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Encyclopedia > American and British English spelling differences
American and British English differences

American English (AmE)


British English (BrE) This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...

Vocabulary
Pronunciation

Orthography It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of words having different meanings in British and American English. ... This is a list of British words not widely used in the United States. ... This is a list of words and phrases having differing meanings in British and American English. ... Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into: differences in accent (i. ...

  • American and British English spelling differences
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Fiction There are two major English language keyboard layouts, the United States layout and the United Kingdom layout. ...

  • List of works with different titles in the UK and US
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American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ...


In the early 18th century, English spelling was not standardized. Differences became noticeable after the publishing of influential dictionaries. Current British English spellings follow, for the most part, those of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Many of the now characteristic American English spellings were introduced, although for the most part not created, by Noah Webster in his An American Dictionary of the English Language of 1828. English spelling (or orthography), although largely phonemic, has more complicated rules than many other spelling systems used by languages written in alphabetic scripts and contains many inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation, necessitating rote learning for anyone learning to read or write English. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A Dictionary of the English Language, one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language, was prepared by Samuel Johnson and published on April 15, 1755. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ... 1888 advertisment for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is an American English language dictionary initially published by Noah Webster in 1806. ...


Webster was a strong proponent of spelling reform for reasons both philological and nationalistic. Many spelling changes proposed in the US by Webster himself, and in the early 20th century by the Simplified Spelling Board, never caught on. Among the advocates of spelling reform in England, the influences of those who preferred the Norman (or Anglo-French) spellings of certain words proved decisive. Subsequent spelling adjustments in the UK had little effect on present-day US spelling, and vice versa. While in many cases American English deviated in the 19th century from mainstream British spelling, on the other hand it has also often retained older forms. The aim of spelling reform is to make spelling easier for learners and users by removing its difficulties. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The spelling systems of Commonwealth countries, for the most part, closely resemble the British system. In Canada, however, while most spelling is "British", many "American" spellings are also used. Additional information on Canadian and Australian spelling is provided throughout the article. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

Contents

Spelling and pronunciation

In a few cases, essentially the same word has a different spelling which reflects a different pronunciation. Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ...


As well as the miscellaneous cases listed in the following table, the past tenses of some irregular verbs differ in both spelling and pronunciation, as with smelt (mainly UK) versus smelled (mainly US): see American and British English differences: Verb morphology. This is list of irregular verbs in the English language. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ...

UK US Notes
aeroplane airplane Aeroplane, originally a French loanword, is the older spelling. According to the OED,[1] "[a]irplane became the standard U.S. term (replacing aeroplane) after it was adopted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1916. Although A. Lloyd Jones recommended its adoption by the BBC in 1928, it has until recently been no more than an occasional form in British English." In the British National Corpus,[2] aeroplane outnumbers airplane by more than 7:1. The case is similar for UK aerodrome[3] and US airdrome,[4] although both of these forms are now obsolescent. The prefixes aero- and air- both mean air, and each of the two forms is found in numerous words, including many relating to aeroplanes and aviation. Thus, for example, the first appears in aeronautics, aerostatics and aerodynamics, and so on, while the second occurs (invariably) in aircraft, airport, airliner, airmail, etc. In Canada, Airplane is used more commonly than aeroplane, although aeroplane is not unknown, especially in parts of French Canada (the current French term is, however, avionaéroplane designating in French the plane ancestor). Both Canada and Australia use aerodrome as a technical term.
aluminium aluminum The spelling aluminium is the international standard in the sciences (IUPAC). The American spelling is nonetheless used by many American scientists. Humphry Davy, the element's discoverer, first proposed the name alumium, and then later aluminum. The name aluminium was finally adopted to conform with the -ium ending of metallic elements.[5] Canada as US, Australia as UK.
arse ass In vulgar senses "buttocks" ("anus"/"wretch"); unrelated sense "donkey"/"idiot" is ass in both. Both forms are found in Canada and Australia.
barmy balmy In sense "slightly insane", "crazy", "foolish",[6] which has limited currency in American English. Both forms originated in 19th century England from other senses: barmy meant "frothing [as of beer]"; balmy means "warm and soft [as of weather]". British barmy is generally misheard in North America as balmy.
behove behoove
bogeyman boogeyman The spoken form is pronounced IPA: /ˈboʊgiːˌmæn/ ("BOH-ghi-man") in the UK, so that the US form, boogeyman, is reminiscent of 1970s disco dancing to the UK ear.
carburettor carburetor British pronunciation IPA: /ˌkɑːbəˈɹɛtə(ɹ)/; US IPA: /ˈkɑɹbəˌɹeɪtɚ/. Canada spelling and pronunciation as US.
charivari shivaree, charivari In the US, where both terms are mainly regional,[7] charivari is usually pronounced as shivaree, which is also found in Canada and Cornwall,[8] and is a corruption of the French word.
coupé coupe For a two-door car; the horse-drawn carriage is coupé in both; unrelated "cup"/"bowl" is always coupe. In the US, the E is accented when used as a foreign word.
eyrie aerie Rhyme with weary and hairy respectively. Both spellings and pronunciations occur in the US.
fillet fillet, filet Meat or fish. Pronounced the French way (approximately) in the US, even if the word is spelled fillet.
furore furor Furore is a late 18th-century Italian loan that replaced the Latinate form in the UK in the following century,[9] and is usually pronounced with a voiced e. Canada as US. Australia has both.
grotty grody Clippings of grotesque; both are slang terms from the 1960s.[10]
haulier hauler Haulage contractor; haulier is the older spelling.[11]
moustache mustache In the US, according to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, the British spelling is an also-ran, yet the pronunciation with second-syllable stress is a common variant.
mum(my) mom(my) Mother. Mom is sporadically regionally found in the UK (West Midlands English); some British dialects have mam,[12] and this is often used in Irish and Welsh English. In the US region of New England, especially in the case of the Boston accent, the British pronunciation of mum is often retained, while it is still spelt mom. Canada has mom and mum; in Australia, mum is used.
naivety naiveté, naïveté The American forms are from French, ending [-'eɪ]; the British form is nativised, ending [-i].
pernickety persnickety Persnickety is a late 19th-century North American alteration of the Scottish word pernickety.[13]
quin quint Abbreviations of quintuplet.
scallywag scalawag In the US (where the word originated, as scalawag),[14] scallywag is not unknown.[15]
snigger snicker According to major dictionaries, both forms can occur in both dialects, although snigger can cause offense in the US due to the similarity to nigger.
speciality specialty In British English the standard usage is speciality, but specialty occurs in the field of medicine,[16] and also as a legal term for a contract under seal. In Canada, specialty prevails; in Australia both are current.[17]
titbit tidbit

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... Aerodrome can mean: An Austrian music festival: Aerodrome A series of aircraft constructed by Samuel Pierpont Langley. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... Aerostatics is the study of gases that are not in motion. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Airmail imprint on an envelope (Thailand) Airmail (or air mail) is mail that is transported by aircraft. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to monoplanes, biplanes and triplanes, in fact all conventional aircraft that are neither balloons, airships, autogyros, helicopters or tiltrotors. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Look up wretch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Ass may refer to: Look up ass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Disco is a genre of music that originated in discothèques. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clipping. ... West Midlands English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... The Boston accent is found not only in the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself but also much of eastern Massachusetts. ... Identical Triplet Sisters A multiple birth results when more than one human baby is born from a single pregnancy. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ...

