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Encyclopedia > Americas
World map showing the Americas
World map showing the Americas
CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection
CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection

The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. The Americas cover 8.3% of the Earth's total surface area (28.4% of its land area) and contain about 14% of the human population (about 900 million people). The Americas may alternatively be referred to as America;[1][2] however, America may be ambiguous, as it can refer either to the entire landmass or to the United States of America. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 54 KB) Extracted from CIA World Factbook PDF world map, then rasterized and colored. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 54 KB) Extracted from CIA World Factbook PDF world map, then rasterized and colored. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1094 × 1650 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Americas – North and South America: CIA, original political map from Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection; University of Texas Library Online File links... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1094 × 1650 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Americas – North and South America: CIA, original political map from Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection; University of Texas Library Online File links... Map of the Earth using a Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection, or Lambert azimuthal projection, is an equal-area map projection. ... The Mercator projection shows courses of constant bearing as straight lines. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... The word America has several meanings: Geographical and political The Americas: North, Central, and South America. ...

Contents

History

European colonization
of the Americas
History of the Americas
British colonization
Courland colonization
Danish colonization
Dutch colonization
French colonization
German colonization
Portuguese colonization
Russian colonization
Scottish colonization
Spanish colonization
Swedish colonization
Norse colonization
Decolonization

Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654–1659, and again 1660–1689. ... Denmark had a colonial empire from the 18th century until the 20th. ... During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In this map of German colonies, yellow marks Klein-Venedig and red the Prussia colonies, some of them in the Caribbean. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Russian colonization of the Americas proceeded in several places. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century. ... The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century. ... Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ...

Formation

South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwanaland around 135 million years ago (Ma), forming its own continent.[3] Starting around 15 Ma, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By 3 Ma, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas.[4] In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... This article is about the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Isthmus of Panama. ...


Settlement

See also: Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact

Archaeological finds establish the widespread presence of the Clovis culture in North America and South America around 10000 BCE.[5] Whether this is the first migration of humans into North America and South America is disputed, with alternative theories holding that humans arrived in North America and South America as early as 40000 BCE. Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture[1]) is a prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological record of North America around 11,500 rcbp radiocarbon years ago, at the end of the last glacial period. ... There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. ...


The Inuit migrated into the Arctic section of North America in another wave of migration, arriving around 1000 CE.[6] Around the same time as the Inuit migrated into North America, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland in 982 and Vinland shortly thereafter.[7] The Viking settlers quickly abandoned Vinland, and disappeared from Greenland by 1500.[8] For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century. ... For the historical novel by George Mackay Brown, which depicts Leifr Eiríkssons voyage, see Vinland (novel). ...


Large-scale European colonization of the Americas began shortly after the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and Africans killed most of the inhabitants of North America and South America,[9][10] with a general population crash of Native Americans occurring in the mid-sixteenth century, often well ahead of European contact.[11] Native peoples and European colonizers came into widespread conflict, resulting in what David Stannard has called a genocide of the indigenous populations.[12] Early European immigrants were often part of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Many individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas as slaves, prisoners or indentured servants. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Natives of North America. ... David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... An indentured servant is a laborer under contract of an employer for some period of time, usually three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, drink, clothing, lodging and other necessities. ...


Naming

World Map of Waldseemüller which first named America (in the map over Paraguay). Germany, 1507

The earliest known use of the name America for this particular landmass dates from April 25, 1507. It appears on a globe and a large map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. The last known surviving copy of the Waldseemüller map was recently acquired by the US Library of Congress for $US 10 million.[13] An accompanying book, Cosmographiae Introductio, explains that the name was derived from the Latinized version of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, Americus Vespucius, in its feminine form, America, as the other continents all have Latin feminine names.[14] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1254, 2337 KB) Summary Bildbeschreibung: Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1254, 2337 KB) Summary Bildbeschreibung: Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1507 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting). ... Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, commonly referred to as Saint-Dié, is a commune of northeastern France. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Cosmographiae introductio was a book published in 1507 to accompany Martin Waldseemüllers map of the world and wall-map, which was the first appearance of the name America. It is widely held to have been written by Matthias Ringmann although some historians attribute it to Waldseemüller himself. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Amerigo Vespucci (Américo Vespucio in Spanish) (March 8, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ...


