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Encyclopedia > American popular music
Music of the United States
History (Timeline)
Colonial era - to the Civil War - During the Civil War - Late 19th century - Early 20th century - 40s and 50s - 60s and 70s - 80s to the present
Genres: Classical - Folk - Popular: Hip hop - Pop - Rock
Awards Grammy Awards, Country Music Awards
Charts Billboard Music Chart
Festivals Jazz Fest, Lollapalooza, Ozzfest, Monterey Jazz Festival
Media Spin, Rolling Stone, Vibe, Down Beat, Source, MTV, VH1
National anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner" and forty-eight state songs
Ethnic music
Native American - English: old-time and Western music - African American - Irish and Scottish - Latin: Tejano and Puerto Rican - Cajun and Creole - Hawaii - Other immigrants
Local music
AK - AL - AR - AS - AZ - CA - CO - CT - DC - DE - FL - GA - GU - HI - IA - ID - IL - IN - KS - KY - LA - MA - MD - ME - MI - MN - MO - MP - MS - MT - NC - ND - NE - NH - NM - NV - NJ - NY - OH - OK - OR - PA - PR - RI - SC - SD - TN - TX - UT - VA - VI - VT - WA - WI - WV - WY
The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster
The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster

Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. The country has seen the rise of popular styles that have had a significant influence on global culture, including ragtime, blues, jazz, rock, R&B, doo wop, gospel, soul, funk, heavy metal, punk, disco, house, techno, salsa, grunge and hip hop. In addition, the American music industry is quite diverse, supporting a number of regional styles like zydeco, klezmer and slack-key. The appeal of these styles lies in their supple, energetic rhythms, their appealing vocal lines, and in many cases their symbolic associations with the plight of the underprivileged. The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... The music history of the United States includes many styles of folk, popular and classical music. ... Categories: Timelines of music | Periods of American music ... The upper-class during the colonial era promoted ensembles who played serenades, feldparthien and divertimenti, such as those composed by Mozart and Haydn. ... From independence to the start of the Civil, American music underwent many changes. ... The music history of the United States during the Civil War was an important period in the development of American music. ... The latter part of the 19th century saw the increased popularization of African American music and the growth and maturity of folk styles like the blues. ... // Native Americans Main article: Native American music Modern Native American pow-wows arose around the turn of the 20th century. ... Many musical styles flourished and combined in the 1940s and 1950s, most likely because of the influence of radio had in creating a mass market for music. ... The 1960s was a tumultuous period for the United States, with the Cold War, Vietnam War and Civil Rights causing massive public unrest. ... The 1980s saw New Wave entering the year as the single biggest mainstream market, with heavy metal, punk rock and hardcore punk, and hip hop achieving increased crossover success. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American roots music is a broad category of music including country music, bluegrass, gospel, ragtime, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun and Native American music. ... Subway graffiti The United States was the nation of origin of hip hop, a cultural movement that began in the 1970s in New York City, among primarily African American and Hispanic audiences. ... American Pop is a 1981 American animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... // 1950s Covers: Early 50s Through the late 1940s and early 1950s, rhythm and blues music had been gaining a stronger beat and a wilder style, with artists such as Fats Domino and Johnny Otis speeding up the tempos and increasing the backbeat to great popularity on the juke-joint circuit. ... Grammy Award The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards), presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music... The Country Music Association (CMA) was founded in 1958 in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music industry. ... A music festival is a festival that presents a number of musical performances usually tied together through a theme or genre. ... The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the music and culture of New Orleans and Louisiana. ... Lollapalooza is an American touring music festival featuring alternative rock, rap, and punk rock bands, dance and comedy performances, and craft booths. ... Ozzfest is an annual tour of the United States and Europe featuring performances by many heavy metal groups. ... The Monterey Jazz Festival is a yearly festival of jazz music that takes place at the Monterey Fairgrounds in Monterey, California the third full weekend in September. ... Spin is a music magazine that reports on all the music that rocks. Founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. ... Rolling Stone is an American magazine devoted to music, politics and popular culture. ... Janet Jackson on the cover of Vibe in 1998. ... Down Beat is an American magazine devoted to jazz. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... MTV (Music Television) is a cable television network headquartered in New York City. ... VH1 (spelled VH-1 (Video Hits One) until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment (at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV, which originally came up with the idea of the channel). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Nicholson took the copy Key had given him to a printer, who published it as a broadside on 17 September, 1814 under the title “Defence of Fort McHenry,” with a note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ... Each state in the United States (except New Jersey) has a state song, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... There are hundreds of tribes of Native Americans (called the First Nations in Canada), each with diverse musical practices, spread across the United States and Canada (excluding Hawaiian music). ... The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and popular music. ... West Virginia fiddler Edwin Edden Hammons, with unidentified banjo player Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk music of many countries, most notably: England, Scotland, Ireland, and the African continent. ... Poster from the Western Music, directly related to the old English, Scottish, and Irish folk ballads, was originally composed by and about the people settling and working in the American West and western Canada. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Irish and Scottish music have long been a major part of American music, at least as far back as the 19th century. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues,rock and even country music. ... Tejano[1] (Spanish for Texan) or Tex-Mex[2] music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-descended Tejanos of Central and South Texas. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The vast majority of the inhabitants of the United States are immigrants or descendents of immigrants. ... Alaska is a state of the United States. ... Alabama has played a central role in the development of both blues and country music. ... Arkansas is a Southern state of the United States. ... The Samoas are a Polynesian island chain, currently divided between the independent state of Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) and an American territory called American Samoa. ... Arizonas musical history has been heavily influenced by Mexican immigrants. ... In the United States, California is commonly associated with the film, music, and arts industries; there are numerous world-famous Californian musicians. ... Colorado is a state of the United States. ... Connecticut is a state of the United States in the New England region. ... The music of Washington D.C. is known for two primary scenes, hardcore and associated derivatives and a hip hop-dance music hybrid called go go. ... Delaware is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. ... Floridas ethnic diversity has led to a myriad of musical styles from punk rock to salsa and heavy metal being popular in various parts of the state. ... The Sacred Harp, first published in 1844, was compiled and produced by Georgians Benjamin Franklin White and Elisha J. King. ... Guam is an unincorporated territory of the United States. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... Music of Iowa Notable musicians from Iowa include Bix Beiderbecke and Greg Brown. ... Idaho has produced a number of musicians, including pop star Paul Revere and Doug Martsch of Built to Spill. ... Illinois, which includes Chicago, the third-largest city in the United States, has a wide musical heritage. ... The music of Indiana was strongly influenced by a large number of German and Irish immigrants who arrived in the 1830s. ... For many decades, Kansas has had a vibrant country and bluegrass scene. ... The Music of Kentucky is heavily centered on Appalachian folk music and its descendants, especially in eastern Kentucky. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... New England Conservatory of Music in Boston Massachusetts is a U.S. state in New England. ... Famous musicians from Maryland include Francis Scott Key, who wrote The Star-Spangled Banner and pop punksters Good Charlotte, from Waldorf. ... Maine is a state of the United States, located in New England. ... In Michigan, the city of Detroit has remained the capital of musical innovation for many years. ... The music of Minnesota has played a role in the historical and cultural development of Minnesota. ... St. ... The Northern Mariana Islands are an island chain dependency of the United States. ... Mississippi is best-known as the home of the blues, which developed among the freed African Americans in the latter half of the 19th century. ... Montana is a state of the United States. ... Most influentially, North Carolina country musicians like the North Carolina Ramblers helped solidify the sound of country in the late 1920s. ... The Music of North Dakota has followed general American trends over much of its history, beginning with ragtime and folk music, moving into big band and jazz. ... Among the most famous Nebraskan artists are Little Joe & the Ramrods, a rock band, and Dickey Lee, a Nashville songwriter. ... New Hampshire is a state of the United States, located in the New England region. ... New Mexico is a state of the Southwest United States. ... For most outsiders, Nevadan music is probably most closely associated with lounge singers like Wayne Newton playing in Las Vegas. ... The biggest superstar from New Jersey is probably Bruce Springsteen, who became a 1980s icon with complex lyrical stories about teens growing up in Freehold and other economically depressed areas of New Jersey. ... In the United States, New York City has long been a musical hub and, in some ways, the musical capital of the country. ... The most famous musicians from Ohio are probably Marilyn Manson, Dean Martin and Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders; the 19th century composer Daniel Emmett, born in Ohio to a Virginian family, wrote many of the most popular songs in his era, including some that remain well-known. ... While the music of Oklahoma is relatively young, Oklahoma having been a state for less than a hundred years, it has a rich history and many fine musicians. ... Oregons music scene is most active in Portland and the college town of Eugene. ... The most famous musical innovaters to come out of Pennsylvania are perhaps the Philly sound in 1970s soul music, Gamble & Huff, The OJays, Teddy Pendergrass, Harold Melvin and The Delphonics, as well as jazz legends like Nina Simone and John Coltrane. ... The music of Puerto Rico has been influenced by African and European (especially Spanish) forms, and has become popular across the Caribbean and in some communities worldwide. ... Rhode Island is a state of the United States, located in the New England region. ... South Carolina is one of the Southern United States, and has produced a number of renowned performers of country, bluegrass and other styles. ... The United States state of South Dakota has an official state song, Hail! South Dakota, written by DeeCort Hammitt. ... The story of Tennessees contribution to American music is essentially the story of two cities: Nashville and Memphis. ... Texas has long been a center for musical innovation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Virginias musical contribution to American culture has been diverse, and includes Piedmont blues musicians and later rock and roll bands, many centered around college towns like Blacksburg, Charlottesville (home of Dave Matthews Band) and Richmond. ... The Virgin Islands are partially controlled by the United Kingdom and the United States, and have had long-standing cultural ties to the island nations to the south as well as to various European colonialists. ... Vermont is a state in the United States. ... The U.S. state of Washington includes several major hotbeds of musical innovation. ... Perhaps the most influential musical output of Wisconsin came from Port Washington, Ozaukee County during the 1920s, when Paramount Records released a series of blues and jazz recordings. ... West Virginias folk heritage is a part of the Appalachian folk music tradition, and includes styles of fiddling and other techniques reminiscent of Scotch-Irish music. ... The first music of Wyoming was played by various Native Americans tribes in the present-day U.S. state of Wyoming. ... Stephen Foster (19th century photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 - January 13, 1864) was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of his era. ... Second edition cover of Maple Leaf Rag, perhaps the most famous rag of all Ragtime is an American musical genre enjoying its peak popularity between 1899–1918. ... Blues music redirects here. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Doo-wop is a style of vocal-based rhythm and blues music popular in the mid-1950s to the early 1960s in America. ... Gospel music may refer either to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the 1930s or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by white southern Christian artists. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Funk music originated by African Americans, e. ... Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that emerged as a defined musical style in the 1970s, having its roots in hard rock bands which, between 1969 and 1974,[1] mixed blues and rock to create a hybrid with a thick, heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound, characterised by... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Disco is a genre of music that originated in discothèques. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Rock Music article is a good example of actual music history ! Gives credit where deserved, Not biased oriented views on music !!! This article contradicts another Wikipedia article at this link under salsa !!! http://en. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is a genre of alternative rock inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and indie rock. ... Hip hop music, also referred to as rap or rap music, is a style of popular music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Zydeco is a form of folk music, originated in the beginning of the 20th century among the Francophone Creole peoples of south-west Louisiana and influenced by the music of the French-speaking Cajuns. ... Klezmer (from Yiddish כלזמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, vessel of song) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ... Slack-key guitar is a style of music originating in Hawaii using an acoustic guitar fingerpicking style. ...


Distinctive styles of American popular music began to emerge early in the 19th century, and in the 20th century the American music industry developed a series of new forms of music, using elements of blues and other genres of American folk music. These popular styles included country, R&B, jazz and rock. The 1960s and '70s saw a number of important changes in American popular music, including the development of a number of new styles, including heavy metal, punk, soul, and hip hop. Though these styles were not popular in the sense of mainstream, they were commercially recorded and are thus examples of popular music as opposed to folk or classical music. The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ... American roots music is a broad category of music including country music, bluegrass, gospel, ragtime, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun and Native American music. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...

Contents

Early popular song

The earliest songs that could be considered American popular music, as opposed to the popular music of a particular region or ethnicity, were sentimental parlor songs by Stephen Foster and his peers, and songs meant for use in minstrel shows, theatrical productions that featured singing, dancing and comic performances. Minstrel shows generally used African American musical instruments and dance, and featured performers with their faces blackened, a technique called blackface [1]. By the middle of the 19th century, touring companies had taken this music not only to every part of the United States, but also to England, Western Europe, and even to Africa and Asia. Minstrel shows were generally advertised as though the music of the shows was in an African American style, though this was often not true. Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ...

Sheet music cover for "Dandy Jim from Caroline" by Dan Emmett, London, c. 1844.
Sheet music cover for "Dandy Jim from Caroline" by Dan Emmett, London, c. 1844.