Latin-derived spellings

-our, -or

Most words ending in unstressed -our in the United Kingdom (e.g., colour, flavour, honour, armour, rumour) end in -or in the United States (i.e., color, flavor, honor, armor, rumor). Where the vowel is unreduced, this does not occur: contour, paramour, troubadour, are spelled thus everywhere. Most words of this category derive from Latin non-agent nouns having nominative -or; the first such borrowings into English were from early Old French and the ending was -or or -ur.[18] After the Norman Conquest, the termination became -our in Anglo-French in an attempt to represent the Old French pronunciation of words ending in -or,[19] though color has been used occasionally in English since the fifteenth century.[20] The -our ending was not only retained in English borrowings from Anglo-French, but also applied to earlier French borrowings.[21] After the Renaissance, some such borrowings from Latin were taken up with their original -or termination; many words once ending in -our (for example, chancellour and governour) now end in -or everywhere. Many words of the -our/-or group do not have a Latin counterpart; for example, armo(u)r, behavio(u)r, harbo(u)r, neighbo(u)r; also arbo(u)r meaning "shelter", though senses "tree" and "tool" are always arbor, a false cognate of the other word. Some 16th and early 17th century British scholars indeed insisted that -or be used for words of Latin origin (e.g. color[20]) and -our for French loans; but in many cases the etymology was not completely clear, and therefore some scholars advocated -or only and others -our only.[22] Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... // Pergola In Valencia a newly-installed pergola shows its structure, which the climbing roses will cover. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the instrument. ... In Valencia a newly-installed pergola shows its structure, which the climbing roses will cover. ... The term false cognate is sometimes used incorrectly for false friend. ...


Webster's 1828 dictionary featured only -or and is generally given much of the credit for the adoption of this form in the US. By contrast, Dr Johnson's 1755 dictionary used the -our spelling for all words still so spelled in Britain, as well as for emperour, errour, governour, horrour, tenour, terrour, and tremour, where the u has since been dropped. Johnson, unlike Webster, was not an advocate of spelling reform, but selected the version best-derived, as he saw it, from among the variations in his sources: he favoured French over Latin spellings because, as he put it, "the French generally supplied us."[23] Those English speakers who began to move across the Atlantic would have taken these habits with them and H L Mencken makes the point that, "honor appears in the Declaration of Independence, but it seems to have got there rather by accident than by design. In Jefferson’s original draft it is spelled honour. "[24] Examples such as color, flavor, behavior, harbor, or neighbor scarcely appear in the Old Bailey's court records from the 17th and 18th century, whereas examples of their -our counterparts are numbered in thousands.[25] One notable exception is honor: honor and honour were equally frequent down to the 17th century,[26] Honor still is, in the UK, the normal spelling as a person's name. H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880 - January 29, 1956) was a twentieth century journalist and social critic, a cynic and a freethinker, known as the Sage of Baltimore and the American Nietzsche. He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th...


Derivatives and inflected forms. In derivatives and inflected forms of the -our/or words, in British usage the u is kept before English suffixes that are freely attachable to English words (neighbourhood, humourless, savoury) and suffixes of Greek or Latin origin that have been naturalized (favourite, honourable, behaviourism); before Latin suffixes that are not freely attachable to English words, the u can be dropped (honorific, honorist, vigorous, humorous, laborious, invigorate), can be either dropped or retained (colo(u)ration, colo(u)rize), or can be retained (colourist).[27] In American usage, derivatives and inflected forms are built by simply adding the suffix in all environments (favorite, savory, etc.) since the u is absent to begin with. Sour redirects here. ...


Exceptions. American usage in most cases retains the u in the word glamour, which comes from Scots, not Latin or French; saviour is a common variant of savior in the US. The British spelling is very common for "honour" (and "favour") on wedding invitations in the United States.[28] The Space Shuttle Endeavour has a u as it is named after Captain Cook's ship, HMS Endeavour. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ...


The name of the herb savory is thus spelled everywhere, although the probably related adjective savo(u)ry, like savour, has a u in the UK. Honor (the name) and arbor (the tool) have -or in Britain, as mentioned above. As a general noun, rigour (IPA: /ˈrɪgə(ɹ)/) has a u in the UK; the medical term rigor (often IPA: /ˈraɪgɔː(ɹ)/) does not. Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Look up Rigour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rigor is an episode of shaking occurring during a high fever. ...


Commonwealth usage. Commonwealth countries normally follow British usage. In Canada -or endings are not uncommon, particularly in the Prairie Provinces, though they are rarer in Eastern Canada.[29] In Australia, -or terminations enjoyed some use in the 19th century, and now are sporadically found in some regions,[30] usually in local and regional newspapers, though -our is almost universal. The name of the Australian Labor Party, founded in 1891, is a remnant of this trend. The Canadian prairies is a vast area of flat sedimentary land that stretches from Ontario and the Canadian Shield to the Canadian Rockies covering much of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - the Prairie Provinces. ... ALP redirects here. ...


-re, -er

In British usage, some words of French, Latin, or Greek origin end with a consonant followed by -re, with the -re unstressed and pronounced /ə(ɹ)/. Most of these words have the ending -er in the US. The difference is most common for words ending -bre or -tre: British spellings theatre, goitre, litre, lustre, mitre, nitre, reconnoitre, saltpetre, spectre, centre, titre; calibre, fibre, sabre, and sombre all have -er in American spelling. The ending -cre, as in acre, lucre, massacre, mediocre, is preserved in American English, to indicate the c is pronounced /k/ rather than /s/. After other consonants, there are not many -re endings even in British English: louvre, manoeuvre after -v-; meagre, ogre after -g-; euchre, ochre, sepulchre after -ch-. In the US, ogre and euchre are standard; manoeuvre and sepulchre are usually maneuver and sepulcher; and the other -re forms listed are variants of the equivalent -er form. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ... Niter is a mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, which see for more info. ... Saltpeter is variously: potassium nitrate (niter); or sodium nitrate (soda niter) ... Look up Center (disambiguation) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A titer (BE: titre) is the unit in which the analytical detection of many substances is expressed. ... Calibre redirects here. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ... A louver (or louvre in British English, from French louvert; the open one) is a frame with horizontal and vertical slats, which are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and sun shine. ... A maneuver (also spelled manoeuvre) is a tactical or strategical move or action. ... Binomial name Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 Argyrosomus regius (also known as Meagre, Shade-fish, Salmon-Basse or Stone Basse) is a fish of the Sciaenidae family. ... Not to be confused with Uecker . ... This article is about the color. ... For the sepulchral burial site of Jesus in Jerusalem, see Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ...


The e preceding the r is retained in US derived forms of nouns and verbs, for example, fibers, reconnoitered, centering, which are, naturally, fibres, reconnoitred and centring respectively in British usage. It is dropped for other inflections, for example, central, fibrous, spectral. However such dropping cannot be regarded as proof of an -re British spelling: for example, entry derives from enter, which has not been spelled entre for centuries.


The difference relates only to root words; -er rather than -re is universal as a suffix for agentive (reader, winner) and comparative (louder, nicer) forms. One consequence is the British distinction of meter for a measuring instrument from metre for the unit of measurement. However, while poetic metre is often -re, pentameter, hexameter, etc. are always -er. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A Love Meter at a Framingham, Massachusetts Rest Stop. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... In poetry, a pentameter is a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet: Be what you can if thus your heart so deem, For more the man will less the foible seem. ... Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ...


