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Encyclopedia > American liberalism
The Liberalism series,
part of the Politics series
Development
History of liberal thought
Contributions to liberal theory
Schools
Classical liberalism
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American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. [1] Liberalism in America takes various forms, ranging from classical liberalism to social liberalism to neoliberalism. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This is an (partial) overview of individuals that contributed to the development of liberal theory on a worldwide scale and therefore are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cultural liberalism is a form of liberalism which stresses the freedom of the individual from what Lord Acton called the tyrany of the majority, the right of the non-conformist to march to a different drummer. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics begun in the Englightenment, and believed to be first fully forumulated by Adam Smith. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy advocating that individuals should be free to do whatever they wish with their person or property, as long as they do not infringe on the same liberty of others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about political philosophy of Ordoliberalism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... Liberalism has been a strong force in Canadian politics since the late 18th Century. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series References A page examining the divergence between the Australian Liberal Party and liberals from ozpolitics. ... This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom. ... This is an (partial) overview of individuals that contributed to the development of liberal theory on a worldwide scale and therefore are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook, that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular conception of the good. This idea formed a cornerstone of John Rawls work and has been developed by many other liberal thinkers e. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... This box:  • • A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... An open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ... Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The International Federation of Liberal & Radical Youth (IFLRY) is an international grouping of Liberal parties - it is the youth wing of the Liberal International. ... The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993) is a liberal party, active in the European Union, uniting liberal and centrist parties around Europe which together represent more than 20 million European voters and is an international non-profit association incorporated under the laws of Belgium. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... European Liberal Youth (LYMEC - Liberal Youth Movement of the European Community) is an international organisation of Liberal youth movements - mostly the youth wings of members of the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party. ... The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia. ... The Africa Liberal Network is composed of 16 parties in Africa, from 14 different countries, and is an associated organisation of Liberal International, the political family to which Liberal Democratic parties belong. ... The Liberal Network for Latin America (Red Liberal de América Latina, RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica November 2004. ... The Liberal Network for Latin America (Red Liberal de América Latina, RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica November 2004. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The United States was founded on classical liberal republican principles. [2] The United States Declaration of Independence speaks of "unalienable rights" to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness", and asserts that government may exist only with the "consent of the governed"; the Preamble to the Constitution enumerates among its purposes to "secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity"; the Bill of Rights contains numerous measures guaranteeing individual freedom, both from the authority of the state and from the tyranny of the majority; and the Reconstruction Amendments after the Civil War freed the slaves and (at least in principle) extended to them and to their descendants the same rights as other Americans. [3] Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on Liberty and ruled by the people. ... United States Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776 which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of Great Britain. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. ... The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, passed between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy...


The term liberalism in America today most often refers to Modern American liberalism, a political current that reached its high-water marks with Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal, and Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. It is a form of social liberalism, combining support for government social programs, progressive taxation, and moderate Keynesianism with a broad concept of rights, which sometimes include a right to education and health care. However, this is by no means the only contemporary American political current that draws heavily on the liberal tradition. Libertarianism is often said to be generally resembling, though not necessarily identical, to American classical liberalism, which advocates the laissez-faire doctrines of political and economic liberalism, equality before the law, indvidual freedom and self-reliance, which is in contrast to social liberalism's concern with state-provided equality of opportunity. Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by Graham Wallas. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy advocating that individuals should be free to do whatever they wish with their person or property, as long as they do not infringe on the same liberty of others. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics described by classical liberal authors such as Adam Smith or the French Physiocrats. ...

Contents

Common ground

Liberals share a belief in individual rights, free enterprise, representative democracy, and the rule of law. In this sense, almost all Americans accept liberal ideals, so much so that it is easy to forget how revolutionary these ideals were when the American Constitution was written. Within this broad definition of liberalism, there are several competing philosophies.


Varieties of liberalism

Classical American liberalism

Main article: Classical liberalism Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ...


American classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[4]) is a philosophy of laissez-faire. It may be represented by Henry David Thoreau's statement "that government is best which governs least." Classical liberalism is a philosophy of individualism and self-responsibility. Classical liberals in America believed that if the economy were left to the natural forces of supply and demand, rather than these being determined by government intervention, it results in the most abundant satisfaction of human wants. Modern classical liberals oppose the concept of a welfare state. Classical liberalism experienced a revival in America in the late 20th century and had influence on political administrations starting with Ronald Reagan. When asked in an interview in 1975 which economists were influential on him, he replied: "Bastiat and von Mises, and Hayek and Hazlitt–I’m one for the classical economists." [1] The term "classical liberalism" is particularly applicable in the United States, since in Europe "liberalism" refers to a philosophy that is closer to market liberalism than modern American liberalism. Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is most well-known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... von Mises stress in two dimensions Von Mises stress, , is used to estimate yield criteria for ductile materials. ... Hayek may refer to: Friedrich Hayek Nicolas Hayek Salma Hayek Thaddaeus Hagecius ab Hayek Hayek Society This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ... Henry Hazlitt (November 28, 1894 - July 8, 1993) was a libertarian philosopher, economist and journalist for The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and Newsweek, among other publications. ... As a market-emphasized descendant of classical liberalism, market liberalism advocates full freedom of markets, without e. ... Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ...


Modern American liberalism

Main article: Modern American liberalism Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Progressivism


This article has some overlap
with these other political positions
Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ...

Schools
American Progressivism
New Deal liberalism
Educational progressivism
Techno-progressivism
Ideas
Conservation ethic
Efficiency Movement
Economic progressivism
Freedom
Worker rights
Mixed economy
Positive liberty
Social justice
Social progressivism
Welfare of Society
Programs
The Square Deal
The New Nationalism
The New Freedom
The New Deal
The New Frontier
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Herbert Croly (1869-1930), philosopher and political theorist, was the first to effectively combine classical liberal theory with progressive philosophy to form what would come to be known as American liberalism. Croly presented the case for a planned economy, increased spending on education, and the creation of a society based on the "brotherhood of mankind." Croly founded the periodical, The New Republic, still in circulation, which continues to present liberal ideas. In the United States the term Progressivism refers to two political movements: first, political progressivism rooted in optimistic social and economic reform movements of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, ideological or modern left-wing progressivism which sees itself as a reform movement to the left of Democratic... Educational progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. ... Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, or tech-progressivism (a portmanteau word combining technology-focused and progressivism), is a stance of active support for technological development and social progress. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ... Economic Progressivism is a political Economic Ideology. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers. ... This box:  • • A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Social justice refers to conceptions of justice applied to an entire society. ... Social progressivism is the view that as time progresses, society should disgregard morality in place of political correctness. ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... The Square Deal was the term used by President Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the policies of his administration, particularly with regard to how economic policies, such as antitrust enforcement. ... In a speech in Osawatomie, Kansas, in August 1910, Theodore Roosevelt made the case for what he called the New Nationalism. ... The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee and was used as a label for his administrations domestic and foreign programs. ... Herbert David Croly (January 23, 1869 - May 17, 1930) was a liberal political author. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... For other uses, see the disambiguation section. ...


His ideas influenced the political views of both Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. In 1909, Croly published The Promise of American Life, in which he proposed raising the general standard of living by means of economic planning, though he opposed aggressive unionization. In The Techniques of Democracy (1915) he argued against both dogmatic individualism and dogmatic socialism. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... The Promise of American Life is a book published by Herbert Croly, founder of The New Republic, in 1909. ... The Techniques of Democracy is a book written by Herbert Croly, founder of the New Republic. ...


Changes in liberalism in America

The New Deal

President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), came to office in 1933 amid the economic calamity of the Great Depression, offering the nation a New Deal intended to alleviate economic want and joblessness, provide greater opportunities, and restore prosperity. His presidency from 1933 to 1945, the longest in U.S. history, was marked by an increased role for the Federal government in addressing the nation's economic and other problems. Work relief programs provided jobs, ambitious projects such as the Tennessee Valley Authority were created to promote economic development, and a Social Security system was established. The Great Depression dragged on through the 1930s, however, despite the New Deal programs, which met with mixed success in solving the nation's economic problems. Economic progress for minorities was hindered by discrimination, an issue often avoided by Roosevelt's administration. FDR redirects here. ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article is too long. ...


The New Deal consisted of three types of programs designed to produce "Relief, Recovery and Reform":


Relief was the immediate effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression. Roosevelt expanded Hoover's FERA work relief program, and added the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Public Works Administration (PWA), and starting in 1935 the Works Progress Administration (WPA). In 1935 the Social Security Act (SSA) and unemployment insurance programs were added. Separate programs were set up for relief in rural America, such as the Resettlement Administration and Farm Security Administration. Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ... The Public Works Administration of 1933 was a New Deal agency that made contracts with private firms for construction of public works. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created in May 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... Unemployment benefits are payments made by governments to unemployed people. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Photo of a sharecropper by Walker Evans for the U.S. Resettlement Administration Initially created as the Resettlement Administration in 1935 as part of the New Deal, the Farm Security Administration was an experiment in collectivizing agriculture — that is, in bringing farmers together to work on large government-owned farms...