Black people had taken part in American popular culture prior to the Civil War era, at least dating back to the African Grove Theatre in New York in the 1820s and the publication of the first music by a black composer, Francis Johnson, in 1818. However, these important milestones still occurred entirely within the conventions of European music. The first extremely popular minstrel song was "Jump Jim Crow" by Thomas Rice, which was first performed in 1832 and was a sensation in London when Rice performed it there in 1836. Rice used a dance that he copied from a stableboy with a tune adopted from an Irish jig. The African elements included the use of the banjo, believed to derive from West African string instruments, and accented and additive rhythms [2]. Many of the songs of the minstrel shows are still remembered today, especially those by Daniel Emmett and Stephen Foster, the latter being, according to David Ewen, "America's first major composer, and one of the world's outstanding writers of songs" [3]. Foster's songs were typical of the minstrel era in their unabashed sentimentality, and in their acceptance of slavery. Nevertheless, Foster did more than most songwriters of the period to humanize the blacks he composed about, such as in "Nelly Was a Lady", a plaintive, melancholy song about a black man mourning the loss of his wife [4]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (855x1250, 1033 KB) Summary Cover from Dandy Jim from Caroline by Dan Emmett, London, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (855x1250, 1033 KB) Summary Cover from Dandy Jim from Caroline by Dan Emmett, London, c. ... Daniel Decatur Dan Emmett (October 29, 1815 – June 28, 1904), was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio. ... Francis Johnson (1792–1844) was a prolific composer during the United States Antebellum period. ... Jim Crow Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 done in blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) Daddy Rice. ... Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice (May, 1808 - September 16, 1860), was a comedian and the creator of the blackface form of comedy of the 1800s and early 1900s. ... The jig (sometimes seen in its French language or Italian language forms gigue or giga) is a folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type, popular in Ireland and Scotland. ... Old 6-string zither banjo For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin, early or original examples sometimes being called the gourd banjo. One African banjo predecessor is called the Akonting. ... Daniel Decatur Dan Emmett (1815-1904), was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 - January 13, 1864) was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of his era. ...


The minstrel show marked the beginning of a long tradition of African American music being appropriated for popular audiences, and was the first distinctly American form of music to find international acclaim, in the mid-19th century. As Donald Clarke has noted, minstrel shows contained "essentially black music, while the most successful acts were white, so that songs and dances of black origin were imitated by white performers and then taken up by black performers, who thus to some extent ended up imitating themselves". Clarke attributes the use of blackface to a desire for white Americans to glorify the brutal existence of both free and slave blacks by depicting them as happy and carefree individuals, best suited to plantation life and the performance of simple, joyous songs that easily appealed to white audiences [5].


Blackface minstrel shows remained popular throughout the last part of the 19th century, only gradually dying out near the beginning of the 20th century. During that time, a form of lavish and elaborate theater called the extravaganza arose, beginning with Charles M. Barras' The Black Crook [6]. Extravaganzas were criticized by the newspapers and churches of the day because the shows were considered sexually titillating, with women singing bawdy songs dressed in nearly transparent clothing. David Ewen described this as the beginning of the "long and active careers in sex exploitation" of American musical theater and popular song [7]. Later, extravaganzas took elements of burlesque performances, which were satiric and parodic productions that were very popular at the end of the 19th century [8]. Extravaganza is a two hour bi-weekly comedy-variety show based in Jakarta, Indonesia which has been broadcast by Trans TV nearly every Saturday and Monday night since its debut on April 5, 2004. ... The Black Crook (1866) was the first prototype of the modern American musical. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Photo of Lucky St. ...


Like the extravaganza and the burlesque, the variety show was a comic and ribald production, popular from the middle to the end of the 19th century, at which time it had evolved into vaudeville. This form was innovated by producers like Tony Pastor who tried to encourage women and children to attend his shows; they were hesitant because the theater had long been the domain of a rough and disorderly crowd [9]. By the early 20th century, vaudeville was a respected entertainment for women and children, and songwriters like Gus Edwards wrote songs that were popular across the country [10]. The most popular vaudeville shows were, like the Ziegfeld Follies, a series of songs and skits that had a profound effect on the subsequent development of Broadway musical theater and the songs of Tin Pan Alley. A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ... Vaudeville is a style of multi-act theatre which flourished in North America from the 1880s through the 1920s. ... For Tony Pastor the saxophonist and bandleader, see Tony Pastor (bandleader). ... Gus Edwards is the name of a songwriter and vaudevillian born in Germany in 1879 a playwright born in the West Indies in 1939 Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... The Ziegfeld Follies were a series of elaborate theatrical productions on Broadway in New York City from 1907 through 1931. ... Broadway theatre[1] is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. ... Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ...

  • "Old Folks at Home" ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Popular minstrel songs, such as this one by Stephen Foster, formed part of the repertoire of camp bands during the Civil War. This performance is by Civil War re-enactors, the 2nd South Carolina String Band.
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Image File history File links Old_folks_at_home_sample. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 - January 13, 1864) was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of his era. ... The 2nd South Carolina String Band The 2nd South Carolina String Band is a band of Civil War re-enactors who recreate American popular music of the 1820s to 1860s with authentic instruments and in period style. ...

Tin Pan Alley

Tin Pan Alley was an area called Union Square in New York City, which became the major center for music publishing by the mid-1890s. The songwriters of this era wrote formulaic songs, many of them sentimental ballads [11]. During this era, a sense of national consciousness was developing, as the United States became a formidable world power, especially after the Spanish-American War. The increased availability and efficiency of railroads and the postal service helped disseminate ideas, including popular songs. Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... Union Square is the name of a neighborhood or other civic center in many cities and towns, including: Union Square in Hong Kong - site of Union Square Phase 7 Union Square in New York City Union Square in San Francisco Union Square in Seattle - site of Two Union Square Union... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place...


Some of the most notable publishers of Tin Pan Alley included Willis Woodward, the Witmark house of publishing, Charles K. Harris, and Edward B. Marks and Joseph W. Stern. Stern and Marks were among the more well-known Tin Pan Alley songwriters; they began writing together as amateurs in 1894 [12]. In addition to the popular, mainstream ballads and other clean-cut songs, some Tin Pan Alley publishers focused on rough and risqué. Coon songs were another important part of Tin Pan Alley, derived from the watered-down songs of the minstrel show with the "verve and electricity" brought by the "assimilation of the ragtime rhythm" [13]. The first popular coon song was "New Coon in Town", introduced in 1883, and followed by a wave of coon shouters like Ernest Hogan and May Irwin [14]. Witmark catalog from the 1997 spring season. ... Charles Kassel Harris (May 1, 1867 – December 2, 1930) was a well regarded American songwriter of popular music. ... May Irwin born June 27, 1862 in Whitby, Ontario, Canada – died October 22, 1938 in New York City, United States, was an actress, singer and major star of vaudeville. ...


Broadway

The early 20th century also saw the growth of Broadway, a group of theatres specializing in musicals. Broadway became one of the preeminent locations for musical theater in the world, and produced a body of songs that led Donald Clarke to call the era, the golden age of songwriting. The need to adapt enjoyable songs to the constraints of a theater and a plot enabled and encouraged a growth in songwriting and the rise of composers like George Gershwin, Vincent Youmans, Irving Berlin and Jerome Kern [15]. Broadway theatre[1] is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. ... Musical theatre (sometimes, although less often than not, spelled theater rather than theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... Vincent Youmans (September 27, 1898 - April 5, 1946) was an American popular composer and Broadway producer. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989), born Israel Isidore Baline[1], in Tyumen, Russia (according to other sources[citation needed] possibly Mogilev, now Belarus), was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American popular composer. ...


Foreign operas were popular among the upper-class throughout the 19th century, while other styles of musical theater included operettas, ballad operas and the opera bouffe. The English operettas of Gilbert and Sullivan were particularly popular, while American compositions had trouble finding an audience. George M. Cohan was the first notable American composer of musical theater, and the first to move away from the operetta, and is also notable for using the language of the vernacular in his work. By the beginning of the 20th century, however, black playwrights, composers and musicians were having a profound effect on musical theater, beginning with the works of Will Marion Cook, James Reese Europe and James P. Johnson; the first major hit black musical was Shuffle Along in 1921 [16]. Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... Ballad opera is a genre of 18th century English stage entertainment. ... W. S. Gilbert Sir Arthur Sullivan Librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) collaborated on a series of fourteen comic operas in Victorian England between 1871 and 1896. ... George M. Cohan George Michael Cohan (July 3 or July 4, 1878 – November 5, 1942) was a United States entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer, director, and producer of Irish descent. ... Will Marion Cook (1869–1944) was a composer and violinist from the United States. ... James Reese Europe (22 February 1881–9 May 1919) was a United States ragtime and early jazz bandleader, arranger, and composer. ... James Price Johnson (February 1, 1894 - November 17, 1955) was a pianist and composer. ... Shuffle Along premiered in 1921, written and composed by Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake, and was the first major African American hit musical of the 1920s. ...


Imported operettas and domestic productions by both whites like Cohan and blacks like Cook, Europe and Johnson all had a formative influence on Broadway. Composers like Gershwin, Porter and Kern made comedic musical theater into a national pastime, with a feel that was distinctly American and not dependent on European models. Most of these individuals were Jewish, with Cole Porter the only major exception; they were the descendants of 19th century immigrants fleeing persecution in the Russian Empire, settled most influentially in various neighborhoods in New York City [17]. Many of the early musicals were influenced by black music, showing elements of early jazz, such as In Dahomey; the Jewish composers of these works may have seen connections between the traditional black blue notes and their own folk Jewish music. Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Indiana. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... In Dahomey is first Broadway musical by black people - Williams & Walker, and starring black people. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... // Origin of Jewish music in the Temple The earliest synagogal music was based on the same system as that used in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...


Broadway songs were recorded around the turn of the century, but did not become widely popular outside their theatrical context until much later. Jerome Kern's "They Didn't Believe Me" was an early song that became popular nationwide. Kern's later innovations included a more believable plot than the rather shapeless stories built around songs of earlier works, beginning with Show Boat in 1927. George Gershwin was perhaps the most influential composer on Broadway, beginning with "Swanee" in 1919 and later works for jazz and orchestras. His most enduring composition may be the opera Porgy and Bess, a story about two blacks, which Gershwin intended as a sort of "folk opera", a creation of a new style of American musical theater based on American idioms [18]. Show Boat is a musical in two acts with music by Jerome Kern and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II (with the notable exception of Bill, which was originally written for Kern in 1918 by P. G. Wodehouse but reworked by Hammerstein for Show Boat). ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ...


Ragtime

Ragtime was a style of dance music based around the piano, using syncopated rhythms and chromaticisms [19]; the genre's most well-known performer and composer was undoubtedly Scott Joplin. The ragged rhythms of ragtime are documented to at least as far back as 1886, at Congo Square in New Orleans, where African American and Caribbean dances mixed in wild celebrations. Author Gunther Schuller sees ragtime as a mixture of African elements with the 2/4 pattern of European marches [20], while others point to the importance of jigs and other dance styles among the music of large African American bands in many northern cities during the end of the 19th century. Donald Clarke considers ragtime the culmination of coon songs, used first in minstrel shows and then vaudeville, and the result of the rhythms of minstrelsy percolating into the mainstream; he also suggests that ragtime's distinctive sound may have come from an attempt to imitate the African American banjo using the keyboard [21]. Dance music is a style of popular music commonly played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and shows and raves. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868 [1] – died April 1, 1917) was a black musician and composer of ragtime music. ... It was in the Nineteenth Century in Congo Square in New Orleans that observers heard the beat of the bamboulas, the wail of the banzas and saw the multitude of African dances that had survived through the years. ... The jig (sometimes seen in its French language or Italian language forms gigue or giga) is a folk dance type as well as the accompanying dance tune type, popular in Ireland and Scotland. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843. ... Vaudeville is a style of multi-act theatre which flourished in North America from the 1880s through the 1920s. ...


Due to the essentially African American nature of ragtime, it is most commonly considered the first style of American popular music to be truly black music; certainly, it was also strongly influenced by European elements, but ragtime brought syncopation and a more authentic black sound to popular music. Popular ragtime songs were notated and sold as sheet music, but the general style was played more informally across the nation; these amateur performers played a more free-flowing form of ragtime that eventually became a major formative influence on jazz [22]. Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ...


Early recorded popular music

Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph cylinder kicked off the birth of recorded music. The first cylinder to be released was "Semper Fidelis" by the U.S. Marine Band. At first, cylinders were released sparingly, but as their sales grew more profitable, distribution increased. These early recorded songs were a mix of vaudeville, barbershop quartets, marches, opera, novelty songs, and other popular tunes. Many popular standards, such as "The Good Old Summertime", "Shine on Harvest Moon", and "Over There" come from this time. There were also a few early hits in the field of jazz, beginning with the Original Dixieland Jazz Band's 1917 recordings, and followed by King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, who played in a more authentic New Orleans jazz style [23]. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... Semper Fidelis is Latin for Always faithful. ... The Presidents Own United States Marine Band, Marine Chamber Orchestra, Marine Chamber Ensembles The Presidents Own United States Marine Band was established by an Act of Congress on July 11, 1798, and is America’s oldest professional musical organization. ... Barbershop harmony, as codified during the barbershop revival era (1940s-present), is a style of a cappella, or unaccompanied vocal music characterized by consonant four-part chords for every melody note in a predominantly homophonic texture. ... Shown are (left to right) Tony Sbarbaro (aka Tony Spargo) on drums; Edwin Daddy Edwards on trombone; D. James Nick LaRocca on cornet; Larry Shields on clarinet, and Henry Ragas on piano. ... Joe King Oliver, (December 19, 1885 - April 8, 1938) was a bandleader and jazz musician. ...