Exceptions. Many other words have -er in British English. These include Germanic words like anger, mother, timber, water,[31], and Romance words like danger, quarter, river. Some -er words, like many -re words, have a cognate in Modern French spelled with -re: among these are chapter, December, diameter, disaster, enter, letter, member, minister, monster, number, oyster, powder, proper, sober, tender. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... French (français, spelled françois until 1835, both pronounced in standard French, but often heard pronounced ), or French language (langue française, formerly langue françoise, both pronounced ), is the third of the Romance languages in terms of number of speakers, after Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Theater is the prevailing American spelling and is used by America's national theater as well as major American newspapers such as the New York Times (theater section) to refer to both the dramatic arts as well as to buildings where performances take place; yet theatre is also current (especially in the Northeastern United States), witness Broadway and The New Yorker. Some places in the United States have "Centre" [3] )in their names (i.e. Rockville Centre, New York), named both before and after spelling reform, and there are very occasional uses of "Center" in the UK.[citation needed]. For British accoutre(ment), US practice varies: Merriam-Webster favours the -re spelling,[32] American Heritage the -er spelling.[33] For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Rockville Centre is a village located in New Yorks Nassau County in the United States. ... This article is about the state. ...


More recent French loanwords retain an -re spelling in American English. These are not exceptions when a French-style pronunciation is used (/ɹ(ə)/ rather than /ɚ/), as with double-entendre, genre, or oeuvre. However, the unstressed /ɚ/ pronunciation of an -er ending is used more or less frequently with some words, including cadre, macabre, maître d', Notre Dame, piastre, and timbre. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... A 100 piastre note from French Indochina, circa 1954. ...


Commonwealth usage.[34] The -re endings are standard throughout the Commonwealth. The -er spellings are recognized, as minor variants, only in Canada.


-ce, -se

Nouns ending in -ce with -se verb forms: American English and British English both retain the noun/verb distinction in advice / advise and device / devise, but American English has abandoned the distinction with licence / license and practice / practise (where the two words in each pair are homophones) that British spelling retains. American English uses practice and license for both meanings. Look up advice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, and Semantic Enhancement) is a research and development program within the United States Department of Homeland Security Threat and Vulnerability Testing and Assessment (TTVA) portfolio. ... Look up device in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ...


Also, American English has kept the Anglo-French spelling for defense and offense, which are usually defence and offence in British English; similarly there are the American pretense and British pretence; but derivatives such as defensive, offensive, and pretension are always thus spelled in both systems. Defence or defense can refer to: For defence of a doctoral dissertation see thesis committee defense (military) Civil defense measures and emergency preparedness war, a euphemism for defense industry (disambiguation) defense (legal) , against prosecution and liability For defense against an attacker: self-defense Self-defense (theory) and defense of property... In law, an offense is a violation of the penal law. ... deFENCE project. ... In law, an offense is a violation of the penal law. ... Pretense (US) or pretence (UK) may refer to: Look up pretense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pretense (US) or pretence (UK) may refer to: Look up pretense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A plants defence The words defense or defence can refer to any of the following: For defense of a doctoral dissertation see thesis committee For the military term see defense (military) Civil defense measures and emergency preparedness In politics, defense may be a euphemism for war For legal defense... Offensive may relate to In sports or combat, the team which is attacking, pitching or moving forwards In language or morals, terms and concepts which are unacceptable to some people, such as swearing and profanity. ...


Commonwealth usage. Canadian English generally follows British usage for defence and offence and mostly for licence/license as well, although licence is sometimes used for the verb[citation needed]; both pretence[citation needed] and pretense are found, as are practice and practise for both noun and verb[citation needed]. Rest of the Commonwealth as UK.


-xion, -ction

The spellings connexion, inflexion, deflexion, reflexion, genuflexion are now somewhat rare in everyday British usage, but are not used at all in the US: the more common connection, inflection, deflection, reflection, genuflection have almost become the standard internationally. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the older spellings are more etymologically conservative, since these four words actually derive from the Latin root -xio. The US usage derives from Webster who discarded -xion in favour of -ction for analogy with such verbs as connect.[35] Look up connection, connected, connectivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Genuflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ...


Connexion has found preference again amongst recent British government initiatives such as Connexions (the national careers and training scheme for school early leavers). Until the early 1980s, The Times of London also used connexion as part of its house style.[36] It is still used in legal texts and British Methodism retains the eighteenth century spelling connexion to describe its national organization, for historical reasons. For the British agency, see Connexions agency For the middle school in Baltimore, Maryland of the same name see, ConneXions Leadership Academy Connexions (cnx. ... For other uses, see Times. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ...


In both forms, complexion (which comes from the stem complex) is standard and complection is not.[37] However, the adjective complected (as in "dark-complected"), although sometimes objected to, can be used as an alternative to complexioned in the US,[38] but is quite unknown in this sense in the UK, although there is an extremely rare usage to mean complicated (OED). Note, however, that crucifiction is an error in either form of English; crucifixion is the correct spelling. For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


Greek-derived spellings

-ise, -ize

American spelling accepts only -ize endings in most cases, such as organize, recognize, and realize. British usage accepts both -ize and the more French-looking -ise (organise, recognise, realise). However, the -ize spelling is now rarely used in the UK in the mass media and newspapers, and is hence often incorrectly regarded as an Americanism,[39] despite being preferred by some authoritative British sources, including Fowler's Modern English Usage and the Oxford English Dictionary, which until recently did not list the -ise form of many individual words, even as an alternative. Indeed, the OED firmly deprecates this usage, stating, "[T]he suffix…, whatever the element to which it is added, is in its origin the Gr[eek] -ιζειν, L[atin] -izāre; and, as the pronunciation is also with z, there is no reason why in English the special French spelling in -iser should be followed, in opposition to that which is at once etymological and phonetic."[40] Noah Webster rejected -ise for the same reasons.[41] An organization is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... Representation can refer to: Representation (politics), ones ability to influence the political process Representation (arts), the depiction and ethical concerns of construction in visual arts and literature. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An organization or organisation (read more about -ize vs -ise) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... As Thought Process During the process of thinking, recognition occurs when some event, process, pattern, or object recurs. ... Scam is the 5th studio album by the Australian band The Screaming Jets. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


The -ise form is used often[citation needed], but seemingly not always[citation needed] by the British government and is more prevalent in common usage within the UK today; the ratio between -ise and -ize stands at 3:2 in the British National Corpus.[42] The OED spelling (which can be indicated by the registered IANA language tag en-GB-oed), and thus -ize, is used in many British-based academic publications, such as Nature, the Biochemical Journal and The Times Literary Supplement. In Australia and New Zealand -ise spellings strongly prevail; the Australian Macquarie Dictionary, among other sources, gives the -ise spelling first. The -ise form is preferred in Australian English at a ratio of about 3:1 according to the Macquarie Dictionary. Conversely, Canadian usage is essentially like American,[43] although -ise is occasionally found in Canada.[citation needed] Worldwide, -ize endings prevail in scientific writing and are commonly used by many international organisations. The British National Corpus (or just BNC) is a 100-million-word collection of samples of written and spoken English from a wide range of sources. ... Oxford spelling is the spelling used in the editorial practice of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other English language dictionaries based on the OED, for example the Concise Oxford English Dictionary. ... IETF language tags are defined by BCP 47, which is currently RFC 4646 and RFC 4647. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Cover of the Biochemical Journal The Biochemical Journal, published by Portland Press on behalf of the Biochemical Society, covers all aspects of biochemistry as well as cell and molecular biology. ... The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ... Image:Macq4TH 3D NEW.jpg The Macquarie Dictionary, 4th edition. ...


