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Encyclopedia > American lobster
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
American lobster

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Astacidea
Family: Nephropidae
Genus: Homarus
Species: H. americanus
Binomial name
Homarus americanus
H. Milne-Edwards, 1837

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America. Within North America, it is also known as the northern lobster, Atlantic lobster or Maine lobster. It thrives in cold, shallow waters where there are many rocks and other places to hide from predators and is both solitary and nocturnal. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods, comprising approximately 52,000 described species [1], and are usually treated as a subphylum [2].They include various familiar animals... Subclasses Eumalacostraca Hoplocarida Phyllocarida See text for orders. ... Suborders Dendrobranchiata Pleocyemata See text for superfamilies. ... Superfamilies see text Astacidea is a group of decapod crustaceans including lobsters, crayfish and their close relatives. ... For the magazine, see Lobster (magazine) Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Species - American lobster - European lobster Homarus is a genus of lobsters, which include the common and commercially significant species Homarus americanus (American lobster) and the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Henri Milne-Edwards (October 23, 1800 - July 29, 1885) was an eminent French zoologist. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... For the magazine, see Lobster (magazine) Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


The American lobster is found as far south as North Carolina, and are famously associated with the colder waters around the Canadian Maritimes, Newfoundland and Labrador, Massachusetts, and Maine. They commonly range from 20 cm to 60 cm in length and ½ kg to 4 kg in weight, but have been known to reach lengths of well over 1 m and weigh as much as 20 kg or more, making this the heaviest marine crustacean in the world [1]. An average adult is about 230 mm (9 inches) long and weighs 700 to 900 g (1½ to 2 pounds). Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other meanings of gram, see gram (disambiguation). ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ...


The adult American lobster's main natural predator is the codfish, but other enemies include haddock, flounder, and other lobsters. Overfishing of cod in the early 20th century has allowed the lobster population to grow enormously. Shipwrecks have been related to being an oasis in the middle of a barren desert of sand. American lobsters make their home in and around northeast shipwrecks. In fact, lobster diving is the main attraction for many wreck divers. Species Gadus morhua Gadus macrocephalus Gadus ogac Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of fishes, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety of other fishes. ... Binomial name Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Haddock is a marine fish distributed on both sides of the North Atlantic. ... Winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus A flounder blending into its environment Flounder isnt that little fish that travels around with Ariel in the movie titled The Little Mermaid. Flounder are actually flatfish that live in ocean waters ie. ... × The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ...

A scuba diver in New York's Wreck Valley displays his lobsters.
A scuba diver in New York's Wreck Valley displays his lobsters.

Contents

Image File history File links Lobsterdiving. ...

Molting and mating

American lobsters molt (shed their shells) 2–3 times per year while juvenile, but only once a year or less often when fully mature, about 4 to 7 years old. When the lobster gets near its next shedding period, it will start to grow a new shell underneath the current one. The outer shell will become very hard and darken, becoming covered with black marks that look like scratches. (at this point they are known as hardshells.) The line that runs along the back of the lobster's carapace will begin to split, and the two halves of the shell will fall away. Claws and tail will be pulled out from the old outer shell, as the inner shell is very malleable. The old shell is often eaten for calcium recovery and the leftovers are sometimes buried. Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ...


Females usually mate right after molting, but mating in between molts, known as intermolt mating, can occur. Larger females can store sperm for several batches of eggs from a single coupling. All females store the sperm to fertilize eggs later, not at the time of copulation. While getting ready to molt the female will find the den of a suitable male and visit it several times. When finally ready to molt the female will do so in that den. After the molt the male will wait for the shell to start to harden, gently stroking the paper thin new shell with his large antennae. After several minutes male will raise himself on his claws and tail, then use his legs to flip over the female and get on top. The male has a pair of hardened swimmerets, or fins on the bottom, that match a pair of swimmerets on the female which have an opening between them. The sperm, contained in a gelatinous blob called a spermatophore slides down notches in the male's swimmerets into the female. The outside end of the spermatophore hardens to block the hole. The receptacle on the female is part of her shell so she will need to use the sperm before her next molt or lose it. The male dismounts and then may eat the female's shell. The female will then stay in the den for several days while her shell hardens more. Lobsters do not mate for life, contrary to some myths. The female seeks the most alpha male she can find, and the male will mate with as many females as he can. A spermatophore is a capsule or mass created by males of various invertebrate species, containing spermatozoa and transferred in entirety to the female during sex. ...