Blues had been around a long time before it became a part of the first explosion of recorded popular music in American history. This came in the 1920s, when classic female blues singers like Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Mamie Smith grew very popular; the first hit of this field was Mamie Smith's "Crazy Blues". These urban blues singers changed the idea of popular music from being simple songs that could be easily performed by anyone to works primarily associated with an individual singer. Performers like Sophie Tucker, known for "Some of These Days", became closely associated with their hits, making their individualized interpretations just as important as the song itself [24]. Blues music redirects here. ... Little is known about the exact origins of the music we now know as the blues . ... The Classic female blues spanned from 1920 to 1929 with its peak from 1923 to 1925. ... Gertrude Pridgett Rainey, better known as Ma Rainey (April 26, 1886 - December 22, 1939) was a blues singer, the earliest known professional blues singer3, and one of the first generation of blues singers to record. ... Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) is largely regarded as the most popular and successful blues singer of 1920s and 1930s, and by some as the most influential performer in blues history. ... Mamie Smith on the sleeve of volume 1 of the Complete Recorded Works reissue collection Mamie Smith (May 26, 1883 - September 16, 1946) was a vaudeville singer, dancer, pianist and actress, and appeared in several motion pictures late in her career. ... Sophie Tucker, 1917 Sophie Tucker (January 13, 1884 - February 9, 1966) was a singer and comedian, one of the most popular United States entertainers of the first third of the 20th century. ...


At the same time, record companies like Paramount Records and OKeh Records launched the field of race music, which was mostly blues targeted at African American audiences. The most famous of these acts went on to inspire much of the later popular development of the blues and blues-derived genres, including Charley Patton, Lonnie Johnson and Robert Johnson. Paramount Records was a United States based record label, best known for its recordings of African-American jazz and blues. ... Okeh Records began as an independent record label based in the United States of America in 1918; from the late 1920s on was a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... Charley Patton Charley Patton (May 1, 1891–April 28, 1934) was an American delta blues musician, and one of the first mainstream stars of the genre. ... Alfonzo Lonnie Johnson (February 8, 1894 – June 6, 1970) was a pioneering blues and jazz singer/guitarist born in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... For other people named Robert Johnson, see Robert Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Popular jazz (1920-1935) and swing (1935-1947)

Jazz is a kind of music characterized by blue notes, syncopation, swing, call and response, polyrhythms, and improvisation. Though originally a kind of dance music, jazz has now been "long considered a kind of popular or vernacular music (and has also) become a sophisticated art form that has interacted in significant ways with the music of the concert hall[25]. Jazz's development occurred at around the same time as modern ragtime, blues, gospel and country music, all of which can be seen as part of a continuum with no clear demarcation between them; jazz specifically was most closely related to ragtime, with which it could be distinguished by the use of more intricate rhythmic improvisation, often placing notes far from the implied beat. The earliest jazz bands adopted much of the vocabulary of the blues, including bent and blue notes and instrumental "growls" and smears. Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... In music, syncopation is the stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. ... In music, a swung note or shuffle note is the rhythmic device in which the duration of the initial note in a pair is augmented and that of the second is diminished. ... In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually played by different musicians, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or response to the first. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as it is performed. ... Dance music is a style of popular music commonly played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and shows and raves. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...

Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1929. Paul Whiteman was known throughout the decade as "The King of Jazz." Today, jazz purists would disagree. Nevertheless, Paul Whiteman was the most popular orchestra leader of the decade.
Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1929. Paul Whiteman was known throughout the decade as "The King of Jazz." Today, jazz purists would disagree. Nevertheless, Paul Whiteman was the most popular orchestra leader of the decade.

Paul Whiteman was the most popular bandleader of the 1920s, and claimed for himself the title "The King of Jazz." Despite his hiring Bix Beiderbecke and many of the other best white jazz musicians of the era, later generations of jazz lovers have often judged Whiteman's music to have little to do with real jazz. Nonetheless, his notion of combining jazz with elaborate orchestrations has been returned to repeatedly by composers and arrangers of later decades. Image File history File linksMetadata PaulWhiteman. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PaulWhiteman. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Bix Beiderbecke (March 10, 1903 – August 6, 1931) was a notable jazz cornet player. ...


Whiteman commissioned Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue", which was debuted by Whiteman's Orchestra. Ted Lewis's band was second only to the Paul Whiteman in popularity during the 1920s, and arguably played more real jazz with less pretension than Whiteman, especially in his recordings of the late 1920s. Some of the other "jazz" bands of the decade included those of: Harry Reser, Leo Reisman, Abe Lyman, Nat Shilkret, George Olsen, Ben Bernie, Bob Haring, Ben Selvin, Earl Burtnett, Gus Arnheim, Rudy Vallee, Jean Goldkette, Isham Jones, Roger Wolfe Kahn, Sam Lanin, Vincent Lopez, Ben Pollack and Fred Waring. Theodore Leopold Friedman, better known as Ted Lewis (June 6, 1890-August 25, 1971), was an American entertainer, bandleader, singer, and musician. ... Harry Reser was an American banjo player and bandleader, b 1896 in Ohio, d 1965 External link http://www. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Abe Lyman Abe Lyman was born on August 4, 1897. ... Nathaniel Shilkret (1889-1992) was an American composer and conductor. ... George Olsen (18 March 1893 - 18 March 1971) was an American band-leader. ... Ben Bernie(1891-1943) - was a jazz violinist and radio personality. ... Ben Selvin (1898-1980), son of Russian-immigrant Jewish parents, started his professional life at age 15 as a fiddle player in New York City night clubs. ... Rudy Vallee (July 28, 1901 - July 3, 1986) was a popular United States singer, actor, bandleader, and entertainer. ... Jean Goldkette Jean Goldkette (18 March 1893 – 24 March 1962) was a jazz pianist and bandleader. ... Isham Jones (31 January 1894 – 19 October 1956) was a United States bandleader, violinist, saxophonist and songwriter. ... 1927 Time cover featuring Kahn Roger Wolfe Kahn (October 19, 1907–July 12, 1962) was a Jewish-American jazz and popular musician, composer, and band leader (Roger Wolfe Kahn and His Orchestra). Born in Morristown, New Jersey into a very rich family—his father, Otto Hermann Kahn, was a banker... Vincent Lopez (30 December 1895 - 20 September 1975) was a United States bandleader and pianist. ... Ben Pollack (June 22, 1903 - June 7, 1971) was a drummer and bandleader from the mid 1920s through the swing era. ... Fredrick Malcolm Waring (born June 9, 1900 in Tyrone, Pennsylvania, died July 29, 1984, State College, Pennsylvania) was a popular musician, bandleader, and radio and TV personality of the 20th century, sometimes referred to as the man who taught America how to sing. ...


In the 1920's, the music performed by these artists was extremely popular with the public and was typically labelled as jazz. Today, however, this music is disparaged and labelled as "sweet music" by jazz purists. The music that people consider today as "jazz" tended to be played by minorities. In the 1920's and early 1930's, however, the majority of people listened to what we would call today "sweet music" and hardcore jazz was categorized as "hot music" or "race music."


In 1935, swing music became popular with the public and quickly replaced jazz as the most popular type of music (although their was some resistance to it at first). Swing music is characterized by a strong rhythm section, usually consisting of a double bass and drums, playing in a medium to fast tempo, and rhythmic devices like the swung note. Swing is primarily a kind of 1930s jazz fused with elements of the blues and the pop sensibility of Tin Pan Alley [26]. Swing used bigger bands than other kinds of jazz had and was headed by bandleaders that tightly arranged the material, discouraging the improvisation that had been an integral part of jazz. David Clarke called swing the first "jazz-oriented style (to be) at the centre of popular music... as opposed to merely giving it backbone" [27]. By the end of the 1930s, vocalists became more and more prominent, eventually taking center stage following the American Federation of Musicians strike, which made recording with a large band prohibitively expensive [28]. Swing came to be accompanied by a popular dance called the swing dance, which was very popular across the United States, among both white and black audiences, especially youth. Musically, swing can be either: (written with small s), refers to swung notes, the rhythmic feeling evoked by swinging music, esp. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... In music, a swung note or shuffle note is the rhythmic device in which the duration of the initial note in a pair is augmented and that of the second is diminished. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from 1935 until the late 1940s. ... The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) is a labor union of professional musicians in the United States and Canada. ... Swing is a group of related street dances, that evolved from Lindy Hop. ...

Jumpin At The Woodside. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... William Count Basie (August 21, 1904 - April 26, 1984) was a jazz pianist, organist, and bandleader. ...

Blues diversification and popularization

In addition to the popular jazz and swing music listened to by mainstrean America, there were a number of other genres that were popular among certain groups of people, e.g. minorities or rural audiences. Beginning in the 1920s and accelerating greatly in the 1940s, the blues began rapidly diversifying into a broad spectrum of new styles. These included an uptempo, energetic style called rhythm and blues (R&B), a merger of blues and Anglo-Celtic song called country music and the fusion of hymns and spirituals with blues structures called gospel music. Later than these other styles, in the 1940s, a blues, R&B and country fusion eventually called rock and roll developed, eventually coming to dominate American popular by the beginning of the 1960s. Rhythm and blues (aka R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, also known as country and western music or country-western, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... A spiritual is an African American song, usually with a Christian religious text. ... Gospel music may refer either to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the 1930s or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by white southern Christian artists. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


Country music is primarily a fusion of African American blues and spirituals with Appalachian folk music, adapted for pop audiences and popularized beginning in the 1920s. Of particular importance was Irish and Scottish tunes, dance music, balladry and vocal styles [29], as well as Native American, Spanish, German, French and Mexican music. The instrumentation of early country revolved around the European-derived fiddle and the African-derived banjo, with the guitar added later. Country music instrumentation used African elements like a call-and-response format, improvised music and syncopated rhythms. Later still, string instruments like the ukulele and steel guitar became commonplace due to the popularity of Hawaiian musical groups in the early 20th century [30]. The roots of modern country music are generally traced to 1927, when music talent scout Ralph Peer recorded Jimmie Rodgers and The Carter Family. Their recordings are considered the foundation for modern country music. There had been popular music prior to 1927 that could be considered country, but, as Ace Collins points out, these recordings had "only marginal and very inconsistent" effects on the national music markets, and were only superficially similar to what was then known as hillbilly music [31]. In addition to Rodgers and the Carters, a musician named Bob Wills was an influential early performer known for a style called Western swing, which was very popular in the 1920s and 30s, and was responsible for bringing a prominent jazz influence to country music. Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... There are hundreds of tribes of Native Americans (called the First Nations in Canada), each with diverse musical practices, spread across the United States and Canada (excluding Hawaiian music). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Old 6-string zither banjo For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin, early or original examples sometimes being called the gourd banjo. One African banjo predecessor is called the Akonting. ... In music, syncopation is the stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. ... Ukulele The ukulele (Ê»ukulele in Hawaiian and standard Hawaiian English; pronounced , or the Anglicised ), or uke, is a fretted string instrument which is, in its construction, essentially a smaller, four-stringed version of the guitar. ... A Dobro style resonator guitar Steel guitar, strictly speaking, refers to a method of playing using a metal slide (or steel) on a guitar played horizontally, with the strings uppermost. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... Ralph Peer (May 22, 1892 - January 19, 1960) was born Ralph Sylvester Peer in Independence, Missouri. ... Jimmie Rodgers was the name of two singers: Jimmie Rodgers (country singer) Jimmie Rodgers (pop singer) Jimmie Rodgers (SPC Deputy Director General) Note that there was also a Jimmy Rogers (note the spelling), a blues singer born in 1924. ... Maybelle, A.P. and Sara The Carter Family was a rural country music group that performed between 1927 and 1943. ... James Robert (Bob) Wills (March 6, 1905 – May 13, 1975) was an American country musician and songwriter. ... Western swing, also known as Country Swing, is dance music with an up-tempo beat and a decidedly Southwestern US regional flavor. ...


Rhythm and blues (R&B) is a style that arose in the 1930s and '40s, a rhythmic and uptempo form of blues with more complex instrumentation. Author Amiri Baraka described early R&B as "huge rhythm units smashing away behind screaming blues singers (who) had to shout to be heard above the clanging and strumming of the various electrified instruments and the churning rhythm sections [32]. R&B was recorded during this period, but not extensively and was not widely promoted by record companies, who felt it was not suited for most audiences, especially middle-class whites, because of the suggestive lyrics and driving rhythms [33]. Bandleaders like Louis Jordan innovated the sound of early R&B. Jordan's band featured a small horn section and prominent rhythm instrumentation and used songs with bluesy lyrical themes. By the end of the 1940s, he had produced nineteen major hits, and helped pave the way for contemporaries like Wynonie Harris, John Lee Hooker and Roy Milton. Louis Jordan swinging on sax, Paramount Theatre, NYC, 1946 (Photo: William P. Gottlieb) Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering African-American blues, jazz and rhythm & blues musician and songwriter who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. ... Wynonie Mr. ... John Lee Hooker. ... Compilation album cover Roy Milton (b 31 July 1907, Wynnewood, Oklahoma – d 18 September 1983, Los Angeles) was an American R&B singer, drummer and bandleader. ...


Christian spirituals and rural blues music were the origin of what is now known as gospel music. Beginning in about the 1920s, African American churches featured early gospel in the form of worshipers proclaiming their religious devotion (testifying) in an improvised, often musical manner. Modern gospel began with the work of composers, most importantly Thomas A. Dorsey, who "(composed) songs based on familiar spirituals and hymns, fused to blues and jazz rhythms" [34]. From these early 20th-century churches, gospel music spread across the country. It remained associated almost entirely with African American churches, and usually featured a choir along with one or more virtuoso soloists. Thomas Andrew Dorsey (July 1, 1899 - January 23, 1993) is known as the Father of Gospel Music, and is best known today for his composition Take My Hand, Precious Lord. As formulated by Dorsey, gospel music combines Christian praise with the rhythms of jazz and the blues. ...