The same pattern applies to derivatives and inflections such as colonisation/colonization. Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see colonialism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Some verbs ending in -ize or -ise do not derive from Greek -ιζειν, and their endings are therefore not interchangeable; some verbs take the -z- form exclusively, for instance capsize, seize (except in the legal phrase to be seised of/to stand seised to), size and prize (only in the "appraise" sense), whereas others take only -s-: advertise, advise, apprise, arise, chastise, circumcise, incise, excise, comprise, compromise, demise, despise, devise, disguise, exercise, franchise, improvise, merchandise, revise, supervise, surmise, surprise, and televise. Finally, the verb prise (meaning to force or lever) is spelt prize in the US[44] and prise everywhere else,[45] including Canada,[46] although in North American English pry (a back-formation from or alteration of prise) is often used in its place.[47] Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, and Semantic Enhancement) is a research and development program within the United States Department of Homeland Security Threat and Vulnerability Testing and Assessment (TTVA) portfolio. ... Arise is a Death Metal / Thrash Metal-band from Gothenburg in Sweden. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... This article is being rewritten at Circumcision/temp Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the prepuce or foreskin though often the frenulum is also excised. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of... Look up Compromise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Demise is an Anglo-French legal term (from the Fr. ... Look up despise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up device in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Look up franchise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as you go along. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... Look up Revise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up surprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Televise is a shoegazer band formed by ex-Slowdive member Simon Scott (vocals/guitar), together with Nick King (drums), Alex Dowding (bass), and Jamie Armstrong (guitar). ...


-yse, -yze

The distribution of -yse and -yze endings, as in analyse / analyze, is different: the former is British, the latter American. Thus, UK analyse, catalyse, hydrolyse, paralyse; US analyze, catalyze, hydrolyze, paralyze. However, analyse was commonly spelled analyze from the first — the spelling preferred by Samuel Johnson; the word, which came probably from French analyser, on Greek analogy would have been analysize, from French analysiser, from which analyser was formed by haplology.[48] In Canada, -yze prevails; in Australia, -yse stands alone. Unlike -ise/-ize, neither of the endings has any resemblance to the Greek original ending. The Greek verb from which the word λύσις (lysis) (and thus all its compound words) derives, is λύειν (lyein). Look up Analyse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... Analyze is a powerful software package developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic for multi-dimensional display, processing, and measurement of multi-modality biomedical images. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... Haplology is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. ...


-ogue, -og

Some words of Greek origin, a few of which derive from Greek λόγος, can end either in -ogue or in -og: analog(ue), catalog(ue), dialog(ue), demagog(ue), pedagog(ue), monolog(ue), homolog(ue), etc. In the UK (and generally in the Commonwealth), the -ogue endings are the standard. In the US, catalog has a slight edge over catalogue[49] (note the inflected forms, cataloged and cataloging vs. catalogued and cataloguing); analog is standard for the adjective, but both analogue and analog are current for the noun; in all other cases the -gue endings strongly prevail,[50] except for such expressions as dialog box in computing, which are also used in the UK. Finally, in Canada and Australia as well as the US analog has currency as a technical term[51] (e.g. in electronics, as in "analog computer" and many video game consoles might have an analog stick). Example of dialog box from Microsoft Windows Dialog boxes are special windows which are used by computer programs or by the operating system to display information to the user, or to get a response if needed. ...


Simplification of ae (æ) and oe (œ)

Many words are written with ae or oe in British English, but a single e in American English. The sound in question is /i/ or /ɛ/ (or unstressed /ə/). Examples (with non-American letter in bold): anaemia, anaesthesia, caesium, diarrhoea, gynaecology, haemophilia, leukaemia, oesophagus, oestrogen, orthopaedic, paediatric. Words where British usage varies include encyclopaedia, foetus (though the British medical community deems this variant unacceptable for the purposes of journal articles and the like, since the Latin spelling is actually fetus), homoeopathy, mediaeval. This article discusses the medical condition. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Caesium, Cs, 55 Series Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 6, s Density, Hardness 1879 kg/m3, 0. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Estriol. ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


The Ancient Greek diphthongs <αι> and <οι> were transliterated into Latin as <ae> and <oe>. The ligatures æ and œ were introduced when the sounds became monophthongs, and later applied to words not of Greek origin, in both Latin (for example, cœli) and French (for example, œuvre). In English, which has imported words from all three languages, it is now usual to replace Æ/æ with Ae/ae and Œ/œ with Oe/oe. In many cases, the digraph has been reduced to a single e in all varieties of English: for example, oeconomics, praemium, and aenigma.[52] In others, it is retained in all varieties: for example, phoenix, and usually subpoena.[53] This is especially true of names: Caesar, Oedipus, Phoebe, etc. There is no reduction of Latin -ae plurals (e.g. larvae); nor where the digraph <ae>/<oe> does not result from the Greek-style ligature: for example, maelstrom, toe. British aeroplane is an instance (compare other aero- words such as aerosol). The now chiefly North American airplane is not a respelling but a recoining, modelled on airship and aircraft. Airplane dates from 1907,[54] at which time aero- was trisyllabic, often written aëro-. The History of the Greek language Origins There are many theories about the origins of the Greek language. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For Æ, the Irish writer, see George William Russell. ... Œ œ This page is about the ligature, not the simple combination of the letters O and E. For initialisms and the word Oe, see Oe. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... Caesar, originally a cognomen in ancient Rome, may mean: Julius Caesar (100 BC - 44 BC) was the most famous individual with the name. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... Saltstraumen maelstrom A maelstrom (or malström) is a very powerful whirlpool; a large, swirling body of water. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ...


Commonwealth usage. In Canada, e is usually preferred over oe and often over ae as well; in Australia and elsewhere, the spellings with just e are increasingly used.[55] Manoeuvre is the only spelling in Australia and the most common one in Canada, where maneuver and manoeuver are also sometimes found.[56] In Canada, oe and ae are used occasionally in the academic and science communities.


Internationally, the American spelling is closer to the way most languages spell such words; for instance, almost all Romance languages (which tend to have more phonemic spelling) lack the ae and oe spellings (a notable exception is French), as do Swedish, Polish, and others, while Dutch uses them ("ae" is rare and "oe" is the normal representation of the sound IPA[u], while written "u" represents either the sound y or ʏ in IPA). Danish and Norwegian retain the original ligatures. German, through umlauts, retains its equivalent of the ligature, for when written without the umlaut, words resemble the British usage (i.e. ä becomes ae and ö becomes oe). Similarly, Hungarian uses "é" as a replacement for "ae" (although it becomes "e" sometimes), and the special character "ő" (sometimes "ö") for "oe". The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ...


