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Encyclopedia > American folk music revival

The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. Its roots went earlier, of course, since traditional folk music has thousands of years of history, and performers like Woody Guthrie had enjoyed a limited general popularity in decades prior to the 1950s. The revival brought forward musical styles that had, in earlier times, contributed to the development of country & western, jazz, and rock and roll music. // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...

Contents

Overview

Pete Seeger performs, 1944
Pete Seeger performs, 1944

The folk music revival is sometimes said to have begun with Pete Seeger. The Weavers, formed in 1947 by Seeger, had a big hit in 1949 with Leadbelly's "Goodnight, Irene". This hit was probably one of the first glimmerings of the folk music revival. Image File history File links “Washington, D.C. Pete Seeger, noted folk singer entertaining at the opening of the Washington labor canteen, sponsored by the United Federal Labor Canteen, sponsored by the Federal Workers of American, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). ... Image File history File links “Washington, D.C. Pete Seeger, noted folk singer entertaining at the opening of the Washington labor canteen, sponsored by the United Federal Labor Canteen, sponsored by the Federal Workers of American, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). ... Pete Seeger (1955) Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919) almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer and political activist. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Goodnight Irene, or Irene, is a 20th century American folk standard. ...


Although carried along by a handful of artists releasing records, the folk-music scene's development was still only as a sort of cult phenomenon in bohemian circles in places like New York City (especially Greenwich Village and North Beach), and in the college and university districts of cities like Boston, Denver, Chicago and elsewhere. It was hip, but not terribly widespread. This article is becoming very long. ... The term Bohemian was used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (pronounced Grennich Village; also called simply the Village) is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City. ... Filbert Street with St. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City  89. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City  154. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ...


In the 1950s and after, acoustic folk-song performance became associated with the coffee houses, private parties, open-air concerts and sing-alongs, and college-campus concerts. It blended, to some degree, with the so-called beatnik scene, and dedicated singers of folk songs (as well as folk-influenced original material) traveled through what was called "the coffee-house circuit" across the U.S. and Canada. A Street Cafe, Jerusalem, Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875 A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or caf shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... Beatnik cartoon The term beatnik was coined by Herb Caen in an article in the San Francisco Chronicle on April 2, 1958. ...


The Kingston Trio, while playing at a college club called the Cracked Pot, were discovered by Frank Werber, who became their manager and secured them a deal with Capitol Records. Their first hit was a catchy rendition of an old-time folk song, "Tom Dooley", which went gold in 1958. The following year, the group won the first Grammy Award for Best Ethnic or Traditional Folk Recording category for the album The Kingston Trio at Large. At one point in the early 1960s, The Kingston Trio had four albums at the same time among the Top 10 selling albums[citation needed], a record unmatched for nearly 40 years. The Kingston Trios original lineup: Bob Shane, Dave Guard, Nick Reynolds The Kingston Trio is an American folk group. ... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the... Tom Dooley is an old North Carolina folk song based on a historical event. ... The description Gold Album is applied to recorded music albums that have sold a minimum number of copies (in the US, currently 500,000 sales). ... See also: 1957 in music, other events of 1958, 1959 in music, 1950s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 28 - Little Richard begins attending classes at Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama February 14 - The Iranian government bans rock & roll because they claim that the form... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The contemporary-songwriter and folk-music scene during these times often had a facet of social concern. Young singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, playing acoustic guitar and harmonica, had been signed and recorded for Columbia by producer John Hammond in 1961. Dylan's record enjoyed some popularity in the Greenwich Village folk-music cult, but he was "discovered" by an immensely larger audience when a pop-folk-music group, Peter, Paul & Mary had a hit with his song "Blowing in the Wind". Their songs often shared in the humanitarianism and social idealism of the Weavers, and a few of the earlier folk-scene notables, and this and other songs by Dylan fitted the bill. // The Unobservable Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941), is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Acoustic guitar can refer to the following musical instruments: Nylon and gut stringed guitars: Renaissance guitar Baroque guitar Romantic guitar Classical guitar, the modern version of the original guitar, with nylon strings Flamenco guitar Steel stringed guitars: Steel-string acoustic guitar, also known as western, folk or country guitar Twelve... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... There are two John Hammonds of note. ... See also: 1960 in music, other events of 1961, 1962 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 15 - Motown Records signs The Supremes January 20 - Francis Poulencs Gloria is premiered in Boston February 12 - The Miracles Shop Around becomes Motowns first... Pop-folk is a music-genre consisting of both pop music and folk music. ... Peter, Paul and Mary (often PP&M) was one of the most successful folk-singing groups of the 1960s. ... Blowin in the Wind is a song written by Bob Dylan in April 1962, and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dylan’s general popularity was soon so great that record companies began to sign, and distribute records for, many new, young, sometimes-scruffy singer/songwriters – Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, Eric von Schmidt, Buffy Saint-Marie, Dave Van Ronk, Judy Collins, Tom Rush, Fred Neil, Gordon Lightfoot, John Denver, Arlo Guthrie, John Hartford, and others, among them. Some of this wave had emerged from family singing and playing traditions, and some had not. Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940 – April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... Eric Von Schmidt was born May 28, 1931. ... Buffy Sainte-Marie Buffy Sainte-Marie (born February 20, Canadian First Nations musician, composer, visual artist, educator and social activist. ... Dave Van Ronk (June 30, 1936 – February 10, 2002) was a folk singer born in Brooklyn, New York, who settled in Greenwich Village, New York City, and was nicknamed the Mayor of MacDougal Street. ... Judy Collins Judith Marjorie Collins (born May 1, 1939 in Seattle, Washington) is an American folk and standards singer. ... Tom Rush (February 8, 1941-) was a popular folk and blues musician in the early 1960s. ... Fred Neil (March 16, 1936 – July 7, 2001) was an important American blues and folk singer and songwriter in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Lightfoot on the cover of 1975s Gords Gold Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. ... John Denver (December 31, 1943 – October 12, 1997), born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. ... A press photo of Arlo Guthrie. ... John Cowan Hartford (December 30, 1937– June 4, 2001) was an American bluegrass composer and musician known for his mastery of the fiddle and banjo, as well as for his witty lyrics and unique vocal style. ...