Rock and roll is a kind of popular music, developed primarily out of country, blues and R&B. Easily the single most popular style of music worldwide, rock's exact origins and early development have been hotly debated. Music historian Robert Palmer has noted that the style's influences are quite diverse, and include the Afro-Caribbean "Bo Diddley beat", elements of "big band swing" and Latin music like the Cuban son and "Mexican rhythms[35]. Another author, George Lipsitz claims that rock arose in America's urban areas, where there formed a "polyglot, working-class culture (where the) social meanings previously conveyed in isolation by blues, country, polka, zydeco and Latin musics found new expression as they blended in an urban environment" [36]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Afro-American music is a broad array of musical genres that arose from the synthesis of African, European and Native American music. ... Bo Diddleys emphasis on rhythm largely influenced popular music, especially that of rock and roll in the 1960s. ... Latin American music, or the music of Latin America, is sometimes called Latin music. ... Son is a style of Cuban music which became popular in the second half of the 19th century in the eastern province of Oriente. ... The music of Mexico is extraordinarily diverse and features a wide range of different musical styles. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance and genre of dance music. ... Zydeco is a form of folk music, originated in the beginning of the 20th century among the Francophone Creole peoples of south-west Louisiana and influenced by the music of the French-speaking Cajuns. ...


1950s and 60s

The middle of the 20th century saw a number of very important changes in American popular music. The field of pop music developed tremendously during this period, as the increasingly low price of recorded music stimulated demand and greater profits for the record industry. As a result, music marketing became more and more prominent, resulting in a number of mainstream pop stars whose popularity was previously unheard of. Many of the first such stars were Italian-American crooners like Dean Martin, Rudy Vallee, Tony Bennett, Perry Como, Frankie Laine and, most famously, the "first pop vocalist to engender hysteria among his fans" Frank Sinatra [37]. The era of the modern teen pop star, however, began in the 1960s. Bubblegum pop groups like The Monkees were chosen entirely for their appearance and ability to sell records, with no regard to musical ability. The same period, however, also saw the rise of new forms of pop music that achieved a more permanent presence in the field of American popular music, including rock, soul and pop-folk. By the end of the 1960s, two developments had completely changed popular music: the birth of a counterculture, which explicitly opposed mainstream music, often in tandem with political and social activism, and the shift from professional composers to performers who were both singers and songwriters. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marketing is a social and managerial function that attempts to create, expand and maintain a collection of customers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rudy Vallee (July 28, 1901 - July 3, 1986) was a popular United States singer, actor, bandleader, and entertainer. ... Tony Bennett, 2000 Tony Bennetts heart, left in San Francisco Tony Bennett (born August 3, 1926) is an American popular music, standards, and jazz singer who is widely considered to be one of the best interpretative singers in these genres. ... Pierino Ronaldo Perry Como (May 18, 1912 – May 12, 2001) was an Italian American crooner during the latter half of the 20th century. ... Frankie Laine, born Francesco Paolo LoVecchio on March 30, 1913, is one of the most successful American singers of the twentieth century. ... Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was a popular and highly acclaimed male vocalist and actor. ... Bubblegum pop (bubblegum rock, bubblegum music, youth music, or simply bubblegum) is a genre of popular music. ... The Monkees were a four-man musical band created for an American television series of the same name, which ran on NBC from 1966 to 1968. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition or swimming against the tide. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ...


Rock and roll first entered mainstream that began to coninually call themselves losers throughout the terrible popular music through a style called rockabilly, which fused the nascent rock sound with elements of country music. Black-performed rock and roll had previously had limited mainstream success, and some observers at the time believed that a white performer who could credibly sing in an R&B and country style would be a success. Sam Phillips, of Memphis, Tennessee's Sun Records, was the one who found such a performer, in Elvis Presley, who became one of the best-selling musicians in history, and brought rock and roll to audiences across the world [38]. Presley's success was preceded by Bill Haley, a white performer whose "Rock Around the Clock" is sometimes pointed to as the start of the rock era. However, Haley's music was "more arranged" and "more calculated" than the "looser rhythms" of rockabilly, which also, unlike Haley, did not use saxophones or chorus singing [39]. 1950s Rockabilly book by Harlan Ellison Rockabilly is one of the earliest forms of rock and roll as a distinct style of music. ... Sam Phillips, born Samuel Cornelius Phillips (January 5, 1923 – July 30, 2003), was a record producer who played an important role in the emergence of rock and roll as the major form of popular music in the 1950s. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The River City, The Bluff City, M-Town Location Location in Shelby County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Tennessee Shelby County Mayor W. W. Herenton (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 294. ... Label of the fourth Sun Records Sun Records has been the name for four 20th century record labels. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer and actor. ... Bill Haley, with his band, the Comets, was one of the first rock and roll acts to tour the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the song. ...

R&B remained extremely boring until michael jackson came laong and got this bumpin.During the 1950s among black audiences, but the style was not considered appropriate for whites because them black people had to get all racist and blame us whiter trash, or respectable middle-class blacks because of its suggestive nature. Many popular R&B songs were instead performed by white musicians like [[Pat Boone]because everyone knew that the white man could always do it better-such as Chuck Norris], in a more palatable, mainstream style, and turned into pop hits [40]. By the end of the 1950s, however, there was a wave of popular black blues-rock and country-influenced R&B performers gaining unprecedented fame among white listeners; these included Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry [41]. Over time, producers in the R&B field turned to gradually more rock-based acts like Little Richard and Fats Domino. GoodRockinTonight. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer and actor. ... Bo Diddleys emphasis on rhythm largely influenced popular music, especially that of rock and roll in the 1960s. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926) is an American guitarist, singer, and song writer. ... Little Richard (born Richard Wayne Penniman, December 5, 1932 in Macon, Georgia) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist, an early pioneer of Rock n Roll, Penniman has influenced generations of R&B and Rock artists. ... Fats Domino Antoine Dominique Fats Domino (born February 26, 1928 or possibly May 10, 1929 in New Orleans, Louisiana), is a classic R&B and rock and roll singer, songwriter and pianist. ...


Doo wop is a kind of vocal harmony music performed by groups who became popular in the 1950s. Though sometimes considered a kind of rock, doo wop is more precisely a fusion of vocal R&B, gospel and jazz with the blues and pop structures [42], though until the 1960s, the lines separating rock from doo wop, R&B and other related styles was very blurry. Doo wop became the first style of R&B-derived music "to take shape, to define itself as something people recognized as new, different, strange, theirs" (emphasis in original)  [43]. As doo wop grew more popular, more innovations were added, including the use of a bass lead vocalist, a practice which began with Jimmy Ricks of The Ravens [44]. Doo wop performers were originally almost all black, but a few white and integrated groups soon became popular. These included a number of Italian-American groups like Dion & the Belmonts and Frankie Valli & the Four Seasons, while others added female vocalists and even formed all-female groups in the nearly universally male field; these included The Queens and The Chantels [45]. The Ravens were an R&B vocal group. ... Logo of Sons of Italy, which is the largest Italian American fraternal organization in the United States. ... Dion and the Belmonts was a musical group led by singer/songwriter Dion DiMucci. ... The Four Seasons are an American pop and doo wop group, distinct from many similar groups of the 1950s and 60s in their traditional Italian-American sound. ... The Chantels were the first black female group to have nationwide success. ...


The 1950s saw a number of brief fads that went on to have a great impact on future styles of music. Performers like Pete Seeger and The Weavers popularized a form of old-time revival of Anglo-American music. This field eventually became associated with the political leftwing and Communism, leading to a decline in acceptability as artists were increasingly blacklisted and criticized. Nevertheless, this form of pop-folk exerted a profound influence in the form of 1950s folk-rock and related styles. Alongside the rather sporadic success of popularized Anglo folk music came a series of Latin dance fads, including mambo, rumba, chachachá and boogaloo. Though their success was again sporadic and brief, Latin music continued to exert a continuous influence on rock, soul and other styles, as well as eventually evolving into salsa music in the 1970s. Seegers album Clearwater Classics. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... West Virginia fiddler Edwin Edden Hammons, with unidentified banjo player Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk music of many countries, most notably: England, Scotland, Ireland, and the African continent. ... The Thirteen Colonies of the original United States were all former English possessions, and Anglo culture became a major foundation for American folk and popular music. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A blacklist is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, or mobility. ... Bob Dylans folk rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music, includes the music of many countries and comes in many varieties, from the simple, rural conjunto music of northern Mexico to the sophisticated habanera of Cuba, from the symphonies of Heitor Villa-Lobos to the simple and moving Andean flute. ... For other uses, see Mambo (disambiguation). ... Rumba is both a family of music rhythms and a dance style that originated in Africa and traveled via the slave trade to Cuba and the New World. ... For the dance, see Cha-cha-cha (dance). ... Boogaloo (shing-a-ling, popcorn music) is a genre of Latin music and dance that was very popular in the United States in the late 1960s. ... Rock Music article is a good example of actual music history ! Gives credit where deserved, Not biased oriented views on music !!! This article contradicts another Wikipedia article at this link under salsa !!! http://en. ...


Country: Nashville Sound

Beginning in the late 1920s, a distinctive style first called "old-timey" or "hillbilly" music began to be broadcast and recorded in the rural South and Midwest; early artists included the Carter Family, Charlie Poole and his North Carolina Ramblers, and Jimmie Rodgers. The performance and dissemination of this music was regional at first, but the population shifts caused by World War II spread it more widely. After the war, there was increased interest in specialty styles, including what had been known as race and hillbilly music; these styles were renamed to rhythm and blues and country and western, respectively [46]. Major labels had had some success promoting two kinds of country acts: Southern novelty performers like Tex Williams and singers like Frankie Laine, who mixed pop and country in a conventionally sentimental style [47]. This period also saw the rise of Hank Williams, a white country singer who had learned the blues from a black street musician named Tee-Tot, in northwest Alabama [48]. Before his death in 1953, Hank Williams recorded eleven singles that sold at least a million copies each and pioneered the Nashville sound. Tex Williams (August 23, 1917 - October 11, 1985) was an American country musician from Ramsey, Illinois. ... Frankie Laine, born Francesco Paolo LoVecchio on March 30, 1913, is one of the most successful American singers of the twentieth century. ... Hiram Hank Williams (September 17, 1923 – January 1, 1953) was an American singer, guitarist, and songwriter, who has become an icon of country music and one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. ... The Nashville sound in country music arose during the 1950s in the United States. ...

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The Nashville sound was a popular kind of country music that Michael Jackson invented in the 1950s, a fusion of popular big band jazz and swing with the lyricism of honky-tonk country [49]. The popular success of Hank Williams' recordings had convinced record labels that country music could find mainstream audiences. Record companies then tried to strip the rough, honky-tonk elements from country music, removing the unapologetically rural sound that had made Williams famous. Nashville's industry was reacting to the rise of rockabilly performer Elvis Presley by marketing performers that crossed the divide between country and pop;  [50]. Chet Atkins, head of RCA's country music division, did the most to innovate the Nashville sound by abandoning the rougher elements of country, while Owen Bradley used sophisticated production techniques and smooth instrumentation that eventually became standard in the Nashville Sound, which also grew to incorporate strings and vocal choirs [51]. By the early part of the 1960s, the Nashville sound was perceived as watered-down by many more traditionalist performers and fans, resulting in a number of local scenes like the Lubbock sound and, most influentially, the Bakersfield sound. Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Hiram Hank Williams (September 17, 1923 – January 1, 1953) was an American singer, guitarist, and songwriter, who has become an icon of country music and one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from 1935 until the late 1940s. ... Musically, swing can be either: (written with small s), refers to swung notes, the rhythmic feeling evoked by swinging music, esp. ... 1950s Rockabilly book by Harlan Ellison Rockabilly is one of the earliest forms of rock and roll as a distinct style of music. ... Chet Atkins Chester Burton Chet Atkins (June 20, 1924 – June 30, 2001) was an influential guitarist and record producer. ... RCAs logo as seen today on many products. ... The cover of Bradleys biggest single as a performer, Big Guitar. ... Lubbock sound is a genre of American music that began with the popularity of Lubbock, Texas native Buddy Holly. ... The Bakersfield sound was a genre of country music developed in the mid- to late 1950s in and around Bakersfield, California, at bars such as The Blackboard. ...


Throughout the 1550s, the most popular kind of music was Hip-Hop, which was a slick and pop-oriented style for black people only. Many white musicians attempted to jump on the band wagon of Hip-Hop but non prevailed. The Bakersfield Sound was innovated in Bakersfield, California in the mid to late 1950s, by performers like Wynn Stewart, who used elements of Western swing and rock, such as the breakbeat, along with a honky tonk vocal style [52]. He was followed by a wave of performers like Buck Owens and Merle Haggard, who popularized the style. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Winford Lindsey Stewart (born June 7, 1934 in Morrisville, Missouri, died July 17, 1985 in Hendersonville, Tennessee) was an American country music performer. ... Western swing, also known as Country Swing, is dance music with an up-tempo beat and a decidedly Southwestern US regional flavor. ... Breakbeat (sometimes breakbeats or breaks) is a term used to describe a collection of sub-genres of electronic music, usually characterized by the use of a non-straighted 4/4 drum pattern (as opposed to the steady beat of house or trance). ... Buck Owens and the Buckaroos in a 1960s-era promotional postcard Alvis Edgar Buck Owens, Jr. ... Merle Ronald Haggard (nicknamed The Hag; born April 6, 1937 in Bakersfield, CA) is an American country music singer, guitarist and songwriter. ...


Soul

Ray Charles
Ray Charles

Soul music is a combination of R&B and gospel which began in the late 1950s in the United States. Soul music is characterized by its use of gospel techniques with a greater emphasis on vocalists, and the use of secular themes. The 1950s recordings of Sam Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown are commonly considered the beginnings of soul music. Solomon Burke's early recordings for Atlantic Records codified the style, and as Peter Guralnick writes, "it was only with the coming together of Burke and Atlantic Records that you could see anything resembling a movement" [53]. From U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission webpage [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission webpage [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sam Cooke (January 22, 1931 – December 11, 1964) was a popular and influential American gospel, R&B, soul, pop singer, songwriter, and entrepreneur. ... Ray Charles was the stage name of Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004). ... James Brown, known variously as: Soul Brother Number One, the Godfather of Soul, Mr. ... Solomon Burke (born March 21, 1940 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a soul and country music pioneer and member of the prestigious Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. ...