Recovery was the goal of restoring the economy to pre-depression levels. It involved "pump priming" (deficit spending), dropping the gold standard, efforts to re-inflate farm prices that were too low, and efforts to increase foreign trade. New Deal efforts to help corporate America were chiefly channelled through a Hoover program, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). This article is on the monetary principle. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was an independent agency of the U.S. government, chartered during the administration of Herbert Hoover in 1932. ...


Reform was based on the assumption that the depression was caused by the inherent instability of the market and that government intervention was necessary to rationalize and stabilize the economy, and to balance the interests of farmers, business and labor. Reform measures included the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), regulation of Wall Street by the Securities Exchange Act (SEA), the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) for farm programs, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insurance for bank deposits enacted through the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, and the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (also known as the Wagner Act) dealing with labor-management relations. Despite urgings by some New Dealers, there was no major anti-trust program. Roosevelt opposed socialism (in the sense of state ownership of the means of production), and only one major program, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), involved government ownership of the means of production. NRA Blue Eagle poster. ... The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 was a sweeping piece of legislation in the United States regulating the participants in the financial markets. ... The Agricultural Adjustment Act (or AAA) (Public law 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ... The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent federal agency created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. ... Two separate United States laws are known as the Glass-Steagall Act. ... The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... The introduction to this article is too long. ...


In international affairs, Roosevelt's presidency was dominated by the outbreak of World War II and American entry into the war in 1941. Anticipating the post-war period, Roosevelt strongly supported proposals to create a United Nations organization as a means of encouraging mutual cooperation to solve problems on the international stage. His commitment to internationalist ideals was in the tradition of Woodrow Wilson, architect of the failed League of Nations. [2]. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...


American liberalism during the Cold War

U.S. liberalism of the Cold War era was the immediate heir to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal and the slightly more distant heir to the Progressives of the early 20th century. For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... // In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The essential tenets of Cold War liberalism can be found in Roosevelt's Four Freedoms (1941): of these, freedom of speech and of religion were classic liberal freedoms, as was "freedom from fear" (freedom from tyrannical government), but "freedom from want" was another matter. Roosevelt proposed a notion of freedom that went beyond government non-interference in private lives. "Freedom from want" could justify positive government action to meet economic needs, a concept more associated with the concepts of Lincoln's Republican party, Clay's Whig Party, and Hamilton's economic principles of government intervention and subsidy than the more radical socialism and social democracy of European thinkers or with prior versions of classical liberalism as represented by Jefferson's Republican and Jackson's Democratic party. The Four Freedoms are a set of freedoms United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt famously outlined in his State of the Union Address delivered to the 77th Congress on January 6, 1941 (the address is also known as the Four Freedoms speech). ... Freedom of speech is enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Defining itself against both Communism and conservatism, Cold War liberalism resembled earlier "liberalisms" in its views on many social issues and personal liberty, but its economic views were not those of free-market Jeffersonian liberalism; instead, they constituted ideas of American progressive thought rooted in Clay, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt which resembled a mild form of European styled social democracy. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Most prominent and constant among the positions of Cold War liberalism were:

  • Support for a domestic economy built on a balance of power between labor (in the form of organized unions) and management (with a tendency to be more interested in large corporations than in small business).
  • A foreign policy focused on containing the Soviet Union and its allies.
  • The continuation and expansion of New Deal social welfare programs (in the broad sense of welfare, including programs such as Social Security).
  • An embrace of Keynesianism economics. By way of compromise with political groupings to their right, this often became, in practice military Keynesianism.