Vespucci's role in the naming issue, like his exploratory activity, is unclear. Some sources say that he was unaware of the widespread use of his name to refer to the new landmass. Waldseemüller may have been misled by the Soderini Letter, now thought to be a forgery, which reports that the New World is populated by giants, cannibals, and sexually insatiable females and implies it was discovered first by Vespucci.[15] Christopher Columbus, who had first brought the region's existence to the attention of Renaissance era voyagers, had died in 1506 (believing, to the end, that he had discovered and colonized part of India) and could not protest Waldseemüller's decision. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

Map of America by Jonghe, c. 1770.
Map of America by Jonghe, c. 1770.

A few alternative theories regarding the landmass's naming have been proposed, but none of them has achieved any widespread acceptance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1830x1840, 1843 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1830x1840, 1843 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ...


One alternative, first advanced by Jules Marcou in 1875 and later recounted by novelist Jan Carew, is that the name America derives from the district of Amerrique in Nicaragua.[16] The gold-rich district of Amerrique was purportedly visited by both Vespucci and Columbus, for whom the name became synonymous with gold. According to Marcou, Vespucci later applied the name to the New World, and even changed the spelling of his own name from Alberigo to Amerigo to reflect the importance of the discovery. Jules Marcou (April 20, 1824 - April 17, 1898), an eminent Swiss-American geologist, was born at Salins, in the départment of Jura, in France. ... Jan Rynveld Carew is a novelist, playwright, poet and educator. ...


Another theory, first proposed by a Bristol antiquary and naturalist, Alfred Hudd, in 1908 was that America is derived from Richard Amerike (Richard ap Meryke), a Welsh merchant from Bristol, who is believed to have financed John Cabot's voyage of discovery from England to Newfoundland in 1497 as found in some documents from Westminster Abbey a few decades ago. Supposedly, Bristol fishermen had been visiting the coast of North America for at least a century before Columbus' voyage and Waldseemüller's maps are alleged to incorporate information from the early English journeys to North America. The theory holds that a variant of Amerike's name appeared on an early English map (of which, however, no copies survive) and that this was the true inspiration for Waldseemüller. This article is about the English city. ... An antiquarian is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Richard Amerike (Ameryk or ap Meryk) (c. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Geography

Further information: Geography of North America and Geography of South America

Global view centred on North America North America is the third largest continent (1990 est. ... Map of South America. ...

Extent

The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the northernmost point of land on Earth.[17] The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica.[18] The easternmost point is Nordostrundingen. The westernmost point is Attu Island. Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island is a small island lying off the north eastern tip of Greenland, and is considered to be the most northerly point of land on earth. ... Part of the British Crown Dependency of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Orthographic projection centred on the South Sandwich Islands South Sandwich Islands Southern Thule is a collection of the three southernmost islands in the South Sandwich Islands: Bellingshausen, Cook, and Thule (Morrell). ... Nordostrundingen or Nordøstrundingen, is the easternmost point in North America, on the island of Greenland. ... Attu Island Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, making it the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska and the United States. ...


Topography

Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Americas
Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Americas

The western geography of the Americas is dominated by the American cordillera, with the Andes running along the west coast of South America[19] and the Rocky Mountains and other Pacific Coast Ranges running the western side of North America.[20] The 2300 km long Appalachian Mountains run along the east coast of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.[21] North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada.[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 331 KB) Aconcagua, Argentina, January, 2005, by Sergio Schmiegelow File links The following pages link to this file: Aconcagua Gallery of mountains ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 331 KB) Aconcagua, Argentina, January, 2005, by Sergio Schmiegelow File links The following pages link to this file: Aconcagua Gallery of mountains ... For other uses, see Aconcagua (disambiguation). ... The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western backbone of both North America and South America. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the west coast of North America from Alaska to northern and central Mexico. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ...


Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains spread over much of the continent with low relief.[23] The Canadian Shield covers almost 5 million km² of North America and is generally quite flat.[24] Similarly, the north-east of South America is covered by the flat Amazon Basin.[25] The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while further south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are broad lowlands.[26] The Interior Plains are highlighted in red. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... The Brazilian Highlands (or Planalto Brasileiro) are an extensive geographical region, covering most of the eastern, southern and central portions of Brazil, in all approximately half of the countrys land area, or some 4,000,000 km² (1,544,000 sq mi). ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... In physical geography, a lowland is any broad expanse of land with a general low level. ...


Hydrology

With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth.[27] The largest river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet.[28] The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km².[29] For the term related to television programmes, see watershed (television). ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Drainage basin. ... The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ...


Demography

Population

São Paulo is the most populous city in the Americas
São Paulo is the most populous city in the Americas
Mexico City is the second most populous city in the Americas
New York City is the third most populous city in the Americas
New York City is the third most populous city in the Americas

The total population of the Americas is 858,000,000 people per the United Nations' Population and Vital Statistics Report, and is divided as follows: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (830 × 543 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 184 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Mexico... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 184 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Mexico... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

  • North America: 2001 with 495 million and in 2002 with 501 million (includes Central America and Hawaii)
  • South America: 2001 with 352 million and in 2002 with 357 million

See also: For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

This is a list of countries and dependencies of the Americas by population. ...

Ethnology

The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of eight large ethnic groups and their combinations.

The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both of which are descended from Latin. Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English (a Germanic language) prevails; namely, Canada (with the exception of francophone Canada: see Québec and Acadia) and the United States, both in North America, have predominantly British roots and are quite different in terms of linguistic, cultural, and economic situation from other countries in the Americas. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... You may also be looking for the plural of the word pole. ... Languages Danish Religions Predominantly Lutheran; small minorities of other faiths; secular Related ethnic groups Norwegians, Swedes, Icelanders, Faroese and, to a lesser extent, English and all Germanic ethnic groups The term Dane may refer to: People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity, whether living in Denmark, emigrants, or the... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... A representation of Zambos in Pintura de Castas during the Latin American colonial period. ... Representation of Zambos during the Latin American colonial period Zambo (Cafuzo in Brazil, Garifuna in Central America and the Caribbean, Lobo in Mexico) is a term of Latin American origin describing peoples of mixed African and Amerindian racial descent. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ...


Religion

The most prevalent faiths in the Americas are as follows:

  • 1. Christianity (North America: 85 percent; South America: 93 percent)[30]
    • Roman Catholicism (practiced by 93 percent of Mexican population; approximately 24 percent of the United States population[31] and more than 40 percent of all of Canadians)[32]
    • Protestantism (practiced mostly in United States, where half of the population are Protestant, and Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal movements in predominantly Catholic Latin America[33])
    • Eastern Orthodoxy (found mostly in the United States and Canada—0.5 percent of the US citizenry; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada and now represents roughly 3 percent of the population)
    • Other Christians and non-denominational Christians (some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas)
  • 2. Atheism (mostly found in North America—atheists make up 16 percent of Canadians, 12 percent of the U.S. population, and less than 5 percent of Mexicans; 4 percent of South Americans are atheistic)
  • 3. Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of Canadians[34]; 0.23 percent of Latin Americans—Argentina has the largest Jewish communities in Latin America with 200,000 members[35])
  • 4. Islam (1.9 percent of Canadians (600,000 persons)[36], 0.6% percent of Americans (1,820,000 persons)[37], and 0.2% of Mexicans (<250,000 persons)[38]. Together, Islam constitutes approximately 0.5% of the North American population. North American cities with high concentrations of Muslims include Toronto, Philadelphia, Detroit, and New York City.; 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans)

Other faiths include Sikhism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Bahá'í in small numbers, plus some native animists. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Atheist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Languages

Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various idioms like the different creoles.


The dominant language of Latin America is Spanish, though the largest nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana and Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast, respectively, and Haitian Creole, of French origin, is dominant in the nation of Haiti. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with lesser frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole are also spoken in parts of Latin America. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The article is about the Central American area. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ...


The dominant language of Anglo-America, as the name suggests, is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Québec and an official language in New Brunswick along with English. It is also an important language in the U.S. state of Louisiana. Spanish has become widely spoken in parts of the United States due to heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are generally considered not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America due to lingual differences with Latin America and geographic and cultural differences with Anglo-America; English is the primary language of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the primary language of Suriname.