In the first two weeks after molting, lobsters are very vulnerable, as their shells are so soft they can neither move very fast nor defend themselves with their claws. (At this point, they are often referred to as "turds" in the industry.) They will often fall prey to other lobsters, especially egg-bearing females, who become very defensive when carrying their eggs.


Because lobsters molt, it is extremely difficult to determine a lobster's age. However, many lobsters live up to 50 years.


Anatomical features

Antennae

The long antennae are used to feel the area around a lobster, and appear to be more useful than the eyes. For other uses, see Antenna. ...


Antennules

The shorter antennules provide a sense of smell. By having a pair of olfactory organs, a lobster can locate the direction a smell comes from, much the same way we can hear the direction a sound comes from. In addition to sensing smells, the antennules can judge water speed to improve direction finding. Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ...


Eyes

The eyes of these lobsters are different from almost all other animals. Rather than using lenses to focus light on sensitive cells, narrow tapered channels lined with a crystalline material reflect the light onto the retinal cells. This same design is proving useful for focusing x-rays and other hard to refract light — as in the namesake Lobster-ISS x-ray telescope. A human eye. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... A telescope (from the Greek tele = far and skopein = to look or see; teleskopos = far-seeing) is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. ...


Mouth

The lobster's mouth is used for more than eating. For burrowing it can be shaped into a wedge and used to push gravel and sand, and used to carry small rocks away. A lobster can even pull itself around by its mouth, if it has lost both claws and all legs by fighting. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mouth (human). ...


A lobster actually chews its food in its stomach, rather than its mouth. Food is chewed between three teeth-like grinders in what is called the gastric mill. Gastric mill is a part of the digestive tract of crustaceans. ...


Legs and claws

The first pair of a lobster's ten legs are called the claws and are usually used for hunting and fighting, not locomotion. The other eight legs are used for walking. An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ...


At first the claws of a lobster are identical, but with use the lobster will start to favor one over the other. The favored claw will get bigger and be filled with primarily slow-acting muscle tissue which cannot react quickly, but does not tire quickly. This is the crusher claw. The other claw, the pincher, will develop fast-acting muscle tissue useful for grabbing prey quickly. During lobster to lobster fights, one typical move is claw lock where the two lobsters will grab each other's crusher claw and have a showdown of muscle and shell strength.


Bladder

Lobsters have not one, but two urinary bladders, located on either side of the head. Lobsters use scents to communicate who and where they are, and those scents are in the urine, as in dogs. But while a dog will just mark places, lobsters have strong muscles to project long (up to 1½ m) plumes of urine in front of them and do so when they detect a rival or a potential mate in the area. Lobsters also urinate continually while at the doors of their hiding places to indicate who is inside. In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ...


Eggs

The eggs are green, and very small, about 1 mm in diameter. They are carried by the female on the underside of the tail for a period of about one month, whereupon they are released over several days and hatch. The number of eggs carried by a single female can range well into the tens of thousands, but the survival rate is very low, speculated at around 0.1%. Older females produce vastly more eggs than younger ones. In one observation (Francis Herrick, in the 1890s) 5-inch (13 cm) females were found to have about 4,000 eggs, while 10 inch (25 cm) ones produced about 50,000 eggs. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