Compounds and hyphens

British English often prefers hyphenated compounds, such as counter-attack, whereas American English discourages the use of hyphens in compounds where there is no compelling reason, so counterattack is much more common. Many dictionaries do not point out such differences. Canadian and Australian usage is mixed, although Commonwealth writers generally hyphenate compounds of the form noun plus phrase (such as editor-in-chief).[57] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Counterattack (disambiguation). ... The Editor in chief is a publications primary editor. ...

  • any more or anymore: In sense "any longer", the single-word form is usual in North America and Australia but unusual in the UK, at least in formal writing.[58] Other senses always have the two-word form; thus Americans distinguish "I couldn't love you anymore [so I left you]" from "I couldn't love you any more [than I already do]".
  • for ever or forever: Traditional British usage makes a distinction between for ever, meaning for eternity (or a very long time), as in "I have been waiting for you for ever", and forever, meaning continually, always, as in "They are forever arguing".[59] In contemporary British usage, however, forever prevails in the "for eternity" sense as well[60], in spite of several style guides maintaining the distinction.[61] American writers usually use forever in all senses.

Doubled consonants

Doubled in British English

The final consonant of an English word is sometimes doubled when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel. Generally this occurs only when the word's final syllable ends with a single vowel followed by a single consonant, and the syllable is stressed; but in British English, a final -l is often doubled even when the final syllable is unstressed.[62] This exception is no longer usual in American English, apparently because of Noah Webster.[63] The -ll- spellings are nonetheless still regarded as acceptable variants by both Merriam-Webster Collegiate and American Heritage dictionaries.

  • The British English doubling is required for all inflections (-ed, -ing, -er, -est) and for noun suffixes -er, -or. Therefore, British counsellor, cruellest, modelling, quarrelled, signalling, traveller; American usually counselor, cruelest, modeling, quarreled, signaling, traveler.
    • parallel keeps a single -l- in British English, as in American English (paralleling, unparalleled), to avoid a cluster -llell-.
    • Words with two vowels before l are covered where the first either acts as a consonant (Br equalling, initialled; US usually equaling, initialed) or belongs to a separate syllable (Br fu•el•ling, di•alled; US usually fu•el•ing di•aled)
      • The distinction applies to victualler/victualer in spite of the irregular pronunciation IPA: /ˈvɪtlə(ɹ)/
      • British woollen is a further exception (US woolen); also, wooly is accepted in America though woolly dominates in both.[64]
  • Endings -ize/-ise, -ism, -ist, -ish usually do not double the l in British English: normalise, dualism, novelist, devilish
    • Exceptions: tranquillise; duellist, medallist, panellist, sometimes triallist
  • For -ous, British English has a single l in scandalous and perilous, but two in marvellous and libellous.
  • For -ee, British English has libellee.
  • For -age British English has pupillage but vassalage.
  • American English has unstressed -ll-, as in the UK, in some words where the root has -l. These are cases where the alteration occurs in the source language, often Latin. (Examples: bimetallism, cancellation, chancellor, crystallize, excellent, tonsillitis)
  • But both dialects have compelled, excelling, propelled, rebelling (notice the stress difference); revealing, fooling (double vowel before the l); hurling (consonant before the l).
  • Canadian and Australian English largely follow British usage.[65]

Among consonants other than l, practice varies for some words, such as where the final syllable has secondary stress or an unreduced vowel. In the US, the spellings kidnaped and worshiped, introduced by the Chicago Tribune in the 1920s,[66] are common alongside kidnapped and worshipped, the only standard British spellings. A pupillage, in England and Wales, is the barristers equivalent of the training contract that a solicitor undertakes. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The secondary stress is the degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ...


Miscellaneous:

  • British calliper or caliper; American caliper.
  • British jewellery; American jewelry. The standard pronunciations (UK IPA: /ˈdʒuː(ə)lri/, US IPA: /ˈdʒu(ə)lri/)[67] do not reflect this difference. According to Fowler, jewelry used to be the "rhetorical and poetic" spelling in the UK. Canada has both, but jewellery is most used. Likewise, Commonwealth (including Canada) has jeweller and US has jeweler for a jewel(le)ry retailer.

Doubled in American English

Conversely, there are words where British writers prefer a single l and Americans usually use a double l. These include wil(l)ful, skil(l)ful, thral(l)dom, appal(l), fulfil(l), fulfil(l)ment, enrol(l)ment, instal(l)ment. In the UK ll is used occasionally in distil(l), instil(l), enrol(l) and enthral(l)ment, and often in enthral(l). Former spellings instal, fulness, and dulness are now rare.[68] The Scottish tolbooth is cognate with toll booth, but has a specific distinct sense. Tolbooth or tollbooth may mean several things: Historical Scottish terms for prisons. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ...


The preceding words have monosyllabic cognates always written with -ll: will, skill, thrall, pall, fill, roll, stall, still. Comparable cases where a single l occurs in American English include fulluseful, handful; allalmighty, altogether; nullannul, annulment; tilluntil; wellwelfare, welcome; chillchilblain; and others where the connection is less transparent. Note that British fulfil and American fulfill are never fullfill or fullfil.


Dr Johnson wavered on this issue; his dictionary of 1755 lemmatizes distil and instill, downhil and uphill.[69]


Dropped e

British English sometimes keeps silent e when adding suffixes where American English does not.

  • British prefers ageing,[70] American usually aging (compare raging, ageism). UK often routeing;[71] US usually routing (for route; rout makes routing everywhere). Both systems retain the silent e in dyeing, singeing, swingeing, to distinguish from dying, singing, swinging. In contrast, bathe and the British bath both form bathing. UK often whingeing, US less so; whinge is chiefly British. Both systems vary for tinge and twinge; both prefer cringing, hinging, lunging, syringing.
  • Before -able, UK prefers likeable, liveable, rateable, saleable, sizeable, unshakeable, [72] where US prefers to drop the -e; but UK as US prefers breathable, curable, datable, lovable, movable, notable, provable, quotable, scalable, solvable, usable,[73] and those where the root is polysyllabic, like believable or decidable. Both systems retain the silent e when necessary to preserve a soft c, ch, or g, as in traceable, cacheable, changeable; both retain e after -dge, as in knowledgeable, unbridgeable.
  • Both abridgment and the more regular abridgement are current in the US, only the latter in the UK.[74] Similarly for lodg(e)ment. Both judgment and judgement can be found everywhere, although the former strongly prevails in the US and the latter prevails in the UK[75] except in law, where judgment is standard. Similarly for abridgment. Both prefer fledgling to fledgeling, but ridgeling to ridgling.
  • The informal Briticisms moreish (causing a desire for more of something) and blokeish[76] usually retain e; more established words like slavish and bluish usually do not.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A ridgeling or ridgling is a horse with one or two undescended testicles. ...