  • Spanish – spoken by approximately 320 million in many nations, regions, islands, and communities throughout both continents.
  • English – spoken by approximately 300 million people in the United States, Canada, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Belize, Guyana, and many islands of the Caribbean.
  • Portuguese – spoken by approximately 185 million in South America, mostly Brazil[39]
  • French – spoken by approximately 12 million in Canada (majority 7 million in Québec—see also Québec French), and Acadian communities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia); the Caribbean (Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique); French Guiana; the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon; and Acadiana (a Francophone area in southern Louisiana, United States).
  • Quechua – native language spoken by 10–13 million speakers in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwest Argentina.[40]
  • Haitian Creole – creole language, based in French and various African languages, spoken by 6 million in Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in Canada and the United States.[41]
  • Guaraní (avañe'ẽ) – native language spoken by approximately 6 million people in Paraguay, and regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.
  • Italian – spoken by approximately 4 million people, mostly New England / Mid-Atlantic in the United States, southern Ontario and Quebec in Canada, Argentina, and Brazil, and also includes pidgin dialects of Italian such as Talian (Brazil), and Chipilo (Mexico).
  • German – Some 2.2 million. Spoken by 1.1 million people in the United States plus another million in parts of Latin America, such as Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and El Salvador. It is the second most studied second language in the United States.
  • Aymará – native language spoken by about 2.2 million speakers in the Andes, in Bolivia and Peru.
  • Quiché and other Maya languages – native languages spoken by about 1.9 million speakers in Guatemala and southern Mexico.
  • Nahuatl – native language of central Mexico with 1.5 million speakers. Also was the language of the Aztec People of Mexico.
  • Antillean Creole – spoken by approximately 1.2 million in the Eastern Caribbean (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Dominica, Saint Lucia) and French Guiana.
  • American Sign Language – An estimated 100,000–500,000 people within the Deaf Community use ASL as their primary language in the United States and Canada.[42]
  • Mapudungun (or Mapuche) – native language spoken by approximately 440,000 people in Chile and Argentina.
  • Navajo – native language spoken by about 178,000 speakers in the Southwest U.S. on the Navajo Nation (Indian reservation).[43] The tribe's isolation until the early 1900s provided a language used in a military code in World War II.
  • Dutch – spoken in the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, and Suriname by about 210,000 speakers.
  • Miskito – Spoken by up over 180,000 Miskitos. They are Indigenous people who inhabit the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua and the easternmost region of Honduras.
  • Pennsylvania Dutch – Some descendants of the Pennsylvania Dutch in the Northeast U.S. speak a local form of the German language which dates back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They number about 85,000.
  • Inuit – native language spoken by about 75,000 across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
  • Danish – and Greenlandic (Inuit) are the official languages of Greenland; most of the population speak both of the languages (approximately 50,000 people). A minority of Danish migrants with no Inuit ancestry speak Danish as their first, or only, language.
  • Cree – Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada.
  • Nicaraguan Creole – Spoken in Nicaragua by up to 30,000 people. It is spoken primarily by persons of African, Amerindian, and European descent on the Caribbean Coast.
  • Garífuna (or Garinagu) - native language spoken by the Garífuna people who inhabits parts of the caribbean coast of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The vast majority of them live in Honduras.
  • Welsh – In Argentina, two towns of Trelew and Rawson were settled by Welsh immigrants in the late nineteenth century and the Welsh language remains spoken by about 25,000, including the towns' older residents.
  • Cherokee – native language spoken in a small corner of Oklahoma, U.S. by about 19,000 speakers. The use of this language has rebounded in the late twentieth century. It is known to possess its own alphabet, the Cherokee syllabary.
  • Gullah – a creole language based on English with strong influences from West and Central African languages spoken by the Gullah people, an African American population living on the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia.

Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamentu, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently, English. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, and Canada, four very important destinations for immigrants. West Indies redirects here. ... Quebec French or Québécois French is a dialect of French spoken natively by the great majority (82. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America, located in the northeastern section of the country, includes the following states and district: Delaware Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Washington, D.C. West Virginia Virginia These areas provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as... Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario lying south of the French River and Algonquin Park. ... Talian (Brazils Italian/o italiano do Brasil) is a variety of Italian spoken mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ... Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... The Quiché language is a part of the Maya language family. ... Maya language may refer to: generally, any one of the various Mayan languages, a related group of languages spoken by the Maya peoples of Mesoamerica specifically, Yukatek (Yucatec) Maya language is frequently referred to simply as Maya language Maya language (Brazil), an unclassified language of Brazil that may be related... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Antillean Creole is a French-lexified creole language spoken primarily in the Lesser Antilles. ... The Lesser Antilles are part of the Antilles, which together with the Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... Mapudungun is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile and Argentina by the Mapuche people. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Diné in Navajo language) encompasses all things important to the Navajo. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Miskito is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northern Nicaragua, especially in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... The Inuit language is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi) is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Labrador, making it by far the most spoken aboriginal language in Canada. ... Miskito Coastal Creole is a linguistic variety spoken on Nicaragua. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Garifuna or Garífuna are an ethnic group in the Caribbean area, decended from a mix of Amerindian and African people. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Welsh Peoples Museum, Trelew Avenida Road in Fontana National Bank at night Trelew is a city in the province of Chubut, in the Argentine Patagonia, with a population of about 102,000 as per the 2001 census [INDEC]. The city has a small commercial center, several neighborhoods, and some... Rawson is the capital of the Argentine province of Chubut, in the Patagonia. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ...


Terminology

Subdivisions of the Americas
Map Legend

     North America      South America      May be included in
     either NA or SA

     North America      May be included in NA      Central America      Caribbean      South America

     North America      May be included in NA        Northern America      Middle America      Caribbean;
     may be included in MA
     South America      May be included in MA
     or South America

     Anglo-America      May be included in A-A      Latin America      May be included in LA

Further information: Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America, are the lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture. ...

America/Americas

In many parts of the world, America in the singular is commonly used as a name for the United States of America; however, (the) Americas (plural with s and generally with the definite article) is invariably used to refer to the lands and regions of the Western hemisphere. Usage of America to also refer to this collectivity remains fairly common. The word America has several meanings: Geographical and political The Americas: North, Central, and South America. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the pop music band, see The The. ...


While many in the United States of America generally refer to the country as America and themselves as Americans,[44] many people elsewhere in the Americas resent what they perceive as misappropriation[45] of the term in this context and, thus, this usage is frequently avoided.[46][47][48] In Canada, their southern neighbour is seldom referred to as "America", with the United States, the U.S., or (informally) the States used instead.[47] English dictionaries and compendiums differ regarding usage and rendition.[49][50]


American

Use of the word American in the English language differs between historical, geographical and political contexts. ...

English usage

Whether usage of America or the Americas is preferred, American is a self-referential term for many people living in the Americas. However, much of the English-speaking world uses the word to refer solely to a citizen, resident, or national of the United States of America. Instead, the word pan-American is sometimes used as an unambiguous adjective to refer to the Americas. The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ...


In addition, many Canadians resent being referred to as Americans because of mistaken assumptions that they are U.S. citizens or an inability—particularly of people overseas—to distinguish Canadian English and American English accents.[47] Canadian English (CanE) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Spanish usage

In Spanish, América is the name of a region considered a single continent composed of the subcontinents of Sudamérica and Norteamérica, the land bridge of Centroamérica, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano/a in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that europeo or europea refers to a person from Europe. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense instead of americano or americana. Also, the term norteamericano may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, rarely those of other North American countries.[51]


Portuguese usage

In Portuguese, the word americano refers to the whole of the Americas. But, in Brazil and Portugal, it is widely used to refer to the citizens of the United States. Sometimes norte-americano is also used, but americano is the most common term employed by people and media at large, while norte-americano (North American) is more common in books. The least ambiguous term, estadunidense (used more frequently in Brazil) or estado-unidense (used more frequently in Portugal), something like "United Statian" or "estadounidense" in Spanish language), and "ianque"—the Portuguese version of "Yankee"—are rarely used.