Eggs and newly hatched lobsters can by carried very long distances by ocean currents. Within the egg lobsters molt thirty-five times. At the time of hatching, the larva still looks more like a shrimp than a lobster. For several weeks, the larva floats near the surface of the sea, eating and growing. It has small fins that allow some movement, but not real swimming. The final juvenile stage, the postlarva stage, has been called the "superlobster" by some. It is the only time in a lobster's life that it can swim forward, an act which bears some resemblance to Superman flying. At this age the lobster is about 2 cm long. This stage lasts a week or two, during which the lobster will swim during the day, at speeds of up to 20 cm/s — fast enough to cover 10 km per day. The superlobster will seek a rocky bottom with good hiding places. Without anywhere to hide it quickly falls prey to small fish, such as sculpin and cunner. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superman is a comic book superhero, originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Genera Alcichthys Andriashevicottus Antipodocottus Archaulus Argyrocottus Artedielloides Artediellus Artedius Ascelichthys Asemichthys Astrocottus Bero Bolinia Chitonotus Clinocottus Cottiusculus Cottus Daruma Enophrys Furcina Gymnocanthus Hemilepidotus Icelinus Icelus Jordania Leiocottus Leptocottus Megalocottus Mesocottus Micrenophrys Microcottus Myoxocephalus Ocynectes Oligocottus Orthonopias Paricelinus Phallocottus Phasmatocottus Porocottus Pseudoblennius Radulinopsis Radulinus Ricuzenius Ruscarius Scorpaenichthys Sigmistes Stelgistrum Stlegicottus Stlengis... Binomial name Tautogolabrus adspersus (Walbaum, 1792) A bergall or cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, is a saltwater fish found in the western Atlantic. ...


Mutations

An example of a rare blue lobster
An example of a rare blue lobster
Blue American lobster at the New England Aquarium
Blue American lobster at the New England Aquarium

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 546 KB)[edit] Summary This photo was taken and copyrighted by the uploader. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 546 KB)[edit] Summary This photo was taken and copyrighted by the uploader. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1020 KB) Blue American lobster (Homarus americanus). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1020 KB) Blue American lobster (Homarus americanus). ... The New England Aquarium is a major aquarium located in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ...

Blue lobsters

Around one in one million lobsters is blue. A research study conducted by Professor Ronald Christensen at the University of Connecticut, discovered that a genetic defect causes a blue lobster to produce an excessive amount of protein. The protein, and a red caratenoid molecule known as astaxanthin, combine to form a blue complex known as crustacyanin, giving the lobster its blue color [2]. Astaxanthin Astaxanthin (as-tuh-zan-thin) is a carotenoid (kuh-rah-tuh-noydz). ...


Yellow lobsters

Yellow American lobster at the New England Aquarium
Yellow American lobster at the New England Aquarium

On August 1, 2006 a Maine lobsterman named David Percy caught a yellow lobster near Whaleback Island at the mouth of the Kennebec River. The odds of finding a yellow lobster are apparently around 1 in 30 million [3]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1059 KB) Yellow American lobster (Homarus americanus). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1059 KB) Yellow American lobster (Homarus americanus). ... The New England Aquarium is a major aquarium located in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ...


Split-color lobsters

On July 13, 2006 a Maine fisherman named Alan Robinson caught a half-and-half lobster, where the colors are perfectly divided on each side of the shell. He submitted the lobster to the local oceanarium which has only seen three lobsters of this kind in 35 years. The chance of finding one is estimated at 1 in 50 million. Lobster shells are usually a blend of the three primary colors: red, yellow and blue. The colors mix to form the greenish-brown color of most lobsters [4]. Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Albino lobsters

It is estimated that only about one in 100 million lobsters is albino — lacking in colored pigments [5]. Albinism (from Latin albus, meaning Bobby Herrick; extended etymology at Wiktionary), more technically hypomelanism or hypomelanosis, is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair (or more rarely the eyes alone). ...


Fighting

American lobsters are solitary animals. The only time they peacefully share a burrow or other enclosed area is for mating. At other times, when two lobsters meet, they will size each other up. If one is clearly bigger or stronger, the weaker one will retreat. A well matched pair will move through a ritualized series of aggressive displays until one gives up. These start with whipping antennae at each other, then shoving each other around with their claws, then a claw crushing show of strength called claw lock, and lastly flipping the opponent and trying to kill it. However, at any point before the end a lobster can back-off, admitting defeat, and the victor will usually not progress further. After this the loser lobster will be able to recognize the victor for up to about a week and will immediately back out of a fight.


An exception to this ritual order occurs with egg-bearing females. These lobsters are more solitary than usual, and will skip preliminary steps and go for a kill when possible.


Lobsters as a food

Lobster meal, Digby, Nova Scotia.
Lobster meal, Digby, Nova Scotia.