Different spellings, different connotations

  • artefact or artifact: In British usage, artefact is the main spelling and artifact a minor variant;[77] however, some speakers claim to write artefact to mean “a product of artisanry” but artifact when the meaning is “a flaw in experimental results caused by the experiment itself”[citation needed]. In American English, artifact is the usual spelling. Canadians prefer artifact and Australians artefact, according to their respective dictionaries.[78]
  • dependant or dependent: British dictionaries distinguish between dependent (adjective) and dependant (noun). In the US, dependent is usual for both noun and adjective, notwithstanding that dependant is also an acceptable variant for the noun form in the US.[79]
  • disc or disk: Traditionally, disc used to be British and disk American. Both spellings are etymologically sound (Greek diskos, Latin discus), although disk is earlier. In computing, disc is used for optical discs (e.g. a CD, Compact Disc; DVD, Digital Versatile/Video Disc) while disk is used for products using magnetic storage (e.g. floppy disk and hard disk; short for diskette).[80] For this limited application, these spellings are used in both the US and the Commonwealth.
  • enquiry or inquiry:[81] According to Fowler, inquiry should be used in relation to a formal inquest, and enquiry to the act of questioning. Many (though not all) British writers maintain this distinction; the OED, on the other hand, lists inquiry and enquiry as equal alternatives, in that order. Some British dictionaries, such as Chambers 21st Century Dictionary [4], present the two spellings as interchangeable variants in the general sense, but prefer inquiry for the "formal inquest" sense. In the US, only inquiry is commonly used. In Australia, inquiry and enquiry are often interchangeable, but inquiry prevails in writing. Both are current in Canada, where enquiry is often associated with scholarly or intellectual research.
  • ensure or insure: In the UK (and Australia), the word ensure (to make sure, to make certain) has a distinct meaning from the word insure (often followed by against – to guarantee or protect against, typically by means of an "insurance policy"). The distinction is only about a century old,[82] and this helps explain why in (North) America ensure is just a variant of insure, more often than not. According to Merriam-Webster's usage notes, ensure and insure “are interchangeable in many contexts where they indicate the making certain or [making] inevitable of an outcome, but ensure may imply a virtual guarantee <the government has ensured the safety of the refugees>, while insure sometimes stresses the taking of necessary measures beforehand <careful planning should insure the success of the party>[83]
  • matt or matte: In the UK, matt refers to a non-glossy surface, and matte to the motion-picture technique; in the US, matte covers both.[84]
  • programme or program: The British programme is a 19th-century French version of program, which first appeared in Scotland in the 17th century and is the only spelling found in the US. The OED entry, written around 1908 and listing both spellings, said program was preferable, since it conformed to the usual representation of the Greek as in anagram, diagram, telegram etc. In British English, program is the common spelling for computer programs, but for other meanings programme is used. In Australia, program has been endorsed by government style for all senses since the 1960s,[85] although programme is also common; see also the name of The Micallef Program(me). In Canada, program prevails, and the Canadian Oxford Dictionary makes no meaning-based distinction between it and programme; many Canadian government documents use programme in all senses of the word also to match the spelling of the French equivalent.[86]

Compare also meter/metre, for which an older English written distinction between etymologically related forms with different meanings once existed, but was obviated in the regularization of American spellings. CD redirects here. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Mattes are used in photography and filmmaking to insert part of a foreground image onto a background image, which is often a matte painting, a background filmed by the second unit, or computer generated imagery. ... The Micallef Program (also known as The Micallef Programme in its second season, The Micallef Pogram in its third season, and The Micallef P(r)ogram(me) as an umbrella title for the DVDs) was an Australian sketch comedy TV series hosted by Shaun Micallef that ran from 1998 to... The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, published by the Oxford University Press Canada, was first released in 1998 and quickly became the standard dictionary reference for Canadian English. ...


Acronyms and abbreviations

Proper names formed as proper acronyms are often rendered in title case by Commonwealth writers, but usually as upper case by Americans: for example, Nasa / NASA or Unicef / UNICEF.[87] This does not apply to most initialisms, such as USA or HTML; though it is occasionally done for some, such as PC (Police Constable).[88] A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... This article is about capitalization in written language. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom (UK) does not have one single police service serving the general public; with the exception of various special police forces and of Northern Ireland (which has one unified force, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)), police forces...


Contractions, where the final letter is present, are often written in British English without stops/periods (Mr, Mrs, Dr, St). Abbreviations where the final letter is not present generally do take stops/periods (such as vol., etc., ed.); British English shares this convention with French: Mlle, Mme, Dr, Ste, but M. for Monsieur. In American English, abbreviations like St., Mr., Mrs., and Dr. always require stops/periods. In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... An abbreviation (from Latin brevis short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. ...