América, however, is not that frequently used as synonym to the country, and almost exclusively in current speech, while in print and in more formal environments the US is usually called either Estados Unidos da América (i.e. United States of America) or only Estados Unidos (i.e. United States). There is some difference between the usage of these words in Portugal and in Brazil, the Brazilians being less prone than the Portuguese to apply the term América to the country. A well-known example of such use is the translation of the title of Alain Resnais' movie "Mon Oncle d'Amérique": "O Meu Tio da América".


French usage

In French, as in English, the word Américain can be confusing as it can be used to refer either to the United States, or to the American continents.


The noun Amérique sometimes refers to the whole as one continent, and sometimes two continents, southern and northern; the United States is generally referred to as les États-Unis d'Amérique, les États-Unis, or les USA. However, the usage of Amérique to refer to the United States, while technically not correct, does still have some currency in France.


The adjective américain is most often used for things relating to the United States; however, it may also be used for things relating to the American continents. Books by United States authors translated from English are often described as "traduit de l'américain".


Things relating to the United States can be referred to without ambiguity by the words états-unien, étasunien, or étatsunien, although their usage is rare.


Dutch usage

In Dutch, the word Amerika almost always refers to the United States. Although the United States is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten or de VS, Amerika only extremely rarely refers to the entire continent of the Americas. There is no alternative and commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. Therefore, in order to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid Amerika (North and South America).


Latin America is generally referred to as Latijns Amerika or, less frequently, Zuid Amerika (South America).


The adjective amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentinian etc.


Countries

Map showing the dates of independence of the countries of the Americas. Black shows areas not independent.
Map showing the dates of independence of the countries of the Americas. Black shows areas not independent.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (862x1270, 62 KB) Summary Map showing date of independence of country in the Americas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (862x1270, 62 KB) Summary Map showing date of independence of country in the Americas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Overseas regions and dependencies

Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greenland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guadeloupe_(local). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_French_Guiana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Martinique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Barthelemy_(local). ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint-Martin_(local). ... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint-Pierre_and_Miquelon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Anguilla. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bermuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cayman_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Falkland_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montserrat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aruba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States_Virgin_Islands. ...

Multinational organizations in the Americas

Look up Americas in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The NGO American Capital of Culture Organization selects one American city annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ...  Full member states  Observer States Political centres Brasília[1] Quito Cochabamba Bogota , Largest city São Paulo Official languages 4 Dutch English Portuguese Spanish Ethnic groups (2007) 7 White (46%) Mulatto (21%) Mestizo (21%) Amerindian (6%) Black (4%) Mixed (<1%) Other (2%) Demonym South American Member states 12 Argentina... The Rio Group is an international organization of Latin American states. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... The FTAA logo. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay , Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... The Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (Spanish: Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas or ALBA - which also means dawn in Spanish) is a political, social and economic cooperation and complementation vision of integration between the Latin American countries, proposed by the government of Venezuela as an alternative to the Free... This is a Map of the nations in ALADI(formerly LAFTA) The Latin American Free Trade Association, LAFTA, (later transformed into the Latin American Integration Association or Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración) was created in 1960 in the 1960 Treaty of Montevideo by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru... The Regional Security System (RSS) is an international agreement for the defence and security of the Eastern Caribbean region. ... For a Peruvian political party, see Alliance for Progress (Peru). ... The Association of Caribbean States (ACS) (Also called the Asociacion de Estados del Caribe or Association des Etats de la Caraibe) was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation, and concerted action among all the countries of the Caribbean, comprising of 25 member states and 3 associate members. ... Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Map of the Eastern Caribbean showing OECS member states (dark green) and associate member states (light green) Secretariat Castries, St. ... The Contadora Group was an initiative launched in the early 1980s by the foreign ministers of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela to deal with the military conflicts in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala, which were threatening to destablize the entire Central American region. ... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... Flag of CARICOM and the CSME The CARICOM Single Market and Economy also known as the Caribbean Single Market and Economy or CSME is an integrated development strategy envisioned at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community which took place in July 1989... The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC), formerly School of the Americas (SOA), is a US Army facility at Fort Benning in Columbus, Georgia, USA. It is a training facility operated in the Spanish language especially for Latin American military personnel. ... The Summit of the Americas is the name for one of a sequence of summits bringing together the countries of the Americas for discussion of a variety of issues. ... The Central American Common Market (abbreviated CACM - in Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano, abbreviated MCCA) is an economic trade organization between five nations of Central America. ...  â€¢  â€¢ Seat of Secretariat Lima, Peru Official language Spanish Type Trade bloc Membership 10 South American states 2 Central/North American observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Freddy Ehlers Establishment  -  as the Andean Pact 1969   -  as the CAN 1996  Website http://www. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered... Parlatino headquarters (São Paulo), designed by Oscar Niemeyer Parlatino headquarters: foyer Parlatino headquarters: assembly hall The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty... The Bank of the South(Portuguese: Banco do Sul, Spanish: Banco del Sur) is a monetary fund and lending organization devised by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. ...