The Motown Record Corporation in [[{Detroit Michigan]] became successful with a string of heavily pop-influenced soul records, which were palatable enough to white listeners so as to allow R&B and soul to crossover to mainstream audiences. An important center of soul music recording was Florence, Alabama, where the Fame Studios operated. Jimmy Hughes, Percy Sledge and Arthur Alexander recorded at Fame; later in the 1960s, Aretha Franklin would also record in the area. Fame Studios, often referred to as Muscle Shoals, after a town neighboring Florence, enjoyed a close relationship with Stax, and many of the musicians and producers who worked in Memphis also contributed to recordings done in Alabama. Florence is a city in Lauderdale County which is situated in the northwest corner of Alabama. ... Percy Sledge Percy Sledge (born November 25, 1941 in Leighton, Alabama) is a US-American R&B and soul performer. ... Arthur Alexander (May 10, 1940 - June 9, 1993), born in Florence, Alabama, was perhaps the biggest star to arise out of the American country-soul scene. ... Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American gospel, soul and R&B singer born in Memphis, Tennessee, but raised in Detroit, Michigan. ... Muscle Shoals is a city located in Colbert County, Alabama, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 11,924. ...


In Memphis, Stax Records produced recordings by soul pioneers Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett and Don Covay. Other Stax artists such as Eddie Floyd and Johnnie Taylor also made significant contributions to soul music. By 1968, the soul music movement had begun to splinter, as James Brown and Sly & the Family Stone began to expand upon and abstract both soul and rhythm and blues into other forms. Guralnick wrote that more "than anything else... what seems to me to have brought the era of soul to a grinding, unsettling halt was the death of Martin Luther King in April of 1968" [54]. Stax Records was a Memphis, Tennessee based record label that existed from 1959 to 1976. ... Otis Ray Redding, Jr. ... Wilson Pickett (March 18, 1941 – January 19, 2006) was an American R&B and soul singer. ... Don Covay is a major influence on popular music and is a R&B legend. ... Eddie Floyd (b. ... Johnnie Harrison Taylor (May 5, 1938–May 31, 2000) was a vocalist in a wide variety of genres, from gospel, blues and soul to pop, doo-wop and disco. ... Sly & the Family Stone were an American rock band from San Francisco, California. ...


1960s rock

The first of the major new rock genres of the 1960s was surf, pioneered by Californian Dick Dale. Surf was largely instrumental and guitar-based rock with a distorted and twanging sound, and was associated with the Southern California surfing-based youth culture. Dale had worked with Leo Fender, developing the "Showman amplifier and... the reverberation unit that would give surf music its distinctively fuzzy sound" [55]. This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... Dick Dale (born Richard Anthony Mansour on May 4, 1937, in Quincy, Massachusetts) is a pioneer of surf rock and one of the most influential guitarists of the early 1960s. ... Southern California Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, sometimes abbreviated SoCal or colloquially, the Southland, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ... Buttons Kaluhiokalani at Banzai Pipeline, December 1981 Surfing water surface water sport in which the participant is carried by a breaking wave on a surfboard. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Leo Fender working on a guitar Clarence Leonidas Fender (August 10, 1909 - March 21, 1991) was an American luthier who founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company, now known as Fender Musical Instruments Corporation, and later founded G&L Musical Products (G&L Guitars). ...


Inspired by the lyrical focus of surf, if not the musical basis, The Beach Boys began their career in 1961 with a string of hits like "Surfin' USA". Their sound was not instrumental, nor guitar-based, but was full of "rich, dense and unquestionably special" "floating vocals (with) Four Freshman-ish harmonies riding over a droned, propulsive burden" [56]. The Beach Boys' songwriter Brian Wilson grew gradually more eccentric, experimenting with new studio techniques as he became associated with the burgeoning counterculture. The Beach Boys are a pop music group formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961 who are widely considered one of the most influential bands in rock and pop music history. ... Surfin USA is the second album released by The Beach Boys and was released in 1963. ... Brian Douglas Wilson (born June 20, 1942, in Hawthorne, California) is an American pop musician, best known as the lead songwriter, bassist, and sometimes lead-singer of the former American rock band The Beach Boys (of which he is also a founding member of and the main producer, composer, and... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition or swimming against the tide. ...


The counterculture was a youth movement that included political activism, especially in opposition to the Vietnam War, and the promotion of various hippie ideals. The hippies were associated primarily with two kinds of music: the folk-rock and country rock of people like Bob Dylan and Gram Parsons, and the psychedelic rock of bands like Jefferson Airplane and The Doors. This movement was very closely connected to the British Invasion, a wave of bands from the United Kingdom who became popular throughout much of the 1960s. The first wave of the British Invasion included bands like The Zombies and the Moody Blues, followed by rock bands like the Rolling Stones, The Who and, most famously, The Beatles. The sound of these bands was hard-edged rock, with The Beatles' originally known for songs that were virtually identical to classic black rock songs by Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Smokey Robinson, The Shirelles and the Isley Brothers [57]. Later, as the counterculture developed, The Beatles began using more advanced techniques and unusual instruments, such as the sitar, as well as more original lyrics. Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, occasionally spelled hippy, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining in the 1970s. ... Bob Dylans folk rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Country rock is a musical genre formed from the fusion of rock and roll with country music. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Gram Parsons (November 5, 1946 – September 19, 1973) was an American singer, songwriter, guitarist and pianist born Ingram Cecil Connor, III. A solo artist as well as a member of both The Byrds and The Flying Burrito Brothers, he is best known for a series of recordings which anticipate the... Psychedelic rock is a musical style inspired by or attempting to replicate the mind-altering experience of drugs such as cannabis, psilocybin, mescaline, salvia divinorum, and especially LSD. There are also other forms of psychedelic music that started from the same roots and diverged from the prevalent rock style into... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the LSD-influenced psychedelic rock movement. ... The Doors were an American rock band that formed in 1965 in Los Angeles. ... The appearance of The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show, February 9, 1964, marked the dramatic start of the British Invasion. ... The Zombies, formed in 1961 in St. ... The Moody Blues were originally a British rhythm and blues-based band; they later became best known for psychedelic music and early progressive rock. ... This article is about the rock band. ... The Who are an English rock band who first came to prominence in the 1960s and grew in stature to be considered one of the greatest rock n roll bands of all time [1][2] [3] [4]. Except for periods of retirement from 1983 to 1988 and from 1990 to... The Beatles (1960-1970), were an English musical group from Liverpool, and are usually regarded as the most critically acclaimed, commercially successful popular music artists in history. ... Little Richard (born Richard Wayne Penniman, December 5, 1932 in Macon, Georgia) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist, an early pioneer of Rock n Roll, Penniman has influenced generations of R&B and Rock artists. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926) is an American guitarist, singer, and song writer. ... William Smokey Robinson, Jr. ... The Shirelles were an influential American girl group in the early 1960s. ... The Isley Brothers are an American pop, R&B, funk and soul group who began their musical career in Cincinnati in the early 1950s. ... Premla Shahane playing a sitar, 1927 The sitar is probably the best-known South Asian instrument in the West. ...

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan
Joan Baez and Bob Dylan

Folk-rock drew on the sporadic mainstream success of groups like the Kingston Trio and the Almanac Singers, while Woodie Guthrie and Pete Seeger helped to politically radicalize rural white folk music [58]. The popular musician Bob Dylan rose to prominence in the middle of the 1960s, fusing folk with rock and making the nascent scene closely connected to the Civil Rights Movement. He was followed by a number of country-rock bands like The Byrds and the Flying Burrito Brothers and folk-oriented singer-songwriters like Joan Baez and the Canadian Joni Mitchell. However, by the end of the decade, there was little political or social awareness evident in the lyrics of pop-singer-songwriters like James Taylor and Carole King, whose self-penned songs were deeply personal and emotional. Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... The Kingston Trio is an American folk group, perhaps the single most prominent one. ... The Almanac Singers were a group of folk musicians who achieved brief popularity in the early 1940s. ... Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912 - October 3, 1967), known almost universally as Woody, was a folk singer and raconteur who wrote some of Americas best-loved songs. ... Seegers album Clearwater Classics. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954-1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... The Byrds (formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1964) were an American rock band. ... Cover of The Gilded Palace of Sin (1969) The Flying Burrito Brothers were an early country rock band, best known for their massively influential debut album, 1969s The Gilded Palace of Sin. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a noted Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carole King (born February 9, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. ...


Psychedelic rock was a hard, driving kind of guitar-based rock, closely associated with the city of San Francisco, California. Though Jefferson Airplane was the only psychedelic San Francisco band to have a major national hit, with 1967's "Somebody to Love" and "White Rabbit", the Grateful Dead, a folk, country and bluegrass-flavored jam band, "embodied all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came... to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country"; the Grateful Dead also became known for introducing the counterculture, and the rest of the country, to the ideas of people like Timothy Leary, especially the use of hallucinogenic drugs like LSD for spiritual and philosophical purposes [59]. Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... The Grateful Dead were an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco. ... The term jam band is commonly used to describe psychedelic rock-influenced bands whose concerts largely consist of bands reinterpreting their songs as springboards into extended improvisational pieces of music. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ... For other articles with similar names, see LSD (disambiguation). ...

WhiteRabbit. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the LSD-influenced psychedelic rock movement. ... Psychedelic rock is a musical style inspired by or attempting to replicate the mind-altering experience of drugs such as cannabis, psilocybin, mescaline, salvia divinorum, and especially LSD. There are also other forms of psychedelic music that started from the same roots and diverged from the prevalent rock style into...

1970s and 80s

Following the turbulent political, social and musical changes of the 1960s and early 1970s, rock music diversified. What was formerly known as rock and roll, a reasonably discrete style of music, had evolved into a catchall category called simply rock music, an umbrella term which would eventually include diverse styles like heavy metal music, punk rock and, sometimes even hip hop music. During the '70s, however, most of these styles were not part of mainstream music, and were evolving in the underground music scene. Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that emerged as a defined musical style in the 1970s, having its roots in hard rock bands which, between 1969 and 1974,[1] mixed blues and rock to create a hybrid with a thick, heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound, characterised by... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Hip hop music, also referred to as rap or rap music, is a style of popular music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


The early 1970s saw a wave of singer-songwriters who drew on the introspective, deeply emotional and personal lyrics of 1960s folk-rock. They included James Taylor, Carole King and others, all known just as much for the lyric ability as for their performances. The same period saw the rise of bluesy Southern rock and country rock groups like the Allman Brothers Band and Lynyrd Skynyrd [60]. In the 1970s, soft rock developed, a kind of simple, unobtrusive and mellow form of pop-rock, exemplified by a number of bands like America and Bread, most of whom are little remembered today; many were one-hit wonders [61]. In addition, harder arena rock bands like Chicago and Styx also saw some major success. The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carole King (born February 9, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Southern rock is a style of rock music that was very popular in the 1970s, and retains a fan base to the present. ... Country rock is a musical genre formed from the fusion of rock and roll with country music. ... The original Allman Brothers Band The Allman Brothers Band is a pioneering and innovative Southern rock group from Macon, Georgia originally popular in the 1970s, described by Rolling Stones George Kimball in 1971 as the best . ... Lynyrd Skynyrd (pronounced /leh-nerd skin-nerd/) is a U.S. Southern rock band, described by All Music Guides Stephen Thomas Erlewine as the definitive Southern rock band, fusing the overdriven power of blues-rock with a rebellious, Southern image and a hard rock swagger. ... Soft rock, also referred to as lite rock, easy rock, and formally mellow rock, is a style of music which uses the techniques of rock and roll to compose a softer, supposedly more ear-pleasing sound for listening, often at work. ... America is an American rock and roll band, most popular in the early and mid 1970s and early 1980s and now best known for their #1 hits A Horse With No Name and Sister Golden Hair. ... Bread was a 1970s rock and roll band from Los Angeles, California. ... UK 45 rpm single for Mickey (1982) by one-hit wonder Toni Basil CD single of the Baha Mens Who Let the Dogs Out? In the music industry, a one-hit wonder is an artist generally known for only one hit single. ... Arena rock is a loosely defined style of rock music, often also called anthem rock, and the style of music is closely associated with corporate rock. Arena rock is usually medium hard rock, but lacks the edginess or rage often inherent in heavy metal. ... Chicago is a rock band that was formed in 1967 in Chicago, Illinois. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Willie Nelson
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Willie Nelson

The early 1970s saw the rise of a new style of country music that was as rough and hard-edged, and which quickly became the most popular form of country. This was outlaw country, a style that included such mainstream stars as Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings [62]. Outlaw country was very rock-oriented, and had lyrics that focused on the criminal, especially drug and alcohol-related, antics of its performers, who grew their hair long, wore denim and leather and looked like hippies in contrast to the clean-cut country singers that were pushing the Nashville sound [63]. Image File history File links Willie_Nelson_1996-05. ... Image File history File links Willie_Nelson_1996-05. ... Willie Nelson Outlaw country was a significant trend in country music during the late 1960s and the 1970s. ... Willie Hugh Nelson (born April 30, 1933) is an American entertainer and songwriter, born in Fort Worth, Texas and raised in Abbott, Texas. ... Waylon Arnold Jennings (June 15, 1937 – February 13, 2002) was one of the most respected and influential American country music singers and guitarist of all time. ...


