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A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908.
A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908.

Native Americans (also Indians, American Indians, First Nations, First Peoples, Indigenous Peoples of America, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerind, Native Canadians, Native Mexicans, etc.) are those peoples indigenous to the Americas prior to European colonization, and their descendants in modern times. This term encompasses a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of them still enduring as political communities. A comprehensive tribal list can be found under "Classification of Native Americans." Download high resolution version (818x1024, 125 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (818x1024, 125 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Map of the Americas by Jonghe, c. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ...


Some controversy over the term arises from the fact that in common usage the word "native" means "born in", and thus the term "native American" could be equally applicable to anyone born into an "American" country. This confusion arises out of a failure to recognise the distinction between (a) the common usage of the adjective "native", and (b) the usage of the specific compound noun "Native American". The latter term has particular, technical and legal usages which (as per this article) are narrower in scope than meaning simply "born in". Very often, the compound "Native American" will be capitalized in order to differentiate this intended meaning from others. Likewise, "native" (small 'n') can be further qualified by formulations such as "native-born" when the intended meaning is only to indicate place of birth or origin. Of course, neither of these two senses invalidates the other, so long as the intended sense is made clear by the context. An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ... A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ...


Another objection raised holds that by applying the term "Native Americans" to only select peoples on the basis of their genetic and cultural ancestry, they are conferred with an unjustifiably special or superior social-legal status, at the expense of others not in this grouping. A closely related conception is that by so doing legitimate rights and claims of other groups to territory and identity are lessened. The counter-argument notes that claims of indigenous or Native American identity are primarily intended to affirm rights to maintain and exercise their own cultural identity, observances and associations with traditional lands and to be free of discrimination on that basis- in accordance with universal human rights intended to apply to all. This pursuit does not prevent others from enjoying the rights and benefits which arise from being a member of the wider community. Furthermore, a distinct legal and communal status for Native peoples in the Americas is identified (there are differences by country); this derives from acknowledged historical treaties and similar instruments, as well as internationally recognized aboriginal title, rather than arbitrary genetics. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Aboriginal land claims are statements by Native or Aboriginal peoples about the ownership of land before the arrival of settlers, primarily Europeans. ...


The terms "Amerindian" and "Indian", both of which are derivatives of "American Indian" (as is "Amerind", though this term is more popular in linguistic circles), are not necessarily completely synonymous with "Native American". Although all Amerindians are Native Americans, not all Native Americans are Amerindians. "Amerindian" relates to a mega-group of peoples spanning the Americas that are related in culture and genetics, and are quite distinct from the later arriving Eskimos (Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut peoples native to Alaska and the Canadian Arctic). The latter share their cultural and genetic commonality with other arctic peoples not native to the American continent, such as those from arctic Russian Siberia. The word Amerind (a contraction of American Indian) usually refers to the Native Americans, the peoples who lived in the Americas before the Europeans discovered the continent; and to the modern ethnic communities that originate from those peoples. ... Eskimo is a term used for a group of people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding circumpolar Scandinavia and all but the easternmost portions of Russia). ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Yupik or, in the Central Alaskan language, Yupik, are aboriginal people who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yupik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and in the Russian Far East and St. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A.. The homeland of the Aleuts includes the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... The Canadian Arctic is a vast region of northern Canada. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ...


The same distinction is made in Canada, where the term First Nations applies only to those who belong to the same cultural and genetic mega-group of Amerindians mentioned above, excluding the Métis, Inuit, and Inuvialuit peoples. These groups are collectively referred to by the terms "Aboriginal peoples in Canada" or "First Peoples". Aboriginal peoples in Canada are enshrined in the Canadian Constitution with various treaty rights, some long established and many more currently under negotiation. First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a collective name for the original inhabitants of the region of North America that is now Canada, and their descendants. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ...


The term Native American may also be construed to either include or exclude the Mestizos and Zambos of Latin America. Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; Canadian French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the peoples of mixed European and Amerindian racial strain inhabiting the region spanning the Americas, from the Canadian prairies in... Representation of zambos during the Latin American colonial period. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Other indigenous peoples that are native to territorial possessions of American countries but are not specifically "Native American" (in the sense that they are not native to the actual lands that comprise the American continent) are a diversity of Pacific Islanders including: Native Hawaiians (also known as Kanaka Māoli and Kanaka 'Oiwi) in the US state of Hawaii, natives of American Samoa (USA) and natives of Easter Island (Chile). The Americas is an alternative name in the English language for the continent of America, to distinguish it from the United States of America, which is often just called America. ... A Pacific Islander or Pacific Person (plural: Pacific People) is a term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe people of a certain heritage In New Zealand, it is applied to a person who has emigrated from one of the smaller islands of... In April of 1990, Daniel K. Akaka became the first native Hawaiian and Chinese American to serve in the United States Congress as a Senator from the State of Hawaii. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Easter Island and its location Orthographic projection centred over Easter Island Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa) or Te Pito te Henua (Navel and Uterus), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ...

Contents


Early history

See also: Archeology of the Americas, Models of migration to the New World The Archeology of the Americas is the study of the archeology of North America, Central America (or Mesoamerica), South America and the Caribbean, which is to say, the pre-history and Pre-Columbian history of Native American peoples. ... When did people first enter the New World and how did they get there? This question has been debated for centuries and will probably continue to be for many more years to come in the anthropological community. ...


The Bering Strait Land Bridge Theory

Based on anthropological and genetic evidence, some scientists believe that most Native Americans descend from people who migrated from Siberia across the Bering Strait, between 17,000–11,000 years ago. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, about 85 km in width, with a depth of...


The exact epoch and route is still a matter of controversy, as is whether it happened at all. Until recently, certain anthropologists alleged that migrants crossed the strait 12,000 years ago via the Bering Land Bridge which existed during the last ice age (which occurred 26,000 to 11,000 years ago), and that they followed an inland route through Alaska and Canada that had just been freed of its ice cover. There are a number of difficulties in this theory — in particular, growing evidence of human presence in Brazil and Chile 11,500 years ago or earlier [1]. There is also evidence of indigenous societies residing in the Americas, particularly on the Western coastlines, some 50,000 years ago. Thus other possibilities, not necessarily exclusive, have been suggested: (Pleistocene, Paleolithic – 10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Mesolithic, or Epipaleolithic time period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Upper Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch. ...

