is a version written by Bill Hawes who ported REXX to the Amiga, with many special Amiga features. ... AmigaBASIC was a BASIC implementation for the Amiga, designed by Microsoft. ... Amigaguide is a hypertext document file format designed for the Amiga, files are stored in ASCII so it is possible to read and edit a file without the need for special software. ... Amiga software covers a wide range of software for the Amiga computer, both productivity and games, both commercial and hobbyist. ... The Amiga 500 running Leander (1991) Amiga games are computer games compatible with the Commodore Amiga. ... Amiga demos are demos created for the Commodore Amiga home computer. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... There have been many different versions of the AmigaOS operating system during its two decades of history. ... What is AROS? AROS (Amiga Research Operating System) is an open source implementation of the AmigaOS 3. ... MorphOS is a mixed proprietary and open source operating system produced for the Pegasos PowerPC (PPC)-processor-based computer, most models of PPC-accelerated classic Amiga computers, and the EFIKA PPC consumer device. ...

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Amiga Forever 2008 is the most significant upgrade ever released in the Amiga Forever series.
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