By the end of the decade, disco, a form of electronic dance music, was popular. Disco's time was short, however, and was soon replaced with a number of genres that evolved out of the punk rock scene, like New Wave. Bruce Springsteen became a major star, first in the mid to late 70s and then throughout the '80s, with dense, inscrutable lyrics and anthemic songs that resonated with the middle and lower classes [64]. Disco is a genre of music that originated in discothèques. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bruce Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ...


70s funk and soul

In the early 1970s, soul music was influenced by psychedelic rock and other styles. The social and political ferment of the times inspired artists like Marvin is Gaye and Curtis i love Mayfield to release album-length statements with hard-hitting social commentary. Artists like James Brown led soul towards more dance-oriented music, which eventually evolved into funk. Funk was typified by 1970s bands like Parliament-Funkadelic, The Meters, and James Brown himself, while more versatile groups like War, The Commodores and Earth, Wind and Fire also became popular. During the '70s, some highly slick and commercial blue-eyed soul acts like Philadelphia's Hall & Oates achieved mainstream success, as well as a new generation of street-corner harmony or city-soul groups like The Delfonics and Howard University's Unifics. Funk music originated by African Americans, e. ... ... The Meters were a band that performed and recorded from the late 1960s until 1977. ... War was a multiracial, multicultural American funk band of the 1970s from the Los Angeles area of California, known for the hit song Low Rider. Formed in 1969, War was the first and most successful musical crossover, fusing elements of rock, funk, jazz, Latin music, R&B, and even reggae. ... The Commodores was a highly successful soul/funk band in the 1970s. ... Earth, Wind & Fire was a legendary American funk band, formed in Chicago in 1969. ... Blue-eyed soul is a term used to describe soul music performed by white people. ... Hall & Oates is the popular music duo made up of Daryl Hall and John Oates. ... The Delfonics were a quintessential Philadelphia soul singing group, most popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


By the end of the '70s, Philly soul, funk, rock and most other genres were dominated by disco-inflected tracks. During this period, funk bands like The O'Jays and The Spinners continued to make them hot beats the spinners do not play ha ha bump that rubberman man hot jawn. After the death of disco in 1980, soul music survived for a short time before going through yet another metamorphosis. With the introduction of influences from electro music and funk, soul music became less raw and more slickly produced, resulting in a genre of music that was again called R&B, usually distinguished from the earlier rhythm and blues by identifying it as contemporary R&B. The OJays are a popular Philadelphia soul group, originally consisting of Walter Williams, Bill Isles, Bobby Massey, William Powell and Eddie Levert. ... The Spinners are a Detroit, Michigan -based soul band popular in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Electro (also known as electro funk) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records that were closer to disco). ...


80s pop

By the 1960s, the term rhythm and blues had no longer been in wide use; instead, terms like soul music were used to describe popular African American music. In the 1980s, however, rhythm and blues came back into use, most often in the form of R&B, a usage that has continued to the present. Contemporary R&B arose when sultry funk singers like Prince became very popular, alongside dance-oriented pop stars like Michael Jackson and female vocalists like Tina Turner and Whitney Houston [65]. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For other people named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock on November 26, 1939) is a Grammy Award-winning American pop/rock singer, Buddhist and occasional actress. ... Whitney Elizabeth Houston (born on August 9, 1963) is an American pop and R&B singer and occasional actress. ...


By the end of the 1980s, pop-rock largely consisted of the radio-friendly hair metal bands, who used images derived from the British glam movement with macho lyrics and attitudes, accompanied by hard rock music and heavy metal virtuosic soloing. Bands from this era included many British groups like Def Leppard, as well as heavy metal-influenced American bands Mötley Crüe, Guns N' Roses, Bon Jovi and Van Halen [66]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Classic Metal. ... The acronym LAMP (or L.A.M.P.) refers to a set of free software programs commonly used together to run dynamic Web sites or servers: Linux, the operating system; Apache, the Web server; MySQL, the database management system (or database server); Perl, PHP, Python, and/or Primate (mod mono... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Def Leppard is an English hard rock/heavy metal band from Sheffield who formed in 1977 at the time of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal. ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced ) is a popular American rock band from Los Angeles, California. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band that gained fame during the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Bon Jovi is an influential rock band from New Jersey, USA. Fronted by lead singer and namesake Jon Bon Jovi, the group originally achieved large-scale success in the 1980s as a metal band. ... Van Halen is an American hard rock band. ...


The mid-1980s also saw Gospel music see its popularity peak. A new form of gospel had evolved, called Contemporary Christian music (CCM). CCM had been around since the late 1960s, and consisted of a pop/rock sound with slight religious lyrics. CCM had become the most popular form of gospel by the mid-1980s, especially with artists like Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, and Kathy Triccoli. Amy Grant was the most popular CCM, and gospel, singer of the 1980s, and after experiencing unprecedented success in CCM, crossed over into mainstream pop in the 1980s and 1990s. Michael W. Smith also had considerable success in CCM before crossing over to a successful career in pop music as well. Grant would later produce CCM's first #1 pop hit ("Baby Baby"), and CCM's best-selling album (Heart In Motion). Gospel music may refer either to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the 1930s or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by white southern Christian artists. ... The current version of the article or section reads like a sermon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael W. Smith // Michael Whitaker Smith (born October 7, 1957, to Paul and Barbara Smith in Kenova, West Virginia), often nicknamed Smitty, is an American singer, songwriter, guitarist, and keyboardist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael W. Smith // Michael Whitaker Smith (born October 7, 1957, to Paul and Barbara Smith in Kenova, West Virginia), often nicknamed Smitty, is an American singer, songwriter, guitarist, and keyboardist. ... Heart in Motion was the twelfth album by Christian pop singer Amy Grant, released in 1991 (see 1991 in music). ...


In the 1980s, the country music charts were dominated by pop singers with only tangential influences from country music, a trend that has continued since. The 1980s saw a revival of honky-tonk-style country with the rise of people like Dwight Yoakam and the new traditionalists Emmylou Harris and Ricky Skaggs [67], as well as the development of alternative country performers like Uncle Tupelo. Later alternative country performers, like Whiskeytown's Ryan Adams and Wilco, found some mainstream success. Dwight Yoakam at the unveiling of his Hollywood star. ... Neotraditional country, also known as new traditional country, is a country music style that rejects most elements of modern Top 40 country music. ... Emmylou Harris, ca. ... Ricky Skaggs, April 1988 Ricky Skaggs1st off Skaggs was known to hate everyone he met. ... Alternative country is a term applied to various subgenres of country music. ... Uncle Tupelo Uncle Tupelo was a popular music group formed in 1987 in Belleville, Illinois. ... Whiskeytown was an alternative country band formed in Raleigh, North Carolina in 1994. ... Not to be confused with Bryan Adams Ryan Adams (born David Ryan Adams on November 5, 1974) is an alt-country/rock singer/songwriter from Jacksonville, North Carolina. ... Wilco is an American contemporary rock band. ...

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KillinTime. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Clint Patrick Black (born February 4, 1962 in Long Branch, New Jersey, USA) is a neotraditional country music singer, songwriter and producer. ... The Country Music Awards are voted on by business members of the Country Music Association. ...

Birth of the underground

During the 1970s, a number of diverse styles emerged in start contrast to mainstream American popular music. Though these genres were not largely popular in the sense of selling many records to mainstream audiences, they were examples of popular music, as opposed to folk or classical music. In the early 1970s, blacks and Puerto Ricans in New York City developed hip hop culture, which produced a style of music also called hip hop. At roughly the same time, Latinos, especially Cubans and Puerto Ricans, in New York also innovated salsa music, which combined many forms of Latin music with R&B and rock. The genres of punk rock and heavy metal were most closely associated with the United Kingdom in the 70s, while various American derivatives evolved later in the decade and into the 80s. Meanwhile, Detroit slowly evolved a series of electronic music genres like house and techno that later became a major part of popular music worldwide. Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Breakdancer in Ljubljana, Slovenia. ... Hip hop music, also referred to as rap or rap music, is a style of popular music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rock Music article is a good example of actual music history ! Gives credit where deserved, Not biased oriented views on music !!! This article contradicts another Wikipedia article at this link under salsa !!! http://en. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that emerged as a defined musical style in the 1970s, having its roots in hard rock bands which, between 1969 and 1974,[1] mixed blues and rock to create a hybrid with a thick, heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound, characterised by... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ...


Hip hop

Hip hop is a cultural movement, of which music is a part, along with graffiti and breakdancing. The music is composed of two parts, rapping, the delivery of swift, highly rhythmic and lyrical vocals, and DJing, the production of instrumentation either through sampling, instrumentation, turntablism or beatboxing [68]. Hip hop arose in the early 1970s in Harlem, New York City. Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc is widely regarded as the progenitor of hip hop; he brought with him the practice of toasting over the rhythms of popular songs. In New York, DJs like Kool Herc played records of popular funk, disco and rock songs. Emcees originally arose to introduce the songs and keep the crowd excited and dancing; over time, the DJs began isolating the percussion breaks (the rhythmic climax of songs), thus producing a repeated beat that the emcees rapped over. Breakdancer in Ljubljana, Slovenia. ... Graffiti is the application of media on publicly viewable surfaces. ... A breakdancer performing a one-handed freeze (also known as a pike) in the streets of Paris. ... Popular West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion of one sound recording, the sample, and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Turntablism is the art of manipulating sound and creating music using phonograph turntables and an audio mixer. ... Beatboxing (also known as human orchestration) is the vocal percussion of hip hop culture and music. ... Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... A percussion instrument can be any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ...


Rapping included greetings to friends and enemies, exhortations to dance and colorful, often humorous boasts. By the beginning of the 1980s, there had been popular hip hop songs like "Rappers Delight" by the Sugarhill Gang and a few major celebrities of the scene, like LL Cool J and Kurtis Blow. Other performers experimented with politicized lyrics and social awareness, while others performed fusions with jazz, heavy metal, techno, funk and soul. Hip hop began to diversify in the latter part of the 1980s. New styles appeared, like alternative hip hop and the closely related jazz rap fusion, pioneered by rappers like De La Soul and Guru. The crews Public Enemy and N.W.A. did the most during this era to bring hip hop to national attention; the former did so with incendiary and politically charged lyrics, while the latter became the first prominent example of gangsta rap. Rappers Delight is a 1979 (see 1979 in music) single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it is widely acknowledged as the first hip hop hit single. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group, known mostly for one hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... James Todd Smith III (born January 14, 1968 in St. ... Curtis Kurtis Blow Walker, (born on August 9, 1959, in Harlem, New York) is one of the pioneer rappers in the recording industry, and hip hops first mainstream star. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form that originated around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in African American musical styles blended with Western music technique and theory. ... Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that emerged as a defined musical style in the 1970s, having its roots in hard rock bands which, between 1969 and 1974,[1] mixed blues and rock to create a hybrid with a thick, heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound, characterised by... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Funk music originated by African Americans, e. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Alternative hip hop or Underground hip hop is defined as a culture rather than just a musical genre. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... De La Soul is a massively influential hip hop group, hailing from Long Island, New York. ... Guru Guru (Gifted Unlimited Rhymes Universal) (born July 17, 1961) is an alternative rapper, best known for his pioneering work in the fusion of jazz and rap, and as one half of Gang Starr. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a seminal hip hop group from Long Island, New York known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... N.W.A. (Niggaz With Attitude) was a hip hop group that was formed in Compton, California in 1986, and disbanded in 1991. ... Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop music which involves a lyrical focus on the lifestyles of inner-city or da hood gang members and other criminals. ...

Follow the Leader. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Eric B. & Rakim were an East Coast hip hop duo who popularised the jazz-influenced hip hop of the late 1980s. ... Old school hip hop is the very first hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and early 1980s. ...

Salsa

Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Caribbean rhythm that is popular in many Latin American countries. Salsa incorporates multiple styles and variations; the term can be used to describe most any form of the popular Cuban-derived musical genres (like chachachá and mambo). Most specifically however, salsa refers to a particular style was developed by mid-1970s groups of New York City-area Cuban and Puerto Rican immigrants to the United States, and stylistic descendants like 1980s salsa romantica [69]. World map depicting Caribbean: West Indies redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Musical genres are categories which contain music which share a certain style or which have certain elements in common. ... For the dance, see Cha-cha-cha (dance). ... For other uses, see Mambo (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Also known as Salsa Monga (Limp Salsa) is a commercialized toned down version of salsa music that emerged in the mid 80s. ...


Salsa music always has a 4/4 meter. The music is phrased in groups of two bars, using recurring rhythmic patterns, and the beginning of phrases in the song text and instruments. Typically, the rhythmic patterns played on the percussion are rather complicated, often with several different patterns played simultaneously. The clave rhythm is an important element that forms the basis of salsa. Apart from percussion, a variety of melodic instruments are commonly used as accompaniment, such as a guitar, trumpets, trombones, the piano, and many others, all depending on the performing artists. Bands are typically divided into horn and rhythm sections, lead by one or more singers (soneros or salseros)  [70]. Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Clave is a rhythmic pattern or timeline which has its roots in West African music and was developed in Cuba. ... Different kinds of guitars The guitar is a fretted and stringed musical instrument, used in a wide variety of musical styles, and is also widely known as a solo classical instrument. ... Trumpeter redirects to here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ...