  • The migrants may have crossed the land bridge several millennia earlier and followed a coastal route, thus avoiding the ice-covered interior.
  • They may have been seafaring people who moved along the coast, though some contest this theory because they believe there was a lack of seafaring skills of peoples during this time period.
  • The crossing of the Bering Land Bridge may have occurred during the previous ice age, around 37,000 years ago. This is also supported by the archaeology dating of some sites in South America prior to the previously assumed date of 12–14,000 years ago, but still does not account for the earliest settlements extant in the Americas.
  • A more radical alternative is that the Siberians were preceded by migrants from Oceania, who arrived either by sailing across the Pacific Ocean or by following the land route through Beringia at a much earlier date. Proponents of this theory claim that the oldest human remains in South America and in Baja California show distinctive non-Siberian traits, resembling those of Australian Aborigines or the Negritos of the Andaman Islands. These hypothetical American Aborigines would have been displaced by the Siberian migrants, and may have been ancestral to the distinctive Native Americans of the Tierra del Fuego, who are nearly extinct.

It should be noted, however, that many Native Americans reject the above theories as being scientific mythologies which have, at their base, an implicit political motivation. Many Native communities have their own traditional stories that offer accounts to their origins, but by and large those accounts have been ignored by scholars. Ironically, as more evidence of very early Native presence in the Americas emerges, Native accounts regarding their genesis on the continent have become increasingly validated. The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Map of Oceania. ... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... The Negritos include the Atis, and at least 5 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ... Ethnolinguistic map of the precolonial Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The American Aborigines are a hypothetical group of people, originally from Pacific Ocean and arrived in South America long before the ancestors of todays American Indian peoples came there. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish: land of Fire) is an archipelago at the southernmost tip of South America. ...


Some mainstream anthropologists and archaeologists consider the genetic and cultural evidence for a primarily Siberian origin overwhelming. According to their theories, at least three separate migrations from Siberia to the Americas are highly likely to have occurred:

  • The first wave came into a land populated by the large mammals of the late Pleistocene, including mammoths, horses, giant sloths, and woolly rhinoceroses. The Clovis culture would be a manifestation of that migration, and the Folsom culture, based on the hunting of bison, would have developed from it. This wave eventually spread over the entire hemisphere, as far south as Tierra del Fuego. This group is believed to have reached the New World no later than 11,000 years ago.
  • The second migration brought the ancestors of the Na-Dene peoples. They lived in Alaska and western Canada, but some migrated as far south as the Pacific Northwestern U.S. and the American Southwest, and would be ancestral to the Dene, Apaches and Navajos. This group is believed to have reached the world between 6,000 to 8,000 years ago.
  • The third wave brought the ancestors of the Eskimos and the Aleuts. They may have come by sea over the Bering Strait, after the land bridge had disappeared. They are believed to have reached Alaska as early as 3,000 years ago.
  • In recent years, molecular genetics studies have suggested as many as four distinct migrations from Asia. These studies also provide surprising evidence of smaller-scale, contemporaneous migrations from Europe, possibly by peoples who had adopted a lifestyle resembling that of Inuits and Yupiks during the last ice age.

One result of these successive waves of migration is that large groups of Native Americans with similar languages and perhaps physical characteristics as well, moved into various geographic areas of North, and then Central and South America. While Native Americans have traditionally remained primarily loyal to their individual tribes, ethnologists have variously sought to group the myriad of tribes into larger entities which reflect common geographic origins, linguistic similarities, and life styles. (See Classification of Native Americans.) Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands... The Pleistocene Epoch is part of the geologic timescale, usually dated as 1. ... Species Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus primigenius Wooly mammoth A mammoth (from Russian мамонт) is any of a number of an extinct genus of elephant, often with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the seven modern species of the genus Equus. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Scelidotheriidae Mylodontidae Orophodontidae Megalonychidae Megatheriidae Ground sloths are extinct edentate (Order Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... Binomial name Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1807) The Woolly Rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an extinct species of rhinoceros that survived the last ice age. ... The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Native American culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 13,500 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. ... The Folsom Tradition is a name given by archaeologists to a sequence of Paleo-Indian archaeological cultures of central North America. ... Binomial name Bison bison Linnaeus, 1758 The American Bison (Bison bison), also called Buffalo, is a bovine mammal that is the largest terrestrial mammal in North America. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish: land of Fire) is an archipelago at the southernmost tip of South America. ... Na-Dené or Na-Dene is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... The Dene are a group of indigenous peoples that live in the Arctic regions of Canada. ... This article is about the Native American tribe, for other uses of the word see Apache (disambiguation). ... Manuelito, Navajo chief Navajo Nation (Navajo Naabeehó Dineé) is the name of a sovereign Native American nation established by the Diné. The Navajo Nation Reservation includes about 27,000 square miles (70,000 km²) of land, slightly smaller than Maine or South Carolina) over part of three states, and is... Eskimo is a term used for a group of people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding circumpolar Scandinavia and all but the easternmost portions of Russia). ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A.. The homeland of the Aleuts includes the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... World map showing location of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia, defined by subtracting Europe from Eurasia. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ...


While many Native American groups retained a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle through the time of European occupation of the New World, in some regions, specifically in the Mississippi River valley of the United States, in Mexico, Central America, the Andes of South America, they built advanced civilizations with monumental architecture and large-scale organization into cities and states. Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A civilization or civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Architecture (in Greek αρχή = first and τέχνη = craftsmanship) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... CITY Is A network of 5 Television Stations owned By CHUM Limited They Include CITY 57 Toronto CKVU 10 Edmonton 51 Calgary 5 Winnipeg 13 on December 1 CHUM Perchased the Fomer A-Channels Stations in Alberta and Manitoba Under the Banner of CITY-TV Everywhere. Broadcasting for the first... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ...