See also

European colonization
of the Americas
History of the Americas
British colonization
Courland colonization
Danish colonization
Dutch colonization
French colonization
German colonization
Portuguese colonization
Russian colonization
Scottish colonization
Spanish colonization
Swedish colonization
Norse colonization
Decolonization

Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654–1659, and again 1660–1689. ... Denmark had a colonial empire from the 18th century until the 20th. ... During the 17th century, Dutch traders established trade posts and plantations throughout the Americas; actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands was not as common as with settlements of other European nations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In this map of German colonies, yellow marks Klein-Venedig and red the Prussia colonies, some of them in the Caribbean. ... Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Russian colonization of the Americas proceeded in several places. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made as part of Great Britain. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century. ... The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century. ... Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ... List of American countries Nations: ... This is a list of countries and dependencies of the Americas by population. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The struggle for independence after 1810 among the Latin American nations evoked a sense of unity, especially in South America where, under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south, there were cooperative efforts. ... The La Merika Theory is the theory that America wasnt first discovered by Columbus but by Freemasons (possibly The Knights Templar), and that the name La Merika (The Star) is what led to the later name of the continent America. ... Northern America is a name for the parts of North America besides Mexico when Mexico is considered as Latin America. ... Middle America For other uses, see Middle America (disambiguation). ... Central America is a region formed by 7 Hispanic countries and one Anglo-Saxon (Belize). ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ... French America (in French Amérique française) is the French speaking community of peoples and diasporas tracing back origins to New France, the early French colonization of the Americas. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... This article is about the culture area. ... // List of conflicts in North America Before the 16th Century 1006 Norseman versus Beothuk along the coast of Newfoundland Sixteenth Century 1520 Aztecs force Cortés from Tenochtitlan 1521 Cortés captures the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan 1524 Alvarado burns the Mayan kingdom of Quiché 1530 Alvarado enslaves the Mayan kingdoms...