Punk and alternative rock

Punk was a kind of rebellious rock music that began in the 1970s, as a reaction against the popular music of the day, especially disco, which was seen as insipid and uninspired; punk drew on American bands including the Velvet Underground, The Stooges and the New York Dolls [71]. Punk was loud, aggressive and usually very simple, requiring little musical training to play. Later in the decade, British bands like the Sex Pistols and The Clash found short-lived fame at home and, to a lesser degree, in the United States. American bands in the field included most famously The Ramones, as well as groups like the Talking Heads that played a more artsy kind of music that was closely associated with punk before eventually evolving into pop-New Wave [72]. Disco is a genre of music that originated in discothèques. ... The Velvet Underground and Nico (from left to right: John Cale, Nico, Lou Reed, Sterling Morrison, and Maureen Tucker) The Velvet Underground (Affectionately known as The Velvets, or V.U. for short) was an American rock and roll band of the late 1960s. ... The Stooges are an American rock band that was first active from about 1967 to 1974, and then reformed in 2003. ... The New York Dolls are a rock music group formed in New York City in 1971. ... The Sex Pistols were an iconic and highly influential English punk band, formed in London in 1975. ... The Clash were an English rock group active from 1976 to 1986. ... The Ramones (L-R, Johnny, Tommy, Joey, Dee Dee) on the cover of their debut self-titled album (1976), cementing their place at the dawn of the punk movement. ... Talking Heads was an American rock band existing between 1974 and 1991, composed of David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth, and Jerry Harrison. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Henry Rollins, a punk rock musician
Henry Rollins, a punk rock musician

Hardcore punk was the response of American youths to the worldwide punk rock explosion of the late 1970s. Hardcore stripped punk rock and New Wave of its sometimes elitist and artsy tendencies, resulting in short, fast, and intense songs that spoke to disaffected youth. Hardcore exploded in the American metropolises of Los Angeles, Washington, DC, New York and Boston and most American cities had their own local scenes by the end of the 1980s [73]. Download high resolution version (744x1098, 217 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (744x1098, 217 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Henry Rollins (born February 13, 1961 as Henry Lawrence Garfield) is an American Grammy Award-winning hardcore/punk singer/songwriter; spoken word artist, book author (prose and poetry), radio and TV personality; occasional movie actor, comedian, and voice-over artist. ... Hardcore punk (aka Hardcore) is a subgenre of punk rock, the sound is thicker, heavier, and faster than punk rock and implimented 1970s heavy metal influences in its music. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Boston is a town and small port c. ...


Alternative rock is a diverse grouping of rock bands that in America developed largely from the hardcore scene in the 1980s in stark opposition to the mainstream music scene. Alternative rock subgenres that developed during the decade include indie rock, gothic rock, grunge, and college rock. Most alternative bands were unified by their collective debt to punk, which laid the groundwork for underground and alternative music in the 1970s. Though the genre is considered to be rock, some styles were influenced by American folk, reggae and jazz. Like punk and hardcore, alternative rock had little mainstream success in America in the 1980s, but via the grassroots establishment of an indie scene through touring, college radio, fanzines, and word-of-mouth, alternative bands laid the groundwork for the breakthrough of the genre in the American public consciousness in the next decade. Alternative rock (also called alternative music[1] or simply alternative) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. ... Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music often used to refer to bands that are on small independent record labels or that arent on labels at all. ... Gothic rock (also called goth rock or goth) is a genre of rock music that originated during the late 1970s. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is a genre of alternative rock inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and indie rock. ... In the USA, college rock was a term used to describe 1980s alternative rock before the term alternative came into common usage. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... College radio (also known as university radio, campus radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college or university. ...


Heavy metal

Heavy metal is a form of music characterized by aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, generally with grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. Heavy metal is a development of blues, blues rock, rock and prog rock. Its origins lie in the British hard rock bands who between 1967 and 1974 took blues and rock and created a hybrid with a heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound. Most of the pioneers in the field, like Black Sabbath, were English, though many were inspired by American performers like Blue Cheer and Jimi Hendrix. Blues-rock, is a hybrid musical genre combining elements of the blues with rock and roll, with an emphasis on the electric guitar. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... Blue Cheer was a San Francisco-based rock group of the late 1960s and early 1970s, who helped to pioneer heavy metal music. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Bon Jovi
Bon Jovi

In the early 1970s, the first major American bands began appearing, like Blue Öyster Cult and Aerosmith, and musicians like Eddie Van Halen began their career. Heavy metal remained, however, a largely underground phenomenon. During the 1980s, a pop-based form of hard rock, with a party-hearty spirit and a glam-influenced visual aesthetic (sometimes referred to as "hair metal") dominated the music charts, led by superstars like Poison, Bon Jovi, Mötley Crüe, and Ratt. The 1987 debut of Guns N' Roses, a hard rock band whose image reflected the grittier underbelly of the Sunset Strip, was at least in part a reaction against the overly polished image of hair metal, but that band's wild success was in many ways the last gasp of the hard-rock and metal scene. By the mid-1980s, as the term "heavy metal" became the subject of much contestation, the style had branched out in so many different directions that new classifications were created by fans, record companies, and fanzines, although sometimes the differences between various subgenres were unclear, even to the artists purportedly belonging to a given style. The most notable of the 1980s metal subgenres in the United States was the swift and aggressive thrash metal style, pioneered by bands like Anthrax, Megadeth, Metallica and Slayer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2478x1656, 1602 KB) Bon Jovi live Recorded at Cannstatter Wasen, Stuttgart on June 22, 2001 Picture recorded by Flominator File links The following pages link to this file: American popular music Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2478x1656, 1602 KB) Bon Jovi live Recorded at Cannstatter Wasen, Stuttgart on June 22, 2001 Picture recorded by Flominator File links The following pages link to this file: American popular music Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Blue Öyster Cult is an American psychedelic/heavy metal band formed in the late 1960s and active as of 2006. ... Aerosmith is a prominent American rock band, which regards itself as Americas Greatest Rock and Roll Band.[1] [2] Although they are known as the bad boys from Boston, none of the members are actually from the city. ... Edward Lodewijk Van Halen, (born January 26, 1955) is a guitarist and a founding member of the hard rock band Van Halen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Classic Metal. ... Poison is an American glam metal band which originally achieved popular success in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Bon Jovi is an influential rock band from New Jersey, USA. Fronted by lead singer and namesake Jon Bon Jovi, the group originally achieved large-scale success in the 1980s as a metal band. ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced ) is a popular American rock band from Los Angeles, California. ... Ratt is an American glam metal band that enjoyed significant commercial success during the 1980s. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band that gained fame during the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music, one of the extreme metal subgenres, that is characterised by its high speed and aggression. ... Megadeth is an American heavy metal band led by founder, frontman, and songwriter Dave Mustaine. ... Metallica is an American heavy metal band, formed on October 28, 1981. ... Slayer is an American thrash metal band, founded in Huntington Park, California, in 1982[1] by Kerry King (guitars), Tom Araya (bass and vocals), Jeff Hanneman (guitars) and Dave Lombardo (drums). ...


1990s to the present

Perhaps the most important change in the 1990s in American popular music was the rise of alternative rock through the popularity of grunge. This was previously an explicitly anti-mainstream grouping of genres that rose to great fame beginning in the early 1990s. The genre in its early stages was largely situated on Sub Pop Records, a company founded by Kim Thayil of Soundgarden. Significant grunge bands signed to the label were Green River (half of the members from this band would later become founding members of Pearl Jam), Sonic Youth (although not a grunge band they were influential on grunge bands and in fact it was upon the insistance of Kim Gordon that the David Geffen company signed Nirvana) and Nirvana. Grunge is an alternative rock subgenre with a "dark, brooding guitar-based sludge" sound [74], drawing on heavy metal, punk, and elements of bands like Sonic Youth and their use of "unconventional tunings to bend otherwise standard pop songs completely out of shape" [75]. With the addition of a "melodic, Beatlesque element" to the sound of bands like Nirvana, grunge became wildly popular across the United States [76]. Grunge became commercially successful in the early 1990s, peaking between 1991 and 1994. Bands from cities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest especially Seattle, Washington, were responsible for creating grunge and later made it popular with mainstream audiences. The supposed Generation X, who had just reached adulthood as grunge's popularity peaked, were closely associated with grunge, the sound which helped "define the desperation of (that) generation" [77]. Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is a genre of alternative rock inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and indie rock. ... Sub Pop logo Sub Pop is a record label in Seattle, Washington famous for first signing Nirvana, Soundgarden, and many other bands from the local scene. ... Kim Thayil (born September 4, 1960 in Seattle, Washington) is best known as the guitarist for Seattle, USA grunge band Soundgarden, which he founded with Chris Cornell and Hiro Yamamoto in 1984. ... Soundgarden was a seminal Seattle rock band who helped to define the sound that came to be called grunge. ... Green River may refer to: // Rivers Canada Green River in New Brunswick. ... Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, and is considered one of the most influential artists of the 1990s. ... Sonic Youth is a rock group formed in New York City in 1981. ... Gordon in 2005 Kim Gordon (born April 28, 1953, in Rochester, New York) plays bass and guitar in the alternative rock band Sonic Youth. ... Nirvana was a popular rock band from Aberdeen, Washington, United States. ... Nirvana was a popular rock band from Aberdeen, Washington, United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Emerald City Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels Area    - City 369. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Gangsta rap is a kind of hip hop, most importantly characterized by a lyrical focus on macho sexuality, physicality and a dangerous, criminal image. Though the origins of gangsta rap can be traced back to the mid-1980s raps of Philadelphia's Schoolly D and the West Coast's Ice-T, the style is usually said to have begun in the Los Angeles and Oakland area, where Too $hort, NWA and others found their fame. This West Coast rap scene spawned the early 1990s G-funk sound, which paired gangsta rap lyrics with a thick and hazy tone, often relying on samples from 1970s P-funk; the best-known proponents of this sound were the breakthrough rappers Dr. Dre and Snoop Doggy Dogg. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop music which involves a lyrical focus on the lifestyles of inner-city or da hood gang members and other criminals. ... // Background Schoolly D is the moniker of Jesse B. Weaver, Jr. ... West Coast hip hop, also known as West Coast rap or California hip hop, is a style of hip hop music that originated in California in the 1980s. ... Tracy Ice-T Marrow (born February 16, 1958)[1] is an American rapper, rock musician, author, and actor. ... // Biography Too Short, or Too $hort, (born Todd Anthony Shaw on April 28, 1966 in Los Angeles, California) is a rapper who started his career as a youth in Oakland, California. ... In the 1980s, hip hop music began to break into the mainstream of the United States. ... G-funk, an abbreviation of Gangsta-funk, is a type of hip hop music that emerged from West Coast gangsta rap in the early 1990s. ... P-Funk is an abbreviated, compound name for two bands, Parliament and Funkadelic. ... Dr. Dre (born André Romell Young on February 18th, 1965 in Los Angeles, California) is an influential Grammy-Award winning American record producer, hip hop producer, rapper, actor and record executive. ... Snoop Dogg Calvin Cordozar Broadus (born October 20, 1971 in Long Beach, California) is a rap musician and actor. ...


By the end of the decade and into the early 2000s pop music consisted mostly of a combination of pop-hip hop and R&B-tinged pop, including a number of boy bands and female divas. The predominant sound in 90s country music was pop with only very limited elements of country. This includes many of the best-selling artists of the 1990s, like Clint Black, Shania Twain, Faith Hill and the first of these crossover stars, Garth Brooks [78]. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Clint Patrick Black (born February 4, 1962 in Long Branch, New Jersey, USA) is a neotraditional country music singer, songwriter and producer. ... Shania Twain,OC (born August 28, 1965) is a Canadian singer and songwriter who has enjoyed popular success in the country and pop music genres. ... Audrey Faith Perry McGraw, best known as Faith Hill (born September 21, 1967 in Jackson, Mississippi), is an American country singer, known for her commercial success as well as her marriage to country singer Tim McGraw. ... Troyal Garth Brooks (born February 7, 1962 in Tulsa, Oklahoma) and raised in Yukon, Oklahoma is an American country music singer-songwriter and charity director. ...

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    • This song is by Nirvana, who did more than any other group to bring grunge into the mainstream.
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ComeAsYouAre. ... Software development stages Development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Nirvana was a popular rock band from Aberdeen, Washington, United States. ...

International and social impact

American popular music has become extremely popular internationally. Rock, hip hop, jazz, country and other styles have fans across the globe. BBC Radio DJ Andy Kershaw, for example, has noted that country music is popular across virtually the entire world [79]. Indeed, out of "all the contributions made by Americans to world culture... (American popular music) has been taken (most) to heart by the entire world" [80]. Other styles of American popular music have also had a formative effect internationally, including funk, the basis for West African Afrobeat, R&B, a major source for Jamaican reggae, and rock, which has profoundly influenced most every genre of popular music worldwide. Rock, country, jazz and hip hop have become an entrenched part of many countries, leading to local varieties like Australian country music, Tanzanian Bongo Flava and Russian rock. BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Andy Kershaw Andy Kershaw (born Rochdale, Greater Manchester, 1959) is a British broadcaster, known predominantly as a champion of world music. ... Afrobeat is a combination of Yoruba music, jazz, and funk rhythms, fused with African percussion and vocal styles, popularized in Africa in the mid to late 1960s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Australian country music is a vibrant part of the music of Australia. ... Hip hop music is a musical genre invented by African Americans in New York City in the 1970s. ... Rock and roll became known in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and quickly broke free from its western roots. ...


Rock has had a formative influence on popular music, which had the effect of transforming "the very concept of what popular music" is [81] while Charlie Gillett has argued that rock and roll "was the first popular genre to incorporate the relentless pulse and sheer volume of urban life into the music itself" [82].


The social impacts of American popular music have been felt both within the United States and in foreign countries. Beginning as early as the extravaganzas of the late 19th century, American popular music has been criticized for being too sexually titillating and for encouraging violence, drug abuse and generally immoral behavior. Criticisms have been especially targeted at African American styles of music as they began attracting white, generally youthful audiences; blues, jazz, rock and hip hop all fall into this category [83]. Extravaganza is a two hour bi-weekly comedy-variety show based in Jakarta, Indonesia which has been broadcast by Trans TV nearly every Saturday and Monday night since its debut on April 5, 2004. ...