See also: Mississippian culture, Cahokia, Mesoamerica, Maya, Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Aztec, Aymara, Inca, indigenous people of Brazil. The Mississippian culture was a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact. ... This article is about the Native American city. ... Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the African discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... The word Maya or maya can refer to: The Maya – a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America the modern Maya people the pre-Columbian Maya civilization the Maya language Maya – a concept in Hindu/Vedic philosophy a state of misperception of reality the inherent force of... The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Zapotec refers to a native people of Mexico, their language family consisting of more than 15 languages, and their historic culture and traditions. ... The Toltecs (or Toltec or Tolteca) were a Pre-Columbian Native American people who dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD. Their language, Nahuatl, was also spoken by the Aztecs. ... Teotihuacan is the largest Pre-Columbian archeological site in the Americas. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th century. ... Aymara is the name of a South-American people and of their language. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The indigenous peoples of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ...


Settling Down

By 1500 B.C. many tribes had settled into small indigenous communities. Theses began as temporary settlements built by the hunter-gatherers, and over the centuries they grew into small villages, mostly established in the river valleys of North America, where crops could be raised. While exhibiting widely divergent social, cultural, and artistic expressions, all Native Americans group worked with materials available to them and employed social arrangements that augmented their menas of subsistence and survival. Gradually, these communities became more sophisticated; examples of more complex societies incuded the tribes of the southern United States from the Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi River. These groups were the most highly developed Indian civilizations north of Mexico. They constructed large and complex earthworks, and were particularly skilled at small stone scupltures and engravings on shell and copper. It has been suggested that Northern America be merged into this article or section. ... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... A civilization or civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. ...


The large pueblos, or villages, built on top of rocky talleland or mesas of Southwest around A.D. 700, were a complicated aggregate of family apartments. Towns were one large complex of buildings, with multistoried houses arranged around courtyards or plazas. Wooden ladders provided access to upper levels. Under the courtyards, subterranean kivas, or ceremonial structures, served as meeting rooms for religious societies.


European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of the Native Americans. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their populations were ravaged, by the privations of displacement, by disease, and in many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The first Native American group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Arawaks of Haiti, were enslaved. Only 500 survived by the year 1550, and the group was extinct before 1650. Although there is some debate as to whether the prehistoric, Clovis culture was European in origin, the first generally accepted European colonists were the Norse, starting but then abandoning a colonisation process. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... // Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. ...


In the 15th century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Ironically, the horse had originally evolved in the Americas, but the last American horses, (species Equus Scotti and others [2]) died out at the end of the last ice age. The re-introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America. This new mode of travel made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand their territories, exchange goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily capture game. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the seven modern species of the genus Equus. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Great Plains states. ... Game (food) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Europeans also brought diseases against which the Native Americans had no immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved fatal to Native Americans, and more dangerous diseases such as smallpox were especially deadly to Native American populations. It is difficult to estimate the total percentage of the Native American population killed by these diseases. Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration, sometimes destroying entire villages. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations may have died due to European diseases. For more information, see population history of American indigenous peoples. A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... In a medical sense, immunity is a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... An epidemic is a disease that appears as new cases in the population in a period of time at a rate (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the incidence rate) that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experence. ... There were millions of people living in the Americas when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. ...


Native Americans in the United States

Map of Native American language families roughly as found at first contact with Europeans.

Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Early relations

During the American Revolutionary War, the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the war to halt colonial expansion onto American Indian land. Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war. Cherokees split into a neutral (or pro-American) faction and the anti-American Chickamaugas, led by Dragging Canoe. Many other communities were similarly divided. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen North American colonies. ... Length 6,270 km Elevation of the source 450 m Average discharge Saint Louis¹: 5,500 m³/s Vicksburg²: 16,800 m³/s Baton Rouge³: 12,800 m³/s Area watershed 2,980,000 km² Origin  Lake Itasca Mouth  Gulf of Mexico Basin countries United States (98. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who first inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... The Chickamauga are a Native American people related to the Cherokee people. ... Dragging Canoe (1730? – 1792) was an American Indian war leader who led a dissident band of young Cherokees against the United States in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Frontier warfare during the American Revolution was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed on both sides. Noncombatants of both races suffered greatly during the war, and villages and food supplies were frequently destroyed during military expeditions. The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, which destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages in order to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York. The expedition failed to have the desired effect: American Indian activity became even more determined. // Background Among the Acts of Parliament denounced by the Patriots as Intolerable Acts were the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade Anglo-American settlement west of the Appalachians; and the Quebec Act of 1774, which made provision for the extension of Québecs borders to the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. ... The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists (Tories) and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ...


Native Americans were stunned to learn that when the British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), the British had ceded a vast amount of American Indian territory to the United States without even informing their Indian allies. The United States initially treated the American Indians who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their land. When this proved impossible to enforce (the Indians had lost the war on paper, not on the battlefield), the policy was abandoned. The United States was eager to expand, and the national government initially sought to do so only by purchasing Native American land in treaties. The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy. Painting by Benjamin West depicting John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


Removal and reservations

Shoshoni tipis, about 1900
Shoshoni tipis, about 1900

In the 19th century, the incessant Westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, sometimes by force, almost always reluctantly. Under President Andrew Jackson, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Indian land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river. As many as 100,000 American Indians eventually relocated in the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary (and many Indians did remain in the East), but in practice great pressure was put on American Indian leaders to sign removal treaties. The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy was the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees, but not the elected leadership. The treaty was brutally enforced by President Martin Van Buren, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees (mostly from disease) on the Trail of Tears. Download high resolution version (887x589, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (887x589, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Shoshone is a Native American language. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), one of the founders of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ... The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a law passed by the Twenty-first United States Congress in order to facilitate the relocation of American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River in the United States to lands further west. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Indian Removal refers to the nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members of a faction within the Cherokee nation on December 29, 1835. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who at time of European contact in the 16th century inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... Order: 8th President Vice President: Richard M. Johnson Term of office: March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1841 Preceded by: Andrew Jackson Succeeded by: William Henry Harrison Date of birth: December 5, 1782 Place of birth: Kinderhook, New York Date of death: July 24, 1862 Place of death: Kinderhook, New York... The Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of the Cherokee American Indian tribe by the U.S. federal government, which resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 Cherokee Indians. ...