In some ways this resembled what in other countries was referred to as social democracy. However, unlike European social democrats, U.S. liberals never widely endorsed nationalization of industry but regulation for public benefit. A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... A small business may be defined as a business with a small number of employees. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... Military Keynesianism is a government economic policy in which the government devotes large amounts of spending to the military in an effort to increase economic growth. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In the 1950s and '60s, both major U.S. political parties included liberal and conservative factions. The Democratic Party had two wings: on the one hand, Northern and Western liberals, on the other generally conservative Southern whites. Difficult to classify were the northern urban Democratic "political machines". The urban machines had supported New Deal economic policies, but would slowly come apart over racial issues. Some historians have divided the Republican Party into liberal Wall Street and conservative Main Street factions; others have noted that the GOP's conservatives came from landlocked states (Robert Taft of Ohio and Barry Goldwater of Arizona) and the liberals tended to come from California (Earl Warren and Paul N. "Pete" McCloskey), New York (see Nelson Rockefeller), and other coastal states. The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A political machine is an unofficial system of political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... GOP redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Main Street in Los Altos, California. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American politician, philanthropist and businessman. ...


In the late 1940s, liberals generally did not see Harry S. Truman as one of their own, viewing him as a Democratic Party hack. However, liberal politicians and liberal organizations such as the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) sided with Truman in opposing Communism both at home and abroad, sometimes at the sacrifice of civil liberties. For example, ADA co-founder and archetypal Cold War liberal Hubert H. Humphrey unsuccessfully sponsored (in 1950) a Senate bill to establish detention centers where those declared subversive by the President could be held without trial. Harry S Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Americans For Democratic Action (ADA) was formed in January 1947, when Eleanor Roosevelt, John Kenneth Galbraith, Reinhold Niebuhr, Hubert Humphrey and 200 other activists. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ...


Nonetheless, liberals opposed McCarthyism and were central to McCarthy's downfall. Senator Joseph McCarthy McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s. ...


The liberal consensus

By 1950, the liberal ideology was so intellectually dominant that the literary critic Lionel Trilling could write that "liberalism is not only the dominant but even the sole intellectual tradition... there are no conservative or reactionary ideas in circulation, [merely] irritable mental gestures which seek to resemble ideas." [Lapham 2004] 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lionel Trilling (July 4, 1905 – November 5, 1975) was an American literary critic, author, and teacher. ...


For almost two decades, Cold War liberalism remained the dominant paradigm in U.S. politics, peaking with the landslide victory of Lyndon B. Johnson over Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential election. Lyndon Johnson had been a New Deal Democrat in the 1930s and by the 1950s had decided that the Democratic Party had to break from its segregationist past and endorse racial liberalism as well as economic liberalism. In the face of the disastrous defeat of Goldwater, the Republicans accepted more than a few of Johnson's ideas as their own, so to a very real extent, the policies of President Johnson became the policies of the Republican administrations of Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Barry Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...


Liberals and civil rights

Cold War liberalism emerged at a time when most African Americans, especially in the South, were politically and economically disenfranchised. Beginning with To Secure These Rights, an official report issued by the Truman White House in 1947, self-proclaimed liberals increasingly embraced the civil rights movement. In 1948, President Truman desegregated the armed forces and the Democrats inserted a strong civil rights "plank" (paragraph) in the party platform. Legislatively, the civil rights movement would culminate in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ... A party platform, also known as an manifesto is a list of the principles which a political party supports in order to appeal to the general public for the purpose of having said partys candidates voted into office. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ...


During the 1960s, relations between white liberals and the civil rights movement became increasingly strained; civil rights leaders accused liberal politicians of temporizing and procrastinating. Although President Kennedy sent federal troops to compel the University of Mississippi to admit African American James Meredith in 1962, and civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. toned down the March on Washington (1963) at Kennedy's behest, the failure to seat the delegates of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention indicated a growing rift. President Johnson could not understand why the rather impressive civil rights laws passed under his leadership had failed to immunize Northern and Western cities from rioting. At the same time, the civil rights movement itself was becoming fractured. By 1966, a Black Power movement had emerged; Black Power advocates accused white liberals of trying to control the civil rights agenda. Proponents of Black Power wanted African-Americans to follow an "ethnic model" for obtaining power, not unlike that of Democratic political machines in large cities. This put them on a collision course with urban machine politicians. And, on its most extreme edges, the Black Power movement contained racial separatists who wanted to give up on integration altogether--a program that could not be endorsed by American liberals of any race. The mere existence of such individuals (who always got more media attention than their actual numbers might have warranted) contributed to "white backlash" against liberals and civil rights activists. The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ... Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... A delegate is an individual (or a member of a group called a delegation) who represents the interests of a larger organization (e. ... The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. ... Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Paleoliberalism

As the civil rights and anti-war protesters of the late 1960s and early 1970s began to organize into a recognizable school of thought known as the New Left, many "anti-Soviet liberals and social democrats in the tradition of Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Humphrey and Henry ("Scoop") Jackson… preferred to call themselves 'paleoliberals'", according to historian Michael Lind. Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The New Left is a term used in political discourse to refer to radical left-wing movements from the 1960s onwards. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Harry S Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911–January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota and was mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Several notable persons have been named Henry Jackson: Henry Bradwardine Jackson, British First Sea Lord in World War I Henry M. Jackson, US Senator Henry R. Jackson, US general in 19th century See also: William Henry Jackson, Henry Jackson van Dyke, Henry Jackson Hunt This is a disambiguation page &#8212... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Michael Lind is an American journalist and historian, currently the Whitehead Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation. ...