Miscellaneous spelling differences

UK US Remarks
adze adze, adz
annexe annex To annex is the verb in both British and American usage; however, when speaking of an annex(e) –the noun referring to an extension of a main building, not military conquest, which would be annexation–, it is usually spelled with an -e at the end in the UK, but in the US it is not.
axe ax, axe Both noun and verb. The two-letter form is more etymologically conservative (the word comes from Old English æx).
camomile, chamomile chamomile, camomile In the UK, according to the OED, "the spelling cha- is chiefly in pharmacy, after Latin; that with ca- is literary and popular". In the US chamomile dominates in all senses.
cheque check In banking. Hence pay cheque and paycheck. Accordingly, the North American term for what is elsewhere known as a current account or cheque account is spelled chequing account in Canada and checking account in the US. Some US financial institutions, notably American Express, prefer cheque.
chequer checker As in chequerboard/checkerboard, chequered/checkered flag, etc. Canada as US.[89]
cosy cozy In all senses (adjective, noun, verb).
cipher, cypher cipher Both spellings are quite old.
doughnut doughnut, donut In the US, both are used with donut indicated as a variant of doughnut.[90] In the UK, donut is indicated as a US variant for doughnut.[91]
draught draft The UK usually uses draft for all senses as a verb;[92] for a preliminary version of a document; for an order of payment (bank draft), and for military conscription (although this last meaning is not as common as in American English). It uses draught for drink from a cask (draught beer); for animals used for pulling heavy loads (draught horse); for a current of air; for a ship's minimum depth of water to float; and for the game draughts, known as checkers in the US. It uses either draught or draft for a plan or sketch (but almost always draughtsman in this sense; a draftsman drafts legal documents). The US uses draft in all these cases (although in regard to drinks, draught is sometimes found). Canada uses both systems; in Australia, draft is used for technical drawings, is accepted for the "current of air" meaning, and is preferred by professionals in the nautical sense.[93] The pronunciation is always the same for all meanings within a dialect (RP /drɑ:ft/, General American /dræft/). The spelling draught is older; draft appeared first in the late 16th century.[94]
gauntlet gauntlet, gantlet When meaning "ordeal", in the phrase running the ga(u)ntlet, some American style guides favor gantlet.[95] This spelling is unused in Britain[96] and less usual in America than gauntlet. The word is an alteration of earlier gantlope by folk etymology with gauntlet ("armored glove"), always spelled thus.
glycerine glycerin, glycerine Scientists use the term glycerol.
grey gray Grey became the established British spelling in the 20th century, pace Dr. Johnson and others,[97] and is but a minor variant in American English, according to dictionaries. Canadians tend to prefer grey. Non-cognate greyhound is never grayhound.
jail, gaol jail In the UK, gaol and gaoler are used, apart from literary usage, chiefly to describe a mediaeval building and guard.
kerb curb For the noun designating the edge of a roadway (or the edge of a [UK] pavement/[US] sidewalk/[Australia] footpath). Curb is the older spelling, and in the UK as in the US is still the proper spelling for the verb meaning restrain.[98] Canada as US.
liquorice licorice Licorice prevails in Canada and is common in Australia, but is rarely found in the UK; liquorice, which has a folk etymology cognate with liquor,[99] is all but nonexistent in the US. ("chiefly British", according to dictionaries).[100]
mollusc mollusk, mollusc The related adjective is normally molluscan in both.
mould mold In all senses of the word. In Canada both have wide currency.[101] .
moult molt
neurone, neuron neuron
omelette omelet, omelette Omelette prevails in Canada and Australia. The shorter spelling is older, despite the etymology (French omelette).[102]
phoney phony Originally an Americanism, this word made its appearance in Britain during the Phoney War.[103]
pyjamas pajamas Pronounced /-'dʒɑːməz/ in the UK, /-'dʒɑməz/ or /-'dʒæməz/ in the US. Canada has both.[104]
per cent percent
plough plow Both date back to Middle English; the OED records several dozen variants. In the UK, plough has been the standard spelling for about three centuries.[105] Although plow was Webster's pick, plough continued to have currency in the US, as the entry in Webster's Third (1961) implies; newer dictionaries label plough "chiefly British". The word snowplough/snowplow, originally an Americanism, predates Webster's reform and was first recorded as snow plough. Canada has both plough and plow,[106] although snowplough is much rarer than snowplow.
rack and ruin wrack and ruin Several words "rack" and "wrack" have been conflated, with both spellings thus accepted as variants for senses connected to torture (orig. rack) and ruin (orig. wrack, cf. wreck)[107] In "(w)rack and ruin", the W-less variant is now prevalent in the UK but not the US.[108]
sceptic (-al, -ism) skeptic (-al, -ism) The American spelling, akin to Greek, preferred by Fowler, and used by many Canadians, is the earlier form.[109] Sceptic also pre-dates the settlement of the US and follows the French sceptique and Latin scepticus. In the mid-18th century Dr Johnson's dictionary listed skeptic without comment or alternative but this form has never been popular in the UK;[110] sceptic, an equal variant in Webster's Third (1961), has now become "chiefly British". Australians generally follow British usage. All are pronounced with a hard "c", though in French the letter is effectively silent and so confusible with septique.
storey story Level of a building. Note also the differing plural, storeys vs stories respectively.
sulphur sulphur, sulfur Sulfur is the international standard in the sciences (IUPAC), and is supported by the UK's RSC.[111] Sulphur was preferred by Johnson, is still used by British and Irish scientists and is still actively taught in British and Irish schools, prevails in Canada and Australia, and is also found in some American place names (e.g., Sulphur Springs, Texas and Sulphur, Louisiana). AmE usage guides suggest sulfur for technical usage, and both sulphur and sulfur in common usage.[112] [113]
tyre tire The outer lining of a wheel, which contacts the road or rail and may be metal or rubber. Canada as US. Tire is the older spelling, but both were used in the 15th and 16th centuries (for a metal tire); tire became the settled spelling in the 17th century but tyre was revived in the UK in the 19th century for pneumatic tyres, possibly because it was used in some patent documents,[114] though many continued to use tire for the iron variety. The Times newspaper was still using tire as late as 1905.
vice vise The two-jaw tool. Americans (and Canadians) retain a medieval distinction between vise (the tool) and vice (the sin and the Latin prefix meaning "deputy"), both of which are vice in the UK (and Australia).[115]
yoghurt, yogurt yogurt Yoghurt is an also-ran in the US, as yoghourt is in the UK. Although Oxford Dictionaries have always preferred yogurt, in current British usage yoghurt seems to be preferred. In Canada yogurt prevails, despite the Canadian Oxford preferring yogourt, which has the advantage of being bilingual, English and French.[116] Australia as the UK. Whatever the spelling, the word has different pronunciations in the UK /jɒ-/ (or /jəʊ-/) and the US. /joʊ-/. Australia as US with regard to pronunciation. The word comes from the Turkish yoğurt.[117]; the voiced velar fricative represented by ğ in the modern Turkish (Latin) alphabet was traditionally written gh in romanizations of the Ottoman Turkish (Arabic) alphabet used before 1928.

Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... Typical cancelled personal cheque as used in the U.S. A cheque (British English) or check (American English), thought to have developed from Persian چك chek, is a negotiable instrument instructing a financial institution to pay a specific amount of a specific currency from a specific demand account held in... Conscript redirects here, to artificial script. ... Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels Draught beer (also known as draught beer or draught beer or even draught beer) has several related though slightly different understandings. ... A draft horse or draught horse is a large, strong horse breed for heavy work rather than speed. ... The draft of a ships hull is the vertical distance from the bottom of the hull to the waterline. ... For other uses, see Draft. ... Running the gauntlet (alternative spellings gantlet and rarely gantlope or gantelope) is a form of physical punishment by which a person is compelled to run through a double line of soldiers who attempt to strike him or her as they pass. ... An Identity Standards Manual page—for the graphic design branch of corporate identity design and branding. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Pair of gauntlets, Germany, end of the 16th century Gauntlet is a name for several different styles of glove. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... This article is about the breed of dog. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War or the Bore War, also called Sitzkrieg, was a phase in early World War II from September 1939 until May 1940 marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the... A torture rack in the Tower of London The rack is a term for certain physical punishment devices. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... Sulphur Springs is a city located in Hopkins County, Texas. ... Sulphur is a city in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Bench vise A vise (American and Canadian English) or vice (British English) is a mechanical screw apparatus used for holding or clamping a work piece to allow work to be performed on it using other tools, such as saws, planes, drills, mills, screwdrivers, sandpaper, In general, vises have a fixed... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا elifbâ) was the version of the Arabic alphabet that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the time of the Ottoman Empire. ...

See also

This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into: differences in accent (i. ... Canadian English (CanE) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. ... English orthography (or spelling), has relatively complicated rules when compared to other orthographic systems written with alphabetic scripts and contains many inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation, necessitating rote learning for most people learning to read or write English. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of words having different meanings in British and American English. ... This is a list of British words not widely used in the United States. ... This is a list of words and phrases having differing meanings in British and American English. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated CMS or CMOS, and spoken as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press (hence its title), prescribing a writing style widely used in publishing. ...