Conflicts generally known as "Indian Wars" broke out between U.S. forces and many different tribes. Authorities entered numerous treaties during this period, but later abrogated many for various reasons. Well-known military engagements include the atypical Native American victory at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876, and the massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee in 1890. On January 31, 1876 the United States government ordered all remaining Native Americans to move into reservations or reserves. This, together with the near-extinction of the American Bison which many tribes had lived on, set about the downturn of Prairie Culture that had developed around the use of the horse for hunting, travel and trading. The Indian Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Wounded Knee Massacre or the Battle of Wounded Knee was the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States of America. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... BIA map of Indian reservations in the continental United States. ... Binomial name Bison bison Linnaeus, 1758 The American Bison (Bison bison), also called Buffalo, is a bovine mammal that is the largest terrestrial mammal in North America. ...

Students at the Bismark Indian School in the early 20th century
Students at the Bismark Indian School in the early 20th century

American policy toward Native Americans has been an evolving process. In the late nineteenth century reformers in efforts to civilize Indians adapted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding Schools. These schools, which were primarily run by Christians [3], proved traumatic to Indian children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity[4] and adopt European-American culture. There are also many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools [5] [6]. Bismarck Indian School, North Dakota. ... Bismarck Indian School, North Dakota. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A civilization or civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ...


Current status

There are 563 Federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. The United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes possess the right to form their own government; to enforce laws, both civil and criminal; to tax; to establish membership; to license and regulate activities; to zone; and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money. [7] This is a list of Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states, but not by the federal government. The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state. This is a list of Native American Tribal Entities which are recognized by individual States but not by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


Military defeat, cultural pressure, confinement on reservations, forced cultural assimilation, outlawing of native languages and culture, termination policies of the 1950s, and 1960s, and slavery have had deleterious effects on Native Americans' mental and physical health. Contemporary health problems include poverty, alcoholism, heart disease, diabetes, and New World Syndrome. // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning... The 1960s, or The Sixties, in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Indian slavery was a practice of the Spanish from the earliest days on the Caribbean islands they first settled. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstances. ... Bold text Polish propaganda poster saying: Stop drinking! Come with us and build a happy tomorrow. ... There are different forms of heart disease: Coronary heart disease Ischaemic heart disease Cardiovascular disease The study of heart disease is Cardiology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... New World Syndrome is a set of noncommunicable diseases brought on by consumption of rich food. ...


As recently as the 1970s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was still actively pursuing a policy of "assimilation" [8], the goal of which was to eliminate the reservations and steer Indians into mainstream U.S. culture. As of 2004, there are still claims of theft of Indian land for the coal and uranium it contains. [9] [10] [11] [12] This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration and management of 55. ...


In the state of Virginia, Native Americans face a unique problem. Virginia has no federally recognized tribes, largely due to the work of one man, Walter Ashby Plecker. In 1912, Plecker became the first registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving until 1946. An avowed white supremacist and fervent advocate of eugenics, Plecker believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" with its African American population. A law passed by the state's General Assembly recognized only two races, "white" and "colored". Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", leading to massive destruction of records on the state's Native American community. State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... White supremacy is an ideology which holds that the white race (variously defined) is superior to other races (also variously defined). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...

This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of Native Americans in the United States as of 2000.
This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of Native Americans in the United States as of 2000.

Even after his death, Plecker still haunts the state's Native American community. In order to receive federal recognition and the benefits it confers, tribes must prove their continuous existence since 1900. Plecker's policies have made it impossible for Virginia tribes to do so. The federal government, while aware of Plecker's destruction of records, has so far refused to bend on this bureaucratic requirement. A bill currently before U.S. Congress to ease this requirement has been favorably reported out of a key Senate committee, but faces strong opposition in the House from a Virginia member concerned that federal recognition could open the door to gambling in the state. [13] Download high resolution version (3456x2568, 646 KB)I know, i know: GIFs is bad. ... Download high resolution version (3456x2568, 646 KB)I know, i know: GIFs is bad. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Seal of the Congress. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the Senate. ... Gambling (or betting) is any behavior involving risking money or valuables (making a wager or placing a stake) on the outcome of a game, contest, or other event in which the outcome of that activity depends partially or totally upon chance or upon ones ability to do something. ...


In the early 21st century, Native American communities remain an enduring fixture on the United States landscape, in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans. Communities have consistently formed governments that administer services like firefighting, natural resource management, and law enforcement. Most Native American communities have established court systems to adjudicate matters related to local ordinances, and most also look to various forms of moral and social authority vested in traditional affiliations within the community. To address the housing needs of Native Americans, Congress passed the Native American Housing and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) in 1996. This legislation replaced public housing, and other 1937 Housing Act programs directed towards Indian Housing Authorities, with a block grant program directed towards Tribes. In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A court is an official, public forum which a public power establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ...


Gambling has become a leading industry. Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to use as leverage to build diversified economies. Native American communities have waged and prevailed in legal battles to assure recognition of rights to self-determination and to use of natural resources. Some of those rights, known as treaty rights are enumerated in early treaties signed with the young United States government. Tribal sovereignty has become a cornerstone of American jurisprudence, and at least on the surface, in national legislative policies. Although many Native American tribes have casinos, they are a source of conflict. Most tribes, especially small ones such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California, feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out. These tribes refuse to participate in the gaming industry. Gambling (or betting) is any behavior involving risking money or valuables (making a wager or placing a stake) on the outcome of a game, contest, or other event in which the outcome of that activity depends partially or totally upon chance or upon ones ability to do something. ... The Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City, New Jersey A casino is a building that accommodates gambling. ... Tribal sovereignty is the ability of a tribe to govern itself. ... Jurisprudence is the scientific and historic study of law, inclusive of: Legal history, including legal historiography and hermeneutics; Legal philosophy; Legal science, e. ... External link http://www. ... Redding from space, April 1994 Redding is the county seat of Shasta County, California, USA, located on the Sacramento River and on Interstate 5 south of Lake Shasta. ...