Footnotes

  1. ^ america - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on January 27, 2008.
  2. ^ america. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/america (accessed: January 27, 2008).
  3. ^ Brian C. Story (28 September 1995). "The role of mantle plumes in continental breakup: case histories from Gondwanaland". Nature 377: 301–309. doi:10.1038/377301a0. 
  4. ^ Land bridge: How did the formation of a sliver of land result in major changes in biodiversity. Public Broadcasting Corporation.
  5. ^ David S. Whitley and Ronald I. Dorn (1993). "New Perspectives on the Clovis versus Pre-Clovis Controversy" ([dead link]Scholar search). American Antiquity: 626–647. 
  6. ^ Canadian Inuit History. Canadian Museum of Civilization.
  7. ^ Vinland. Canadian Museum of Civilization.
  8. ^ The Norse settlers in Greenland - A short history. Greenland Guide - The Official Travel Index.
  9. ^ Russell Thornton (1997). "Aboriginal North American Population and Rates of Decline, c.a. A.D. 1500 - 1900" ([dead link]Scholar search). Current Anthropology 38: 310–315. doi:10.1086/204615. 
  10. ^ Alfred W. Crosby (April 1976). "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America". David and Mary Quarterly 33: 289–299. 
  11. ^ Henry F. Dobyns (1993). "Disease Transfer at Contact". Annual Review of Anthropology 22: 273–291. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.001421. 
  12. ^ Staff. A review of American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World (by David Stannard), on the website of the Oxford University Press (the publishers)
  13. ^ Wyatt Mason, New York Times Magazine, 12/2/2007, pp. 11-13
  14. ^ Cartographer put 'America' on the map 500 years ago - USATODAY.com
  15. ^ Wyatt Mason, New York Times Magazine, 12/2/2007, pp. 11-13
  16. ^ George C. Hurlbut (1888). "The Origin of the Name "America"". Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York 20: 183–196. doi:10.2307/196759. 
  17. ^ Charles Burress. "Romancing the north Berkeley explorer may have stepped on ancient Thule", San Francisco Chronicle, June 17, 2004. 
  18. ^ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica - Travel.
  19. ^ Andes Mountain Range.
  20. ^ Rocky Mountains.
  21. ^ Appalachian Mountains. Ohio History Central.
  22. ^ Arctic Cordillera.
  23. ^ Interior Plains Region.
  24. ^ Natural History of Quebec.
  25. ^ Strategy. Amazon Conservation Association.
  26. ^ SRTM SOUTH AMERICA IMAGES.
  27. ^ Greatest Places: Notes: Amazonia.
  28. ^ Mississippi River.
  29. ^ Great Rivers Partnership - Paraguay-Parana.
  30. ^ CBC Montreal - Religion
  31. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - United States
  32. ^ The Daily, Tuesday, May 13, 2003. Census of Population: Income of individuals, families and households; religion
  33. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/s1348759.htm
  34. ^ Canadian Jewry Today: Portrait of a Community in the Process of Change - Ira Robinson
  35. ^ First Planeload of Jews Fleeing Argentina Arrives in Israel
  36. ^ Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)
  37. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - United States
  38. ^ Islam and Christianity: Islam in Mexico
  39. ^ Portuguese Facts.
  40. ^ Now Bolivia Can Do Windows.
  41. ^ Bambi B. Schieffelin; Rachelle Charlier Doucet (February 1994). "The "Real" Haitian Creole: Ideology, Metalinguistics, and Orthographic Choice". American Ethnologist 21: 176–200. doi:10.1525/ae.1994.21.1.02a00090. 
  42. ^ Mike Gasser. A3 Languages cited in this book.
  43. ^ American Indian & Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2003. United States' Census Bureau.
  44. ^ Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 48.
  45. ^ "Uso abusivo", numeral 4 http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=Estados%20Unidos
  46. ^ "American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X); McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 35.
  47. ^ a b c "America." Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-541619-8) Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J., ed., 1997. Toronto: Oxford University Press; p. 36.
  48. ^ "America." Microsoft Encarta Dictionary. 2007. Microsoft.
  49. ^ America - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  50. ^ America - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  51. ^ Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas:Norteamérica

is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Categories: Museums in Canada | Ottawa buildings | Canadian federal departments and agencies ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...

References

  • "Americas". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2006. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • "Americas". Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed. 1986. (ISBN 0-85229-434-4) Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J. 1997. Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-541619-8) Toronto: Oxford University Press.
  • Kane , Katie Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination Cultural Critique, No. 42 (Spring, 1999), pp. 81-103 doi:10.2307/1354592
  • Pearsall, Judy and Trumble, Bill., ed. 2002. Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 2nd ed. (rev.) (ISBN 0-19-860652-4) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Churchill, Ward A Little Matter of Genocide 1997 City Lights Books ISBN 0872863239
  • What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America? Geography at about.com.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ...

External links

  • The naming of America: fragments we've shored against ourselves by Jonathan Cohen
  • Organization of American States

Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged, gives an overview of states around the world with information on the extent of their sovereignty. ... Motto: Spanish: Dios, Patria, Libertad (English: God, Homeland, Liberty) Anthem: Quisqueyanos valientes Capital (and largest city) Santo Domingo Spanish Government Republic  - President Leonel Fernández Independence from Haiti   - Date 27 February 1844  Area  - Total 48,442 km² (130st) 18,810 sq mi   - Water (%) 1. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 54 KB) Extracted from CIA World Factbook PDF world map, then rasterized and colored. ... World map of dependent territories. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies, are part of the Lesser Antilles and consist of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea that form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (none of the other Antilles use this term in... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


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