Collectors

During these same years, the devoted and growing folk-music crowd that had developed in the United States began to want and to buy records by obscure older folk musicians, from the Southeastern hill country and from urban inner-cities. LP records made up of collections of 78-rpm records stretching back to the 1920s and 1930s were put on sale. Many smaller record labels such as Yazoo Records grew up to distribute older recordings and to make new recordings of these artists. This was how many white Americans first heard country blues and especially Delta blues, that had been recorded by Mississippi folk artists 30 or 40 years before. A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from the island of Newfoundland some... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Black Patti label Belzona Records label Yazoo Records is a record label setup in the late 1960s by Nick Perls. ... The origins from which White American may come. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Delta blues are named for the Mississippi Delta. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Artists like the Carter Family, Robert Johnson, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Clarence Ashley, Uncle Dave Macon, Bill Monroe, and Jimmie Rodgers came to have something more than a regional or ethnic reputation. The revival turned up a tremendous wealth and diversity of music and put it out through radio shows and record stores. Maybelle, A.P. and Sara The Carter Family was a rural country music group that performed between 1927 and 1943. ... Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) is among the most famous Delta Blues musicians and arguably the most influential. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Clarence Tom Ashley (September 29 1895 (or 1885?) - June 2 1967) was a 20th-century American clawhammer banjo player and singer. ... Uncle Dave Macon Uncle Dave Macon (October 7, 1870 - March 22, 1952) was an American farmer, banjo player, singer, songwriter and comedian. ... Bill Monroe Bill Monroe (September 13, 1911 - September 9, 1996) developed the style of country music known as bluegrass, which takes its name from his band, the Blue Grass Boys, named for his home state of Kentucky. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... A Record Shop (AKA Record Store) is an outlet that sells recorded music. ...


Living representatives of some of the varied regional and ethnic traditions, including younger performers like Southern-tradition singer Jean Ritchie, enjoyed popularity through enthusiasts' widening discovery of this music. Jean Ritchie (born 1922) is an American folk singer. ...


Electric folk

After the darling of the young enthusiasts, Bob Dylan, began to record with a rocking rhythm section and electric instruments in 1965 (see Electric Dylan controversy), many other still-young folk artists followed suit. Meanwhile, bands like The Lovin' Spoonful and the Byrds, whose individual members often had a background in the folk-revival coffee-house scene, were getting recording contracts with folk-tinged music played with a rock-band line-up. Before long, the public appetite for the more acoustic music of the folk revival began to wane. See also: 1964 in music, other events of 1965, 1966 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // January 4 - Fender Guitars is sold to CBS for $13 million. ... The electric Dylan controversy was the incident at the Newport Folk Festival where folk singer Bob Dylan first went electric, by playing alongside an electric blues band in concert. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... L-R: David Crosby, Gene Clark, Michael Clarke, Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn The Byrds were an American rock music group founded in Los Angeles, California in 1964 by singers and guitarists Jim McGuinn (he later changed his name to Roger McGuinn), Gene Clark, and David Crosby. ...