Many of the smaller eastern tribes have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status. The recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and they can apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans. But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult because of a Catch-22 in the process. To be established as a tribal groups, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent, yet in past years many Native Americans denied their Native American heritage, because it would have deprived them of many rights, such as the right of probate. The Waccamaw tribe and the Pee Dee tribe of South Carolina were granted official recognition February 17, 2005. Two other tribal applications were denied for lack of documentation. Catch 22 has become a term, inspired by Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22, describing a general situation in which A must have been preceded by B, and B must have been preceded by A. Symbolically, (~B => ~A) & (~A => ~B) where either A or B must come into being first. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Probate is the legal process of settling the estate of a deceased person; specifically, distributing the decedents property. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559 [14]. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... Oklahoma is a South Central state of the United States (with strong southern, western and midwestern influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ...


As of 2000, the largest tribes in the U.S. by population were Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfeet, Iroquois, and Pueblo. In 2000 eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed blood. It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine of ten [15]. Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who at time of European contact in the 16th century inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... Manuelito, Navajo chief Navajo Nation (Navajo Naabeehó Dineé) is the name of a sovereign Native American nation established by the Diné. The Navajo Nation Reservation includes about 27,000 square miles (70,000 km²) of land, slightly smaller than Maine or South Carolina) over part of three states, and is... Pushmataha was the most famous leader of the Choctaws. ... Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... Group of Apaches Apache is the collective name given to several culturally related tribes of Native Americans, aboriginal inhabitants of North America, who speak an Southern Athabaskan language. ... This article is about the Piegan Blackfoot, the band of the tribe located on the Blackfoot Nation in Montana. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... For the town in Colorado, see Pueblo, Colorado Pueblos are traditional Native American communities of the Southwest. ...


The Massachusetts legislature repealed a 330-year-old law that barred Native Americans from entering Boston on the 19th of May 2005 A repeal is the removal or reversal of a law. ...


Native Americans in Canada

For more detailed information, see First Nations. First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which...


In Canada, the most commonly preferred term for Native Americans is First Nations. First Nations peoples make up approximately 3% of the Canadian population. The official term — that is, the term used by both the Indian Act which regulates benefits received by members of First Nations, and the Indian Register which defines who is a member of a First Nation — is Indian. First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ...


The term First Nations excludes the Inuit, Inuvialuit, and Métis, who are instead collectively recognized with the First Nations as Aboriginal peoples. Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a collective name for the original inhabitants of the region of North America that is now Canada, and their descendants. ...


Native Americans in Mexico

The territory of modern-day Mexico was home to numerous Native American civilizations prior to the arrival of the European conquistadors: The Olmecs, who flourished from between 1200 BC to about 800 BC in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico; the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, who held sway in the mountains of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; the Maya in the Yucatán (and into neighbouring areas of contemporary Central America; and, of course, the Aztecs, who, from their central capital at Tenochtitlan, dominated much of the centre and south of the country (and the non-Aztec inhabitants of those areas) when Hernán Cortés first landed at Veracruz. Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who achieved the Conquista (this Spanish term is generally accepted by historians), i. ... The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... Zapotec refers to a native people of Mexico, their language family consisting of more than 15 languages, and their historic culture and traditions. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Oaxaca state of Mexico. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The Maya are people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador) with some 3,000 years of history. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th century. ... Plan of Tenochtitlan (Dr Atl) Mexico City statue commemorating the foundation of Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan (pronounced ) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, which was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now central Mexico. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) (who was known as Hernando or Fernando Cortés during his lifetime and signed all his letters Fernán Cortés) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Veracruz from space, July 1997 The city of Veracruz is a major port city on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. ...


In contrast to what was the general rule in the rest of North America, the history of the colony of New Spain was one of racial intermingling (mestizaje). Mestizos quickly came to account for a majority of the colony's population; however, significant pockets of pure-blood indígenas (as the native peoples are now known) have survived to the present day. It has been suggested that Northern America be merged into this article or section. ... Flag of New Spain New Spain (in the Spanish language Nueva España) was the name given to the Spanish colonial territory in North America from c. ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; Canadian French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the peoples of mixed European and Amerindian racial strain inhabiting the region spanning the Americas, from the Canadian prairies in... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; Canadian French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the peoples of mixed European and Amerindian racial strain inhabiting the region spanning the Americas, from the Canadian prairies in...


With mestizos numbering some 60% of the modern population, estimates for the numbers of unmixed Native Americans vary from a very modest 10% to a more liberal (and probably more accurate) 30% of the population. The reason for this discrepancy may be the Mexican government's policy of using linguistic, rather than racial, criteria as the basis of classification.


In the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca and in the interior of the Yucatán peninsula the majority of the population is indigenous. Large indigenous minorities, including Nahuas, Purépechas, and Mixtecs are also present in the central regions of Mexico. In Northern Mexico indigenous people are a small minority: they are practically absent from the northeast but, in the northwest and central borderlands, include the Tarahumara of Chihuahua and the Yaquis and Seri of Sonora. Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... The Mexican state of Oaxaca is in the south west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th century. ... Tarascan men reeling cord for nets & making nets, 1899. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Oaxaca state of Mexico. ... The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ... This article is about the state in Mexico; for the city of Chihuahua, see: Chihuahua. ... Yaqui is also the name of the language of the Yaqui people, and the name of a river that flows through Sonora. ... This article is about the Mexican state of Sonora. ...


While Mexicans are universally proud of their indigenous heritage (generally more so than of their Spanish roots), modern-day indigenous Mexicans are still the target of discrimination and outright racism. In particular, in areas such as Chiapas — most famously, but also in Oaxaca, Puebla, Guerrero, and other remote mountainous parts — indigenous communities have been left on the margins of national development for the past 500 years. Indigenous customs and uses enjoy no official status. The Huichols of the states of Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas, and Durango are impeded by police forces in their ritual pilgrimages, and their religious observances are interfered with. Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... The Huichol Indians of Western Central Mexico live in the Sierra Madre Occidental. ...