American lobsters are a popular food, commonly boiled or steamed; for either method, they must be alive until they are cooked to avoid food poisoning. Hardshells (lobsters that are several months past their last molt) can survive out of water for up to two days if kept refrigerated. Softshells (lobsters that have only recently molted) will not survive more than few hours out of water. Because of this requirement, they can often be selected out of the tank in many restaurants, and their cost also can vary seasonally. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 3397 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lobster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 3397 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lobster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Digby, Nova Scotia in 1906 Digby, Nova Scotia in 2005 For other meanings of Digby, see Digby Digby is a town in western Nova Scotia which lies on the Annapolis Basin of the Bay of Fundy. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...


Lobster on its own is very low fat but not suitable for low sodium diets. One common way of serving lobster tail is known as surf and turf. Surf and turf is a main course particularly common in steakhouses which combines seafood and meat, usually American lobster tail and steak. ...


Lobsters have a greenish or brownish organ called the tomalley that performs the functions of the liver and pancreas in a human, i.e. it filters out toxins from the body. Some diners consider it a delicacy, but others avoid it, considering it a toxin source. Tomalley or lobster paste is the soft, green substance found in the body cavity of lobsters, that fulfils the functions of both the liver and the pancreas. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system (of vertebrates[2]). It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ...


Most lobsters before cooking are mottled in appearance, but after cooking, almost all of them are completely red. Caution is advisable, as much of the body will still contain water, which may stay hotter than the outside of the shell, and can scald or startle an inexperienced diner.


A set of nutcrackers and a long, thin tool for pulling meat from inaccessible areas are suggested as basics, although more experienced diners can eat the animal with their bare hands or a simple tool (a fork , knife or rock). Eating a lobster can get messy, and most restaurants will offer a lobster bib (a thin plastic dickey-like item, usually white, usually with a picture of a cooked lobster on it).


Meat is generally contained in the larger claws and tails, and stay warm quite a while after being served. There is some meat in the legs and in the arms that connect the large claws to the body. There is also some small amount of meat just below the carapace around the thorax and in the smaller legs. The meat is generally sweet and tender. Dipping chunks of the meat into melted butter can enhance its taste.


The American lobster industry

Most lobsters come from the north-eastern coast of North America with the Canadian Maritimes and the US state of Maine being the largest producers. They are caught primarily using lobster traps, although lobsters are also harvested as bycatch by bottom trawlers and fishermen using gillnets. Lobster traps near Guilford, Connecticut File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lobster traps near Guilford, Connecticut File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... Guilford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, that borders Madison, Branford, North Branford and Durham, and is situated on I-95 and the coast. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... A lobster trap (British English: lobster pot) is an effective way for fishermen to catch many lobsters at once when lobster fishing. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively_immature juveniles of the target species. ... A gillnet is a type of fishing net, a type of which is the driftnet (which is a drifting gillnet - i. ...


Lobster traps are rectangular shaped cages made of vinyl-coated galvanized steel mesh with woven mesh entrances (wooden traps, now largely obsolete, were originally used). These are baited and lowered to the sea floor. They allow a lobster to enter, but make it difficult for the larger specimens to turn around and exit. This allows the creatures to be captured alive. The traps, sometimes referred to as "pots", have a buoy floating on the surface and lobstermen check their traps anywhere between one to seven days later. Studies have shown that the inefficiency of the trapping system has inadvertently prevented the lobster population from being overfished. Lobsters can easily escape the trap, and will defend the trap against other lobsters because it is a source of food. The study, conducted at the University of New Hampshire, estimates that only 10% of lobsters that encounter a trap will enter and that only 6% of those will actually be caught [6]. A sea lion on navigational buoy #14 in San Diego Harbor Green can #11 near the mouth of the Saugatuck river. ...


In the United States, the lobster industry is regulated by law. This is done to protect the lobster industry for future generations. Every lobsterman is required to carry a lobster gauge. This is a measuring device that gauges the distance from the lobster's eye socket to the end of its carapace. If the lobster is less than 3¼ inches (83 mm) long, it is too young to be sold and must be released back to the sea. Dishonest lobstermen could try to sell these "shorts." There is also a legal maximum size of 5 inches (127 mm) in Maine, meant to ensure the survival of a healthy breeding stock of adult males, but in parts of some states, such as Massachusetts, there is none. Also, traps must contain an escape hole or "vent", which allows juvenile lobsters and by-catch species to escape. Law in Maine and other states dictates that a second large escape hole or "ghost panel" must be installed. This hole is held shut through use of biodegradable clips made of ferrous metal. Should the trap become lost, the trap will eventually open allowing the catch to escape [7].