"Crossover" hits ("folk songs" that became rock-music-scene staples) happened now and again. One well-known example is the song "Hey Joe", copyrighted by folk artist Billy Roberts, and recorded by rock singer/guitarist Jimi Hendrix just as he was about to burst into stardom in 1967. The anthem "Woodstock" was written and first sung and accompanied on keyboard by Joni Mitchell while her records were still nearly entirely acoustic, and while she was labelled a "folk singer" — receiving big airplay when Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young recorded a high-energy rock version. Hey Joe is an American popular song from the 1960s that has become a rock standard, and as such has been performed in a multitude of musical styles. ... William Moses Roberts Jr. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Woodstock is a song about the Woodstock Music and Art Festival of 1969. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a noted Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... Crosby, Stills, & Nash (sometimes known as Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young) is a pioneering folk rock/rock supergroup that formed out of the remnants of three 1960s bands the Buffalo Springfield, the Byrds, and the Hollies. ...

See also: Folk rock

Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ...

Legacy

By the late 1960s, the scene had returned to being more of a lower-key, afficianado phenomenon, although sizable annual acoustic-music festivals were established in many parts of North America during this period. The acoustic music coffee-house scene survived at a reduced scale. Through the luminary young singer-songwriters of the 1960s, the American folk-music revival has influenced songwriting and musical styles throughout the world.


Major figures

  • Burl Ives - as a youth, Ives dropped out of college to travel around as an itinerant singer during the early 1930s, earning his way by doing odd jobs and playing his banjo. In 1930 he had a brief, local radio career on WBOW radio in Terre Haute, Indiana, and in the 1940s he had his own radio show, titled The Wayfaring Stranger, titled after one of the popular ballads he sang. The show was very popular, and in 1946 Ives was cast as a singing cowboy in the film Smoky. Ives went on to play parts in other popular films, as well. His first book, The Wayfaring Stranger, was published in 1948.
  • Pete Seeger had met, and been influenced, by many important folk musicians (and singer-songwriters with folk roots), such as Woody Guthrie and Leadbelly. Seeger had labor movement involvements, and he met Woody at a "Grapes of Wrath" migrant workers’ concert on March 3, 1940, and the two thereafter began a musical collaboration (which included the Almanac Singers). In 1948 Seeger wrote the first version of his now-classic How to Play the Five-String Banjo, an instructional book that many banjo players credit with starting them off on the instrument.
  • The Weavers were formed in 1947 by Seeger, Ronnie Gilbert, Lee Hays, and Fred Hellerman. A fifth member, Erik Darling, sometimes sat in with the group when Seeger was unavailable. After a period of finding themselves unable to find much, if any paid work, they finally achieved a performance slot at the Village Vanguard in New York. They were then discovered by arranger Gordon Jenkins, and were signed with Decca Records.
  • Harry Belafonte, another influential singer, started his career as a club singer in New York to pay for his acting classes. At first he was a pop singer, but later he developed a keen interest in folk music. In 1952 he signed a contract with RCA Victor. His breakthrough album Calypso (1956) was the first LP to sell over a million copies. The album spent 31 weeks at number one, 58 weeks in the top ten, and 99 weeks on the US charts. It introduced American audiences to Calypso music and Belafonte was dubbed the "King of Calypso." Belafonte went on to record in many genres, including blues, American folk, gospel, etc.
  • Odetta - As an example of the more obscure among the early notables, starting in 1953 singers Odetta and Larry Mohr recorded some songs, with the LP being released in 1954 as Odetta and Larry, an album that was partially recorded live at San Francisco's Tin Angel bar. For Odetta, it began a period of great respect and a sort of underground reputation associated with a repertoire of traditional songs (e.g., spirituals) and blues covers.
Joan Baez and Bob Dylan at the March on Washington, 1963
Joan Baez and Bob Dylan at the March on Washington, 1963
  • Bob Dylan often performed, and sometimes toured with, Joan Baez, a guitarist and soprano singer of mostly traditional songs, who adopted some of Dylan's songs into her repertoire. Baez had had a following on the folk circuit for a few years before Dylan gained recognition; the two had the same manager for a number of years. It is arguable that Dylan eventually became the most popular of the younger folk-music-revival performers.