Native Americans in Belize

Mestizos (European with Native American) number about 45% of the population; unmixed Mayans make up another 10%. This article will mostly concern itself with the Maya civilization after the conquest by Spain. ...


Native Americans in Guatemala

The Native Americans of Guatemala are of Maya stock. Pure Mayans account for some 45% of the population; although around 40% of the population speaks an indigenous language, those tongues (of which there are more than 20) enjoy no official status. This article will mostly concern itself with the Maya civilization after the conquest by Spain. ...


Native Americans in other parts of the Americas

Native Americans make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies. Exceptions to this include Costa Rica, Cuba, Argentina, Dominican Republic, and Uruguay. At least three of the Amerindian languages (Quechua in Peru and Bolivia, Aymara also in Bolivia, and Guarani in Paraguay) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages. Argentina's Native American population is a subject of controversy. Estimates vary from a minimum of 300,000 (0.7% of total population) to a maximum of two million (5.6% of the population). Indigenous nations include the Mapuche, Toba, Wichí, Quichua, and Kolla. Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Help wikipedia by translating [Spanish article] into this article. ... Guarani was one of the most important tribal groups of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina. ... The Mapuche are the pre-Hispanic inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Argentina. ... Toba can be: T. O. B. A., the Theater Owners Booking Association, a major black vaudeville circuit. ... Quechua (also Runasimi language of people) is a Native American language of South America. ...


Cultural aspects

Though cultural features, including language, garb, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Early nomadic hunters forged stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, ner technologies were used and more effecient weapons produced. Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry. The most common implement were the bow and arrrow, the war club, and the spear. Quality, material, and design varied widely. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ...


Large mammals such as the mammoth were largely extinct by around 8,000 B.C., and the Native Americans were hunting their descentants, such as bison or buffalo. The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the buffalo when they first encountered the Europeans. The aquisition of the horse and horsemanship from the Spanish in the 17th century greatly altered the natives' culture, changing the way in which these large creatures were hunted and making them a central feature of their lives.


Society

The Iroquois tribes, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chrinicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure. The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries. The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


Pueblo tribles crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painting and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. Sculptures was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use. Superior weaving, embroided decorations, and rich dyes sharacterized the textiles arts. both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.


Navjo religion focused on the maintenance of a garmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sand paintings. The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceromony.


Religion

The most widespread religion at the present time is known as the Native American Church. It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity. Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. The church has had significant success in combatting many of the ills brought by colonization, such as alcoholism and crime. In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral. Native American Church, also called Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Binomial name Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ... Bold text Polish propaganda poster saying: Stop drinking! Come with us and build a happy tomorrow. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson Official languages English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... The Zia symbol is on the New Mexico state flag. ... Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass in place of the dying Pope John Paul II. Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Santa Fe (Spanish, Holy Faith) (full form: La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, English: Royal City of the Holy Faith of St. ...


Gender

Most Native American tribes had traditional gender roles. Agriculture was often women's work while war and hunting was men's. In some tribes, social and clan relationships were matrilinear and matriarchal but several different systems were in use. Men filled the war leader role. The cradle board is used by mothers to carry their baby whilst working or traveling. A bagpiper in Scottish military uniform. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... A cradle board is a typical North American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel. ...


As in many indigenous cultures around the world, homosexual and transgender individuals (and animals) are considered routine and expected. Many Native American tribes formally recognize these homosexual and transgender individuals in the role of the "two-spirit" person (previously labeled by Europeans as "berdache", a term now considered obsolete). Two-spirit transgender and homosexual roles are known to have been recognized and honored, at the present time or historically, in more than 150 different tribes. a practice generally done by one named Roberto Soto ... Transgender is generally used as a catch-all umbrella term for a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups centered around the full or partial reversal of gender roles; however, compare other definitions below. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


The two-spirit is a man or woman who mixes gender roles by wearing clothes of the opposite or both genders, doing both male and female (or primarily "opposite-gender") work, and often engaging in same-sex relations with other members of the tribe. Two-spirit people often are shamans, performing religious and/or mediating functions. Their special status is thought to invest them with exceptional spiritual power, as a result of which they are both feared and respected. Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ...


Music and art

Mystic River Singers performing at a powwow in 1998
Mystic River Singers performing at a powwow in 1998

Native American music is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. Traditional Native American music often includes drumming but little other instrumentation, although flutes are played by individuals. The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step. Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... Download high resolution version (908x1124, 214 KB)Drummer Wayahsti Richardson of the Saponi tribe and the Native American drum Mystic River perform at the 1998 National Veterans Pow-wow. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ... There are hundreds of tribes of Native Americans (called the First Nations in Canada), each with diverse musical practices, spread across the United States and Canada (excluding Hawaiian music). ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ...


Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, most notably Shania Twain (ethnically European, but raised by a First Nations adoptive father), Robbie Robertson, Rita Coolidge, Wayne Newton, and Redbone (band). Some, such as John Trudell have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings. A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from Pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll. Shania Twain Shania Twain (shu-NYE-uh, born August 28, 1965) is a Canadian singer and songwriter who has been very successful in the country and pop music genres. ... First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... Jaime Robbie Robertson (born July 5, 1944 in Toronto, Ontario Canada) is a songwriter, guitarist and singer, probably best known for his membership in The Band. ... Rita Coolidge (born May 1, 1945 in Nashville, Tennessee) is a American singer. ... Wayne Newton Carson Wayne Newton (born April 3, 1942) is an American singer and entertainer based in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Redbone was an American rock group in the 1970s. ... John Trudell (born February 15, 1946 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an American author, a poet, musician and a former political activist. ... R. Carlos Nakai is a Native American Flutist. ...


The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow. At Pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum. Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center. Familiar pow-wow songs include honor songs, intertribal songs, crow-hops, sneak-up songs, grass-dances, two-steps, welcome songs, going-home songs, and war songs. Most indigenous communities in the United States also maintain traditional songs and ceremonies, some of which are shared and practiced exclusively within the community. For further information, see A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians by John Bierhorst (ISBN 094127053X). This article is about a Native American gathering. ... Downtown Albuquerque Albuquerque is the largest city in the state of New Mexico, United States. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson Official languages English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ...