Lind also notes that some of these people became neoconservatives. Lind, although paleoliberals such as Peter Beinart exist to this day. Neoconservatism is a political movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ... Peter Beinart is the current editor of The New Republic. ...


Liberals and Vietnam

While the civil rights movement isolated liberals from their erstwhile allies, the Vietnam War threw a wedge into the liberal ranks, dividing pro-war "hawks" such as Senator Henry M. Jackson from "doves" such as Senator (and 1972 presidential candidate) George McGovern. As the war became the leading political issue of the day, agreement on domestic matters was not enough to hold the liberal consensus together. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee, who lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. ...


Vietnam could be called a "liberal war", part of the strategy of containment of Soviet Communism. In the 1960 presidential campaign, the liberal Kennedy was more hawkish on Southeast Asia than the more conservative Nixon. Although it can be argued that the war expanded only under the less liberal Johnson, there was enormous continuity of their cabinets. Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it attempted to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ...


As opposition to the war grew, a large portion of that opposition came from within liberal ranks. In 1968, the Dump Johnson movement forced Democratic President Johnson out of the race for his own party's nomination for the presidency. Assassination removed Robert Kennedy from contention and Vice President Hubert Humphrey emerged from the disastrous 1968 Democratic National Convention with the presidential nomination of a deeply divided party. The party's right wing had seceded to run Alabama governor George Wallace, and some on the left chose to sit out the election rather than vote for a man so closely associated with the Johnson administration (and with Chicago mayor Richard J. Daley). The result was a narrow victory for Republican Richard Nixon, a man who, although a California native, was largely regarded as from the old Northeast Republican Establishment, and quite liberal in many areas himself. Nixon enacted many liberal policies, including the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency, establishing the Drug Enforcement Agency, normalizing relations with Communist China, and starting the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks to reduce ballistic missile availability. 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Dump Johnson movement was a movement within the United States Democratic Party to oppose the candidacy of President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson to become the partys nominee in the 1968 presidential election. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Are you kidding?, this is solid truth here, nothing escapes the eyes of Gov!!!, not even. ... Governor George Wallace (in front of door) standing defiantly against desegregation while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama in 1963. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, The City of Big Shoulders The 312 Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Establishment is a slang term (chiefly in British and Commonwealth English) for a traditional conservative ruling class and its institutions. ... EPA redirects here. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... PRC redirects here. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Polish missile wz. ...


Nixon and the liberal consensus

While the differences between Nixon and the liberals are obvious – the liberal wing of his own party favored politicians like Nelson Rockefeller and William Scranton, and Nixon overtly placed an emphasis on "law and order" over civil liberties, and Nixon's Enemies List was composed largely of liberals – in some ways the continuity of many of Nixon's policies with those of the Kennedy-Johnson years is more remarkable than the differences. Pointing at this continuity, Noam Chomsky has called Nixon, "in many respects the last liberal president." [3] Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American politician, philanthropist and businessman. ... Scranton made the cover of Time in 1962 William Warren Scranton (born July 19, 1917) is a former U.S. Republican Party politician. ... Nixons enemies list was compiled by Charles Colson and sent to John Dean Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of President Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell [1] (assistant to Colson, special... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ...


Although liberals turned increasingly against the Vietnam War, to the point of running the very dovish George McGovern for President in 1972, the war had, as noted above, been of largely liberal origin. Similarly, while many liberals condemned actions such as the Nixon administrations support for the 1973 Chilean coup, it was not entirely dissimilar to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961 or the marine landing in the Dominican Republic in 1965. George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee, who lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... This is the history of Chile. ... Combatants Cuba Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro Arnaldo Ochoa Sanchez Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties 2,200; estimated 115 dead 1,189 captured Cuban poster warning before invasion showing a soldier armed... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. ...