Burl Icle Ivanhoe Ives (14 June 1909 – 14 April 1995) was an acclaimed American folk music singer, author, and actor. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... A four-string banjo For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... 68. ... See also: 1945 in film 1946 1947 in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events Top grossing films North America The Bells of St. ... Pete Seeger (1955) Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919) almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer and political activist. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Leadbelly, also known as Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter; January 20, 1889 (although this is debatable) - December 6, 1949), was an American folk and blues musician, notable for his clear and forceful singing, his virtuosity on the twelve string guitar, and the rich songbook of folk standards he introduced. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... The Almanac Singers were a group of folk musicians who achieved brief popularity in the early 1940s. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Ronnie Gilbert Ronnie Gilbert (born 1926) is a well-known American folk-singer, one of the members of The Weavers with Pete Seeger. ... Lee Hays (March 14, 1914 - August 26, 1981), was an American folk-singer and songwriter, who sang bass for the Weavers. ... Erik Darling was a New York-born folk music artist, and an important influence on the folk scene in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Harold George Belafonte, Jr. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Odetta (b. ... The cover of 1993 CD re-release The Tin Angel Odetta & Larry was a short-lived blues-folk band in the mid-1950s. ... The Tin Angel is now the common name for Odetta & Larrys only album, a collection of all their recordings, originally released in 1954 as Odetta And Larry. // The album is a collection of recordings of Odetta and Larry Mohr from 1953-54; it was partially recorded live at San... In popular music, a cover version, or simply cover, is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. ... The Kingston Trios original lineup: Bob Shane, Dave Guard, Nick Reynolds The Kingston Trio is an American folk group. ... See also: 1956 in music, other events of 1957, 1958 in music, 1950s in music and the list of years in music // Events Pat Boone stars in his first two Hollywood motion pictures: Bernadine and April Love Whatever Will Be, Will Be (Que Será, Será), from 1956s Alfred Hitchcock... Location of Palo Alto within Santa Clara County, California. ... Bob Shane is an American folk singer and one of the founding members of The Kingston Trio. ... Nick Reynolds (born July 27, 1933) is a founding member of The Kingston Trio group, whose largely folk-based material captured international attention during the late fifties and early sixties. ... Dave Guard (born Donald David Guard, 19 October 1934, in Honolulu, Hawaii - died 22 March 1991) was an American folk singer and original member of The Kingston Trio. ... The Tarriers were a vocal group comprising Erik Darling, Alan Arkin, and Bob Carey, specializing in folk music and folk-flavored popular music. ... The Limeliters are a folk music group formed in July, 1959 by Louis Gottlieb (bass), Alex Hassilev (baritone), and Glenn Yarborough (tenor). ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Image File history File links Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Entertainment: closeup view of vocalists Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, 08/28/1963 Source: NARA - ARC Identifier: 542021 File links The following pages link to this file: Joan Baez ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941), is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ...

Ethnicity

See also: List of North American folk music traditions

Although singers such as the Weavers and Joan Baez occasionally included Spanish-language material in their repertoires, the folk-music revival in North America (as it existed in the coffee houses, concert halls, and radio and TV) was overwhelmingly an English-language phenomenon. In that sense, it bypassed a lot of ethnic folk traditions to be found in North America (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese, German, Polish, Russian) – except in a small proportion of instances where songs’ lyrics had been translated into English. This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. ... Spanish (  is an Iberian Romance language spoken originally in Spain. ... English, a West Germanic language originating in England, is the first language for most people in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ...


Bibliography

  • Robert Cantwell, When We Were Good: The Folk Revival (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996). ISBN 0-674-95132-8
  • Ronald D. Cohen, Rainbow Quest: The Folk Music Revival & American Society, 1940-1970 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002). ISBN 1-55849-348-4
  • Agnes "Sis" Cunningham and Gordon Friesen, Red Dust and Broadsides: A Joint Autobiography (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999) ISBN 1-55849-210-0
  • R. Serge Denisoff, Great Day Coming: Folk Music and the American Left (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971).
  • R. Serge Denisoff, Sing Me a Song of Social Significance (Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972). ISBN 0-87972-036-0
  • David Dunaway, How Can I Keep From Singing: Pete Seeger (1981; Da Capo Press, 1990). ISBN 0-306-80399-2
  • David Hajdu, Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Fariña and Richard Fariña (New York: North Point Press, 2001). ISBN 0-86547-642-X
  • Robbie Lieberman, "My Song Is My Weapon:" People's Songs, American Communism, and the Politics of Culture, 1930-50 (1989; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995). ISBN 0-252-06525-5
  • Dick Weissman, Which Side Are You On? An Inside History of the Folk Music Revival in America (New York: Continuum, 2005). ISBN 0-8264-1698-5

See also

American roots music
African American music | Appalachian/old-time | Blues (Ragtime) | Cajun music | Country (Honky tonk and Bluegrass) | Folk music revival (1950s/'60s) | Jazz (Dixieland) | Native American | Spirituals and Gospel | Swamp pop | Tejano | Zydeco

 
 

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