Native American art comprises a major category in the world art collection. Native American contributions include pottery, paintings, jewelry, weavings, sculptures, basketry, and carvings. Pottery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Mona Lisa is perhaps the best-known artistic painting in the Western world. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fibre called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Ancient Greeks depiction of ideal form of the body is expressed through sculpture such as this one. ... Four styles of household basket. ... Carving can mean Rock carving Wood carving Meat carving See also: Sculpture, Lapidary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Hopi man weaving on traditional loom
Hopi man weaving on traditional loom

Artists have at times misrepresented themselves as having native parentage, most notably Johnny Cash, who traced his heritage to Scottish ancestors and admitted he fabricated a story that he was one-quarter Cherokee. The integrity of certain Native American artworks is now protected by an act of Congress that prohibits representation of art as Native American when it is not the product of an enrolled Native American artist. Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Part of a Hopi pueblo Hopi refers to a Native American nation who primarily live on the 1. ... Johnny Cash (February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was a vastly influential singer and songwriter. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Main languages English Scots Scottish Gaelic Doric Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who at time of European contact in the 16th century inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ...


See: Blackfoot music Blackfoot music (best translated in the Blackfoot language as nitsínixki - I sing, from nínixksini - song) is primarily a vocal kind of music, using few instruments (called ninixkiátsis, derived from the word for song and associated primarily with European-American instruments), only percussion and voice, and few words. ...


Economy

The Plains Indians almost usually use bow and arrows to kill bison
The Plains Indians almost usually use bow and arrows to kill bison

Survival in the environments in which they lived defined the "work" of the native groups. The Inuit, or Eskimo, prepared and buried stocks of dried meat and fish. Pacific Northwest tribes crafted seafaring dugouts 40-50 feet long for fishing. Farmers in the Eastern Woodlands tended fields of maize with hoes and digging sticks, while their neighbors in the Southeast grew tobacco as well as food crops. On the Plains, tribes engaged in argiculture but also planned buffulo hunts in which herds were effiecntly driven over bluffs. Dwellers of the Southwest deserts hunted small animals, and gathered acorns to grind into a flour with which they baked wafer-thin bread on top of heated stones. Their more advanced neighbors on the region's mesas developed irrigation techniques, and filled storehouses with grain as protection against the area's frequent droughts. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... Eskimo is a term used for a group of people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding circumpolar Scandinavia and all but the easternmost portions of Russia). ...


As these native peoples encountered European explorers and settlers and engaged in trade, they exchanged food, crafts, and furs for trinkets, blankets, iron, and steel implements, horses, firearms, and intoxicating liquids.


What name?

When Christopher Columbus arrived in the "New World", he described the people he encountered as Indians because he mistakenly believed that he had reached the islands known to Europeans as the Indies. Despite Columbus's mistake, the name Indian (or American Indian) stuck, and for centuries the native people of the Americas were collectively called Indians in America, and similar terms in Europe. A problem with this traditional term is that the people of India are, of course, also known as Indians. Christopher Columbus For information about the film director, see the article on Chris Columbus. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


United States

The term Native American was introduced in the United States by anthropologists who wanted to create a more accurate term free from the negative stereotypes of the past. Because of the widespread acceptance of this newer term, some people mistakenly believe that Indians is outdated or offensive. However, a 1996 survey revealed that more American Indians in the United States still preferred American Indian to Native American. Nonetheless, most American Indians are comfortable with Indian, American Indian, and Native American, and the terms are now used interchangeably. [16] The continued usage of the traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened in 2004 in Washington, D.C. People from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are known as Indian Americans. National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., viewed from the northeast Interior view looking down towards the entrance. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Washington, D.C., short for the District of Columbia (also known as the the District or, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United States of America. ... For an article on American Indians see Native Americans. ...


Some American Indians have misgivings about the term Native American. Russell Means, a famous American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians. [17] Furthermore, some American Indians question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present. [18] Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in America is "native" to it. Russell Means (born November 10, 1939) is one of contemporary Americas best-known and prolific activists for the rights of American Indians. ...


Canada and the North

Another difficulty with the term Native American is that several ethnic groups traditionally excluded from the term American Indians were just as "native" to the Americas. These groups include the Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut peoples of the far north of the continent. Eskimos was once used for these groups, but this term is in disfavor because it is perceived by many of them as derogatory. Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Yupik or, in the Central Alaskan language, Yupik, are aboriginal people who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yupik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and in the Russian Far East and St. ... The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A.. The homeland of the Aleuts includes the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula. ...


In Canada the term First Nations has generally replaced the use of the word Indian, though the Canadian Indian Act which defines the rights of recognized First Nations, does refer to them as Indians. The term First Nations does not refer to the Inuit, Inuvialuit, or Métis. Collectively they and the First Nations are referred to as Aboriginals. In Alaska, the term Alaskan Native predominates, because of its legal use in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANSCA) and because it includes the Eskimo peoples. Red Indian is a common British term, useful in differentiating this group from a distinct group of people referred to as East Indians, but considered offensive in North America, where it is rarely if ever used. In the French language, the term Amérindien has been coined, and the English term Amerindian (sometimes abbreviated Amerind) is sometimes used in the social sciences to refer collectively to all Native American peoples or cultures. First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law on December 18, 1971, and the largest land claims settlement in United States history was concluded. ... Eskimo is a term used for a group of people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding circumpolar Scandinavia and all but the easternmost portions of Russia). ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Latin America

In Latin America, the preferred expression is Indigenous Peoples (pueblos indígenas in Spanish, povos indígenas in Portuguese). However, Indians (indios, índios) is often used too, even by the natives themselves. The term is less problematic than in English because it is not ambiguous, being distinct from the word that denotes someone from India, indiano. The term ameríndio (amerindian) is sometimes preferred, especially in an academic context, at least in Brazil. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Asian origins