The political dominance of the liberal consensus, even into the Nixon years, can best be seen in policies such as the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency or in Nixon's (failed) proposal to replace the welfare system with a guaranteed annual income by way of a negative income tax. Affirmative action in its most quota-oriented form was a Nixon administration policy. Even the Nixon "War on Drugs" allocated two-thirds of its funds for treatment, a far higher ratio than was to be the case under any subsequent President, Republican or Democrat. Additionally, Nixon's normalization of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and his policy of detente with the Soviet Union were probably more popular with liberals than with his conservative base. In economics, a negative income tax (abbreviated NIT) is a method of tax reform that has been discussed among economists but never fully implemented. ... Affirmative action (or positive discrimination) is a policy or a program whose stated goal is to redress past or present discrimination through active measures to ensure equal opportunity, for example in education, employment or seats in parliament and/or government. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report Prevalance of drug use 1991-2002 The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States with the assistance of participating countries, which is intended to curb supply and diminish demand for certain psychoactive substances. ...


An opposing view, offered by Cass R. Sunstein, in The Second Bill of Rights (Basic Books, 2004, ISBN 0-465-08332-3) argues that Nixon, through his Supreme Court appointments, effectively ended a decades-long expansion under U.S. law of economic rights along the lines of those put forward in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the United Nations General Assembly. Cass R. Sunstein (b. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris), outlining the organizations view on the human rights guaranteed to all people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


Liberal consensus, 1970 to the present day

During the Nixon years (and through the 1970s), the liberal consensus began to come apart. The alliance with white Southern Democrats had been lost in the Civil Rights era. While the steady enfranchisement of African Americans expanded the electorate to include many new voters sympathetic to liberal views, it was not quite enough to make up for the loss of some Southern Democrats. Organized labor, long a bulwark of the liberal consensus, was past the peak of its power in the U.S. and many unions had remained in favor of the Vietnam War even as liberal politicians increasingly turned against it. Within the Democratic party leadership, there was a turn of moderation after the defeat of arch-liberal George McGovern in 1972. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Meanwhile, in the Republican ranks, a new wing of the party was emerging. The libertarian Goldwater Republicans laid the groundwork for, and partially fed in to the Reagan Republicans. In 1980, Republican Ronald Reagan captured his party's nomination for the presidency. More centrist groups such as the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) would contend on an equal footing with liberals for control of the Democratic Party in this time. The centrist-liberal alliance of the federal level Democrats lasted through the 1980s, but declined in the 1990s when more conservative political figures sided with the Republican party. See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... In politics and religion, a moderate is an individual who holds an intermediate position between two extreme or radical viewpoints. ... The Democratic Leadership Council is a non-profit corporation[1] that argues that the United States Democratic Party should shift away from traditionally populist positions. ...


In the late 1980s and 1990s, there was a reappearance of politicians who held liberal views. Bill Clinton, then state governor of Arkansas was elected to office in 1992 as the 42nd president of the United States and re-elected in 1996, was the first baby boomer to hold presidential office. He was a liberal when it came to social services and civil rights, but less focused on big business and the military. On the contrary, President Clinton worked out divisive issues with conservative colleagues and his primarily Republican administration, the two parties brought on a balanced federal budget and Clinton's legacy was an economic boom of the late 1990s referred to America's longest period of prosperity. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... A Baby Boomer is someone who was born during the period of increased birth rates when economic prosperity rose in many countries following World War II. In the United States, the term is iconic and more properly capitalized as Baby Boomers and commonly applied to people with birth years after...


In 21st century American politics, there is considerable confusion over the meaning of the term "liberal". Beginning in the early 1990s, Republicans have made a concerted effort to change the meaning of the term, by a method called "framing". [5] Instead of arguing against liberal beliefs, "framing" attempts to change the meaning of the word in the public consciousness, so that a belief in equal rights for all Americans is framed as "special rights for homosexuals", a belief in the rights of those accused of crimes is framed as "soft on crime", and a belief in freedom of religion is framed as "hatred of Christians". [6] This has been successful to such an extent that the term "liberal" has become stigmatized and is now generally avoided by those running for office; "progressive" is now often used instead of "liberal". Although the two are related, they are really distinct political ideologies. [7][8] GOP redirects here. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ...