References

  •   Nashville sound/Countrypolitan. Allmusic. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  •   Baraka, Amiri (Leroi Jones) (1963). Blues People: Negro Music in White America. William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-18474-X., cited in Garofalo, pg. 76
  •   Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-71-7.
  •   Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3.
  •   Collins, Ace (1996). The Stories Behind Country Music's All-Time Greatest 100 Songs. Boulevard Books. ISBN 1-57297-072-3.
  •   Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall.
  •   Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5.
  •   Garofalo, Reebee (1997). Rockin' Out: Popular Music in the USA. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-13703-2.
  •   Gillett, Charlie (1970). The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll. Outerbridge and Dienstfrey. ISBN 0-285-62619-1.; cited in Garofalo
  •   Jones, Alan and Jussi Kantonen (1999). Saturday Night Forever: The Story of Disco. A Cappella Books. ISBN 1-55652-411-0.
  •   Lipsitz, George (1982). Class and Culture in Cold War America. J. F. Bergin. ISBN 0-03-059207-0., cited in Garofalo, pg. 95
  •   Malone, Bill C. (1985). Country Music USA: Revised Edition. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71096-8.; cited in Garofalo
  •   Marcus, Greil (June 24, 1993). "Is This the Woman Who Invented Rock and Roll?: The Deborah Chessler Story". Rolling Stone: 41.; cited in Garofalo
  •   Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin Beat. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81018-2.
  •   Palmer, Robert (April 19, 1990). "The Fifties". Rolling Stone: 48.; cited in Garofalo, pg. 95
  •   Hank Williams. PBS' American Masters. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  •   Miller, Jim (editor) (1976). The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. Rolling Stone Press/Random House. ISBN 0-394-73238-3. (chapter on "Soul", by Guralnick, Peter, pgs. 194-197)
  •   Ward, Ed, Geoffrey Stokes and Ken Tucker (1986). Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone History of Rock and Roll. Rolling Stone Press. ISBN 0-671-54438-1.
  •   Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.
  •   Nashville Sound. Roughstock's History of Country Music. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  •   Sawyers, June Skinner (2000). Celtic Music: A Complete Guide. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81007-7.
  •   Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504043-0., cited in Garofalo, pg. 26
  •   Szatmary, David P (2000). Rockin' in Time: A Social History of Rock-And-Roll. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-188790-4.
  •   Werner, Craig (1998). A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America. Plume. ISBN 0-452-28065-6.

June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1.   Garofalo is an example of starting with Tin Pan Alley, in a chapter that also contains the coverage of ragtime
  2.   Ewen is an example, covering national ballads and patriotic songs, folk music, songs of the Negro, minstrel show and its songs and extravaganza to vaudeville
  3.   Ewen, pg. 69 Ewen claims Dan Emmett was a “popular-song composer”, then goes on another, and even more significant, was his contemporary, Stephen Foster -- America’s first major composer, and one of the world’s outstanding writers of songs.
  4.   Clarke, pgs. 28-29 Clarke notes the song "Massa's in the Cold Ground" as a clear attempt to sentimentalize slavery, though he notes that many slaves must have loved their masters, on whom they depended for everything. Clarke also notes that songs like "Nelly Was a Lady" describe the black experience as ordinary human feelings; they are people as real as the characters in Shakespeare.
  5.   Ewen, pg. 81 When Milly Cavendish stepped lightly in front of the footlights, wagged a provocative finger at the men in her audience, and sang in her high-pitched baby voice, “You Naughty, Naughty Men” -- by T. Kennick and G. Bicknell -- the American musical theater and the American popular song both started their long and active careers in sex exploitation.
  6.   Ewen, pg. 94 Ewen claims Ne York was the music publishing center of the country by the 1890s, and says the ‘’publishers devised formulas by which songs could be produced with speed and dispatch... Songs were now to be produced from a serviceable matrix, and issued in large quantities: stereotypes for foreign songs, Negro songs, humorous ditties, and, most important of all, sentimental ballads.
  7.   Ewen, pg. 101 Ewen is the source for both "Drill Ye Tarriers" and the nature of coon songs
  8.   Ewen, pg. 101 and Clarke, pg. 62Ewen attributes "New Coon in Town" to Paul Allen, though Clarke attributes it to J. S. Putnam -- both agree on the year, 1883
  9.   Clarke, pg. 95 Clarke dates the golden age as c. 1914-50
  10.   Clarke, pgs. 56-57 Coon songs came out of minstrelsy, and were already established in vaudeville, when all this culminted in ragtime... ragtime may have begun with attempts to imitate the banjo on the keyboard.
  11.   Ferris, pg. 228 Conceived as dance music, and long considered a kind of popular or vernacular music, jazz has become a sophisticated art form that has interacted in significant ways with the music of the concert hall.
  12.   Clarke, pgs. 200-201 From 1935 until after the Second World War a jazz-oriented style was at the centre of popular music for the first time (and the last, so far), as opposed to merely giving it backbone.
  13.   Garofalo, pg. 45 The ukulele and steel guitar were introduced to this country by the Hawaiian string bands that toured the country after Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1900.
  14.   Collins, pg. 11 In addition, Collins notes that early pseudo-country musicians like Vernon Dalhart who had made their name recording 'country music songs' were not from the hills and hollows or plains and valleys. These recording stars sang both rural music and city music, and most knew more about Broadway than they did about hillbillies. Their rural image was often manufactured for the moment and the dollar. In contrast, Collins later explains, both the Carter Family and Rodgers had rural folk credibility that helped make Peer's recording session such an influential success; it was the Carter Family that was Ralk Peer's tie to the hills and hollows, to lost loves and found faith, but it took Jimmie Rodgers to connect the publisher with some of country music's other beloved symbols -- trains and saloons, jail and the blues.
  15.   Broughton, Viv and James Attlee. "Devil Stole the Beat" in the Rough Guide to World Music, Volume 2, pg. 569 Its seminal figure was a piano player and ex-blues musician by the name of Thomas A. Dorsey (1899-1993), who began composing songs based on familiar spirituals and hymns fused to blues and jazz rhythms. (emphasis in original)
  16.   Garofalo, pg. 72 The first pop vocalist to engender hysteria among his fans (rather than simple admiration or adoration) was an Italian American who refused to anglicize his name -- Frank Sinatra, the "Sultan of Swoon".
  17.   Rolling Stone, pgs. 99-100 Ward, Stokes and Tucker call cover versions the ants at the increasingly sumptuous rhythm-and-blues picnic.
  18.   Gillett, pg. 9, cited in Garofalo, pg. 74
  19.   Szatmary, pgs. 69-70 Also a guitar enthusiast who had released a few undistinctive singles on his own label in 1960, Dale worked closely with Leo Fender, the manufacturer of the first mass-produced, solid-body electric guitar and the president of Fender Instruments, to improve the Showman amplifier and to develop the reverberation unit that would give surf music its distinctively fuzzy sound.
  20.   Rolling Stone, pg. 251 Though the Beach Boys' instrumental sound was often painfully thin, the floating vocals, with the Four Freshman-ish harmonies riding over a droned, propulsive burden ("inside outside, U.S.A." in "Surfin' U.S.A."; "rah, rah, rah, rah, sis boom bah" in "Be True to Your School"} were rich, dense and unquestionably special.
  21.   Garofalo, pg. 201 Garofalo specifically lists "Roll Over Beethoven" by Chuck Berry, "Long Tall Sally" by Little Richard, "Twist and Shout" by the Isley Brothers, "Money" by Barrett Strong, "Boys" and Baby It's You" by The Shirelles, "You've Really Got a Hold on Me" by Smokey Robinson and the Miracles and "Chains" by The Cookies.
  22.   Garofalo, pg. 218 The Grateful Dead combined the anticommercial tendencies of white middle-class youth with the mind-altering properties of lyseric acid diethylamide (LSD).
  23.   Garofalo, pg. 448 Garofalo describes a sampler called Sub Pop 200 as an early anthology of the dark, brooding guitar-based sludge that came to be known as grunge.
  24.   Garofalo, pg. 451 From (Glenn Branca's) group they learned to use unconventional tunings to bend otherwise standard pop songs completely out of shape, a trademark of Sonic Youth that, in Seattle, resonated as well as the dark side of their musical vision.
  25.   Szatmary, pg. 285 Recording the songs that would become Nevermind, Nirvana added a melodic, Beatlesque element, which had shaped Cobain, Novoselic, and new drummer Dave Grohl.
  26.   Szatmary, pg. 284 Grunge, growing in the Seattle offices of the independent Sub Pop Records, combined hardcore and metal to top the charts and help define the desperation of a generation.; in context, this presumably refers to Generation X, though that term is not specifically used.
  27.   Kershaw, pg. 167, from the Rough Guide to World Music, Part Two, "Our Life Is Precisely a Song", pg. 167 Kershaw specifically notes that North Korea was the only country in which he never heard country music
  28.   Ewen, pg. 3 Of all the contributions made by Americans to world culture -- automation and the assembly line, advertising, innumerable devices and gadgets, skyscrapers, supersalesmen, baseball, ketchup and hot dogs and hamburrgers -- one, undeniably native has been taken to heart by the entire world. It is American popular music.
  29.   Garofalo, pg. 94 Suffice it to say, lest we get lost in history, that the music that came to be called rock 'n' roll began in the 1950s as diverse and seldom heard segments of the population achieved a dominant voice in mainstream culture and transformed the very concept of what popular music was.
  30.   Gillett, pg. i, quote from Garofalo, pg. 4 Garofalo quotes Gillett as Rock and Roll (sic) was perhaps the first form of popular culture to celebrate without reservation characteristics of city life that had been among the most criticized.

Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926) is an American guitarist, singer, and song writer. ... Long Tall Sally is a rock and roll song first recorded by Little Richard in the mid-1950s, when it became one of the singers best-known hits. ... Little Richard (born Richard Wayne Penniman, December 5, 1932 in Macon, Georgia) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist, an early pioneer of Rock n Roll, Penniman has influenced generations of R&B and Rock artists. ... Twist and Shout is a song originally by Phil Medley and Bert Russell. ... The Isley Brothers are an American pop, R&B, funk and soul group who began their musical career in Cincinnati in the early 1950s. ... Barrett Strong (born February 5, 1941 in West Point, Mississippi) is an African-American singer and songwriter. ... The Shirelles were an influential American girl group in the early 1960s. ... Youve Really Got a Hold on Me is a 1962 hit single by The Miracles for the Tamla (Motown) label. ... Smokey Robinson (born February 19, 1940) is an American R&B and soul singer and songwriter. ... Sub Pop 200 is a compilation released in the early days of the Seattle grunge scene (December 1988). ... Glenn Branca (born October 6, 1948 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) is an avant-garde composer and guitarist. ...

Further reading

  • Bayles, Martha (1994). Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. Free Press. ISBN 0-02-901962-1.
  • Booth, Mark W. (1983). American Popular Music: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-21305-4.
  • Ennis, Phillip H. (1992). The Seventh Stream: The Emergence of Rocknroll in American Popular Music. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6257-2.
  • Hamm, Charles (1979id=ISBN 0-393-01257-3). Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Joseph, Mark (2003). Faith, God, and Rock + Roll: From Bono to Jars of Clay: How People of Faith Are Transforming American Popular Music. Baker Books. ISBN 0-8010-6500-3.
  • Joyner, David Lee (2002). American Popular Music. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-241424-3.
  • Kenney, William Howland (2003). Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517177-2.
  • Mahar, William J. (1998). Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06696-0.
  • Pratt, Ray (1994). Rhythm and Resistance: The Political Uses of American Popular Music. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-56098-351-5.
  • Rubin, Rachel and Jeffrey Melnick(eds.) (2001). American Popular Music: New Approaches to the Twentieth Century. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-268-2.
  • Sanjek, Russell (1988). American Popular Music and Its Business: The First Four Hundred Years: Volume III, from 1900 to 1984. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504311-1.
  • Scheurer, Timothy E. (ed) (1990). American Popular Music: Readings from the Popular Press: The Nineteenth Century and Tin Pan Alley. Bowling Green State University Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-465-X.
  • Scheurer, Timothy E. (ed) (1990). American Popular Music Vol 2: The Age of Rock. Bowling Green University Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-468-4.
  • Starr, Larry and Christopher Alan Waterman (2002). American Popular Music: From Minstrelsy to MTV. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510854-X.
  • Vautier, Dominic (2000). Sex, Music & Bloomers: A Social History of American Popular Music. Abelard Press. ISBN 0-9677046-3-4.
  • Wilder, Alec (1990). American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 1900-1950. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-501445-6.

See also

This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - American popular music (7700 words)
Distinctive styles of American popular music began to emerge early in the 19th century, and in the 20th century the American music industry developed a series of new forms of music, using elements of blues and other genres of American folk music.
In 1935, swing music became popular with the public and quickly replaced jazz as the most popular type of music (although their was some resistance to it at first).
By the end of the 1960s, two developments had completely changed popular music: the birth of a counterculture, which explicitly opposed mainstream music, often in tandem with political and social activism, and the shift from professional composers to performers who were both singers and songwriters.
The Dead Zone of American Popular Music (1577 words)
Rock and Roll of the 50's is a good example of this phenomenon as is the music of the 90's which is reflective of the increasingly violent and frustrating environment we live in.
Likewise, music of the 60's reflected the turbulent period during which the Vietnam war, drugs, the sexual revolution and other social issues were uppermost in people's minds.
American popular music would have developed without that influence and may sound very different today than it did with the incorporation of that other cultural influence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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