Because the ancestors of the "Native" Americans are thought to have arrived from Asia, some people have proposed Asiatic Americans as being more historically accurate. This term is easily confused with Asian American, and it is considered offensive by many natives whose religious belief is that they have been in the Americas since the dawn of time. Furthermore, there is a strong tradition in archaeological and anthropological nomenclature to name peoples after the geographical location where they were first documented, rather than for their hypothetical region of origin. An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


Bibliography

  • Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875-1928, University Press of Kansas, 1975. ISBN 0-7006-0735-8 (hbk); ISBN 0-7006-0838-9 (pbk).
  • Bierhorst, John. A Cry from the Earth: Music of North American Indians. ISBN 0-9412-7053-X.
  • Hirschfelder, Arlene B.; Byler, Mary G.; & Dorris, Michael. Guide to research on North American Indians. American Library Association (1983). ISBN 0-8389-0353-3.
  • Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States & Canada, A Comparative History. University of Nebraska Press (1998). ISBN 0-8032-8377-6.
  • Snipp, C.M. (1989). American Indians: The first of this land. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Tiller, Veronica E. (Ed.). Discover Indian Reservations USA: A Visitors' Welcome Guide. Foreword by Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Council Publications, Denver, Colorado (1992). ISBN 0-9632580-0-1.

Office: U.S. Senator, Colorado Political party: Republican Term of office: January, 1993 – January, 2005 Preceded by: Tim Wirth Succeeded by: Ken Salazar Date of birth: April 13, 1933 Place of birth: Auburn, California Marriage: Linda Price Ben Nighthorse Campbell (born April 13, 1933) is an American politician. ...

Related topics

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The term Ancient American cultures refers to the cultures that developed in the Americas prior to the European colonization that began in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... // Classification of Native Americans: United States and Canada Ethnographers commonly classify the native peoples of the United States and Canada into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas). ... In computer science, a list is an abstract concept denoting an ordered collection of fixed-length entities. ... This article is on the social structure. ... Although there is some debate as to whether the prehistoric, Clovis culture was European in origin, the first generally accepted European colonists were the Norse, starting but then abandoning a colonisation process. ... First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army which was first created in 1905. ... In the long history of the English colonization of North America, the term Indian massacre was often used to describe mass killings of European-Americans (whites) by Native Americans (Indians), and, less frequently, mass killings of American Indians by whites. ... Indian Removal refers to the nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... This is a list of English language words of Native American language origin. ... This is a list of Indian reservations in the United States. ... This is a list of Native Americans. ... This is a list of Native American writers of note: Sherman Alexie Michael Dorris Charles Eastman Joy Harjo William Least Heat-Moon Tomson Highway Leslie Marmon Silko Lee Maracle Rigoberta Menchú N. Scott Momaday Daniel David Moses Wilhelm Murg Eden Robinson Ian Ross Luther Standing Bear Drew Hayden Taylor Gerald... This is a list of Native American actors: Evan Adams Adam Beach Irene Bedard Chief Dan George Graham Greene Rodney A. Grant Michael Horse Swil Kanim Gavin MacLeod Russell Means Larry Sellers Jay Silverheels Wes Studi Floyd Red Crow Westerman Categories: Native American artists | Lists of actors ... This is a list of Native American musicians and singers Jim Boyd Burning Sky Cher Rita Coolidge Cozad Singers Joy Harjo and Poetic Justice Indigenous Deborah Iyall of Romeo Void Illinois Jacquet Swil Kanim Lara Lavi Robert Mirabal R. Carlos Nakai Robbie Robertson Buffy Sainte-Marie Keith Secola and Wild... Painters Charles Lovato Dan Namingha Urshel Taylor Potters Joseph Lonewolf Iris Nampeyo Maria and Julian Martinez Sara Fina Tafoya Al Quoyawayma Juan Quezada Sculptors Allan Houser Doug Hyde Arlo Namingha Roxanne Swentzell Basket Weavers Dat So La Lee - pseudonym for Louisa Keyser Rug Weavers Roselyn Begay Ason Yellowhair Metalsmiths/jewelers... This is a list of Native American politicians from several countries. ... National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., viewed from the northeast Interior view looking down towards the entrance. ... Native American Church, also called Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Native American fighting styles were used by the indigenous people on the North American continent to fight each other; when Europeans arrived, the indigenous people tried, unsuccessfully, to use them to repel the encroachment of the European expansion into the territories. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The mythology of Native Americans By tribe: Abenaki Aztec Blackfoot Cherokee Chippewa Creek Crow Guarani Ho-Chunk Hopi Incan Inuit Huron Kwakiutl Maya Navaho Pawnee Seneca See also: Circumpolar religion Categories: Native American mythology ... Prior to the coming of Europeans, the peoples of both the North and South American continents had a wide variety of pottery traditions. ... From the earliest contacts by Europeans with native Americans trading was a major focus of activity especially in the case of the French, the British, the Hudsons Bay Company and the Dutch West India Company. ... The Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of the Cherokee American Indian tribe by the U.S. federal government, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Cherokee Indians. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... The term residential school generally refers to any school at which students live in addition to attending classes. ... A medicine wheel at Big Horn Medicine wheels are stone structures built by the natives of America and Canada for various spiritual and ritual purposes. ... The Rainbow Warrior Rainbow Warrior is the name of a series of ships operated by Greenpeace. ...

External links

General information and history

Tribal, regional and reservation information

Organizations

  • National Congress of American Indians
  • The National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development
  • Native American Rights Fund

Photography

  • Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian: Photographic Images (by culture area)
  • American Historical Images On File: The Native American Experience

Culture

  • Countering Prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives
  • The Two-Spirit Tradition, an essay on shamanism and male love in Native American religion.
  • Using Literature by American Indians and Alaska Natives in Secondary Schools
  • Teaching Young Children about Native Americans

Language

  • Map of languages in the US - William C. Sturtevant. (1967). Early Indian tribes, culture areas, and linguistic stocks.: (caution: Material is out-of-date)
    • Alaska & Hawai‘i
    • Western US
    • Eastern US

Art

  • NativeTech: Native American Technology and Art
  • American Native American Recipes on CookBookWiki.com

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