To protect known breeding females, lobsters that are caught carrying eggs are to be notched on a tail flipper (second from the right, if the lobster is right-side up and the tail is fully extended). Following this, the female cannot be kept or sold, and is commonly referred to as a "punch-tail" or as "v-notched". These egg-bearing females are also known as "scrubs", since an unscrupulous lobsterman may scrub the eggs off the underside of the tail with a stiff brush and attempt to sell the lobster as an honest catch. The United States Coast Guard often boards the boats of lobstermen to ensure that they are not carrying "shorts" or "scrubs". While the vast majority of lobstermen are honest, the few dishonest lobstermen will try to throw their illegal catch overboard at the first sight of a USCG boarding party. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ...


The commercial lobstering industry is largely self-regulated. There have been well-documented examples of 'ocean justice' where dishonest lobstermen have lost their boats, homes and vehicles to vandalism by other lobstermen in retaliation for illegal acts such as scrubbing, selling shorts or hauling another lobsterman's pots. In the past, many lobstermen would keep firearms aboard their vessels to threaten any boaters or other lobstermen who were seen hauling their pots. This practice continues in many parts of New England. The laws of Massachusetts and several other states permit lobstermen to use force to protect their pots.


Lobster management policy in the US is made by committees called LCMT's or Lobster Conservation Management Committees. These groups are made up of local fishermen, policy managers and scientists. The LCMT's report to the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, an interstate fisheries organization. Lobstermen are unique in the US in that they are able to create their own conservation policy, as set under specific guidelines by scientists and political management. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission ( ASMFC ) manages marine, shell, and anadromous fishery resources along the Atlantic coast within state waters. ...


Lobster boats range from small rowboats to the larger 80+ ft offshore boats that fish the US EEZ from Maine to North Carolina. The average inshore lobster boat is anywhere from 25 to 42 feet long. These inshore boats haul anywhere from 200-500 traps each day. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... In international maritime law, an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a seazone extending from a states coast over which the state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


An inshore lobster boat costs anywhere from US$30,000 to $400,000, depending upon the size of the boat and engine. Lobster traps cost anywhere from $50-80 each, and most lobstermen fish 400-800 traps (800 is the maximum number of traps allowed lobstermen in the inshore Gulf of Maine). In addition, the rope and buoys used are also very expensive. ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ...


References

  1. ^ Heaviest marine crustacean. Guinness World Records. Retrieved on 2006 August 3.
  2. ^ Dennis Hoey. "Professor finds key to rare lobster color", MaineToday.com, 2005-05-04.
  3. ^ "Man finds rare yellow lobster", local6.com, 2006-08-02.
  4. ^ Blake de Pastino. "Photo in the News: Lobster Caught "Half Cooked" in Maine", National Geographic News, 2006-07-20.
  5. ^ Doug Fraser. "Albino lobster pulled from sea", Cape Cod Times, 2005-05-06.
  6. ^ "Lobster Trap Video", University of New Hampshire.
  7. ^ "Noncommercial Lobster/Crab Harvesters", Maine Department of Marine Resources.

  Results from FactBites:
 
American lobster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1784 words)
Lobsters use scents to communicate who and where they are, and those scents are in the urine as in dogs.
Because lobsters molt, it is extremely difficult to determine a lobster's age.
Lobsters have a greenish or brownish organ called the tomalley that performs the functions of the liver and pancreas in a human, i.e.
Lobster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1517 words)
Lobsters are an economically important type of seafood, the basis of a global industry that nets $1.8 billion in trade annually.
Lobsters live on rocky, sandy, or muddy bottoms from the shoreline to beyond the edge of the continental shelf.
The anatomy of the lobster includes the cephalothorax which is the head fused with the thorax, both of which are covered by the carapace, and the abdomen.
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