Quotations by the founders of American liberalism

Thomas Paine wrote, "Society in every state is a blessing, but Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil." [9]


John Adams wrote, "Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right... and a desire to know; but besides this, they have a right, an indisputable, unalienable, indefeasible, divine right to that most dreaded and envied kind of knowledge, I mean of the characters and conduct of their rulers." [10]


Samuel Adams wrote, "Driven from every other corner of the earth, freedom of thought and the right of private judgment in matters of conscience direct their course to this happy country as their last asylum." [11]


Patrick Henry wrote, "That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence,; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other. [12]


Thomas Jefferson wrote:
"Were it left to me to have a government with no newspapers, or newspapers with no government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter." [13]
"Experience declares that man is the only animal which devours his own kind; for I can apply no milder term... to the general prey of the rich upon the poor." [14]
"If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be." [15]


Some positions associated with American liberalism

  • freedom of the individual
  • freedom of the press
  • the rights of man
  • separation of church and state
  • equality for all regardless of race, age, religion, income, sex and sexual orientation.
  • the value to society of the workers [16]

American liberal thinkers and leaders

Some notable figures in the history of modern American liberalism are:

Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... George Mason George Mason (December 11, 1725 – October 7, 1792) was a United States patriot, statesman, and delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was a politician and Founding Father of the United States of America who served both as that nations first Vice President (1789–1797), and as its second President (1797–1801). ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 — July 12, 1804) was an American politician, leading statesman, financier, intellectual, military officer, and founder of the Federalist party. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 25, 1852) was a prominent American statesman during the nations antebellum, or Pre-Civil War, era. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Herbert David Croly (January 23, 1869 - May 17, 1930) was a liberal political author. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith, OC, LL.D (October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist of the 20th century. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee, who lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) was the twenty-second United States Secretary of Labor, serving under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 1997. ... Paul David Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002) was an American politician and two-term U.S. Senator from Minnesota. ...

See also

Economic interventionism is a term used to describe activity undertaken by a central government to affect a countrys economy in an attempt to increase economic growth and/or standards of living. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the United States the term Progressivism refers to two political movements: first, political progressivism rooted in optimistic social and economic reform movements of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, ideological or modern left-wing progressivism which sees itself as a reform movement to the left of Democratic... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ...

Works cited

  1. ^ , "Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans", Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., in The Politics of Hope, Donna Zajoin, editor, Riverside Press, 1962, ISBN 0-9747644-8-5.
  2. ^ Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, Clinton Rossiter, Charles R. Kesler, The Federalist Papers, Signet Classics, 2003, ISBN 0-451-52881-6
  3. ^ The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States, Roger Pilon, editor, Cato Institute, 2000, ISBN 1-882577-98-1
  4. ^ Adams, Ian, Political Ideology Today (2002), Manchester University Press, page 20
  5. ^ The Framing Wars, Matt Bai, New York Times, July 17, 2005
  6. ^ Ann Coulter, Godless: The Church of Liberalism, Crown Forum, 2006, ISBN 1-4000-5420-6
  7. ^ Andrew Garib, "What Is Progressivism?"
  8. ^ Untergeek.com, "Progressive versus Liberal"
  9. ^ Thomas Paine, Common Sense, Dover, 1997, ISBN 0-486-29602-4
  10. ^ John Adams, A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law, in Political Writings of John Adams, George Peek, Jr. editor, Macmillan, 1954 ISBN 0-672-60010-2
  11. ^ Samuel Adams, speech, Philadelphia, August 1, 1776, in The Writings of Samuel Adams, IndyPublish.com, 2003 ISBN 1-4043-4693-7
  12. ^ Patrick Henry, Virginia Bill of Rights, 1776, in Origins of the Bill of Rights, Leonard Levy, editor, Yale University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-300-08901-5
  13. ^ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington, January 16, 1787, in Thomas Jefferson : Writings : Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters, Merrill D. Peterson, editor, Library of America, 1984, ISBN 0-940450-16-X
  14. ^ Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Colonel Edward Carrington, January 16, 1787, ibid.
  15. ^ Thomas Jefferson, letter to Colonel Charles Yancey, January 6, 1816, ibid.
  16. ^ To protect the workers in their inalienable rights to a higher and better life...the right to be full sharers in the abundance which is the result of their brain and brawn, and the civilization which they are the founders and the mainstay... ." Samuel Gompers, Speech (1898)
  • Lewis H. Lapham, "Tentacles of Rage" in Harper's, September 2004, p. 31-41.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly magazine of politics and culture. ...

External links

Look up American liberalism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Liberals Versus Conservatives Forum

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