References

H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880, Baltimore – January 29, 1956, Baltimore), was a journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of the American English. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is a common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, deriving its name from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, airplane, Draft revision March 2008; airplane is labelled "chiefly North American."
  2. ^ British National Corpus. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster online, aerodrome. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, airdrome.
  5. ^ History & Etymology of Aluminium
  6. ^ Peters, p. 63.
  7. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. [1]
  8. ^ OED, shivaree
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, furore.
  10. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Grotty; Grody
  11. ^ Peters, p. 242
  12. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, mom and mam
  13. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, persnickety
  14. ^ Peters, p. 487
  15. ^ In Webster's New World College Dictionary, scalawag is lemmatized without alternative, while scallawag and scallywag are defined by cross-reference to it; all of them are marked as originally American.
  16. ^ See, for example, the November 2006 BMA document entitled Selection for Specialty Training
  17. ^ Peters, p. 510.
  18. ^ Webster's Third, p. 24a.
  19. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, colour, color.
  20. ^ a b [1933] (1987) in Onions, CT: The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition (1933) with corrections (1975) (in English), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 370. ISBN 0 19 861126 9. 
  21. ^ Webster's Third, p. 24a.
  22. ^ Peters, p. 397.
  23. ^ Johnson 1755—preface
  24. ^ Mencken, H L (1919). The American Language. New York: Knopf. 
  25. ^ Staff. The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913. Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield. Retrieved on 2008-06-19.
  26. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, honour, honor.
  27. ^ Webster's Third, p. 24a.
  28. ^ Baldrige, Letitia (1990). Letitia Baldrige's Complete Guide to the New Manners for the '90s: A Complete Guide to Etiquette. Rawson, p.214. ISBN 0-892-56320-6. 
  29. ^ Peters, p. 397.
  30. ^ Peters, p. 397.
  31. ^ Although acre was spelled æcer in Old English and aker in Middle English, the acre spelling of Middle French was introduced in the 15th Century. Similarly, loover was respelled in the 17th Century by influence of the unrelated Louvre. (see OED, s.v. acre and louvre)
  32. ^ accoutre
  33. ^ accouter
  34. ^ Peters, p. 461.
  35. ^ 1989 Oxford English Dictionary:connexion, connection.
  36. ^ Howard, Philip (1984). The State of the Language—English Observed. London: Hamish Hamilton. 
  37. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:complection, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, <http://www.bartleby.com/cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=col61&query=complection&x=0&y=0>. Retrieved on 12 May 2007 
  38. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:complected, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, <http://www.bartleby.com/61/86/C0528600.html>. Retrieved on 12 May 2007 
  39. ^ Are spellings like 'privatize' and 'organize' Americanisms?. AskOxford.com (2006).
  40. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, -ize.
  41. ^ Hargraves, p. 22.
  42. ^ Peters, p. 298
  43. ^ Peters, p. 298.
  44. ^ “prize.” Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. Also, “prize.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Ed.
  45. ^ According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Ed.: prise is “chiefly Brit var of PRIZE”.
  46. ^ Peters, p. 441
  47. ^ Peters, p. 446.
  48. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, analyse, -ze, v. [2]. Retrieved
  49. ^ Both the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and American Heritage Dictionary have catalog as the main headword and catalogue as an equal variant.
  50. ^ Peters, p. 236.
  51. ^ Peters, p. 36.
  52. ^ Webster's Third, p. 23a.
  53. ^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). "subpoena, subpena (n., v.)", The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231069898. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. 
  54. ^ Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, airplane.
  55. ^ Peters, p. 20, p. 389.
  56. ^ Peters, p. 338.
  57. ^ Peters, p. 258
  58. ^ Peters, p. 41.
  59. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, for ever.
  60. ^ AskOxford: forever. Retrieved 24 June 2008. Cf. Peters, p. 214.
  61. ^ For example, The Times, The Guardian, The Economist. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  62. ^ Peters, p. 309.
  63. ^ Cf. Oxford English Dictionary, traveller, traveler.
  64. ^ Peters, p. 581
  65. ^ Peters, p. 309.
  66. ^ Zorn, Eric (1997-06-08). Errant Spelling: Moves for simplification turn Inglish into another langwaj Section 3A page 14. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  67. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, jewellery UK, US jewelry
  68. ^ Peters, p. 283
  69. ^ Peters, p. 501.
  70. ^ Peters, p. 22.
  71. ^ Peters, p. 480. Also National Routeing Guide
  72. ^ British National Corpus
  73. ^ British National Corpus
  74. ^ Peters, p. 7
  75. ^ Peters, p. 303.
  76. ^ "blokeish", Concise OED. Retrieved on 2007-04-10. 
  77. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, artefact.
  78. ^ Peters, p. 49.
  79. ^ Merriam-Webster Online. (Accessed December 30, 2007)
  80. ^ Howarth, Lynne C; and others (1999-06-14). "Executive summary" from review of "International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources". American Library Association. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  81. ^ Peters, p. 282.
  82. ^ Peters, p. 285
  83. ^ Merriam-Webster Online. (Accessed December 30, 2007)
  84. ^ Peters, p. 340.
  85. ^ Peters, p. 443.
  86. ^ Peters, p. 443.
  87. ^ Marsh, David (July 14 2004). The Guardian Stylebook. Atlantic Books. ISBN 1843549913. Retrieved on 2007-04-09. “acronyms: take initial cap: Aids, Isa, Mori, Nato” 
  88. ^ See for example Pc bitten on face in Tube attack. BBC (2007-03-31). Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  89. ^ Peters, p. 104.
  90. ^ Merriam-Webster Online. (Accessed January 1, 2008)
  91. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. (Accessed 1 January 2008)
  92. ^ "draught", Concise OED. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. 
  93. ^ Peters, p. 165.
  94. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, draught.
  95. ^ Garner, Bryan A. (1998). A Dictionary of Modern American Usage. New York: OUP, p.313. ISBN 0195078535. 
  96. ^ "gauntlet2", Concise OED. 
  97. ^ Peters, p. 235
  98. ^ tiscali.reference. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  99. ^ Ernout, Alfred; Meillet, Antoine (2001). Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue latine. Paris: Klincksieck, p362. ISBN 2252033592. 
  100. ^ Peters, p. 321.
  101. ^ Peters, p. 360
  102. ^ Peters, p. 392.
  103. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, phoney, phony
  104. ^ Peters, p. 449.
  105. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, plough, plow.
  106. ^ Peters, p. 230.
  107. ^ Maven's word of the day: rack/wrack
  108. ^ Cald Rack
  109. ^ Peters, p. 502.
  110. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, sceptic, skeptic.
  111. ^ Royal Society of Chemistry 1992 policy change
  112. ^ “The spelling sulfur predominates in United States technical usage, while both sulfur and sulphur are common in general usage. British usage tends to favor sulphur for all applications. The same pattern is seen in most of the words derived from sulfur.” Usage Note, Merriam-Webster Online. (Accessed January 1, 2008)
  113. ^ The contrasting spellings of the chemical elements Al and S mean that the American spelling aluminum sulfide becomes aluminum sulphide in Canada, and as aluminium sulphide in older UK usage.
  114. ^ Peters, p. 553.
  115. ^ Peters, p. 556.
  116. ^ Peters, p. 587. Yogourt is an accepted variant in French of the more normal Standard French yaourt.
  117. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Yogurt entry
// The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880 - January 29, 1956) was a twentieth century journalist and social critic, a cynic and a freethinker, known as the Sage of Baltimore and the American Nietzsche. He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Letitia Baldrige (b. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... This article is about the museum. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... A headword (or head word) is the word under which a set of related dictionary definitions will be listed. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Routeing Guide (note spelling routeing) is the definitive resource on the validity, or invalidity, of rail tickets for the purpose of rail travel in the United Kingdom; or as the Rail Regulator wrote [it] sets out passengers rights to use the network flexibly[1]. It is a book... The British National Corpus (or just BNC) is a 100-million-word collection of samples of written and spoken English from a wide range of sources. ... The British National Corpus (or just BNC) is a 100-million-word collection of samples of written and spoken English from a wide range of sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Individual Savings Account (ISA) is a financial product available in the United Kingdom, designed for the purpose of investment and savings with a favourable tax status. ... Ipsos MORI is the second largest survey research organisation in the UK, formed by two of the UKs leading companies in October 2005. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Concise Oxford English Dictionary (until 2002 officially entitled The Concise Oxford Dictionary, and widely known by the abbrevation COD) is probably the best-known of the smaller Oxford dictionaries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
British English (1950 words)
English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands.
These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic sense of the word; mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic communication).
The widespread use of English worldwide is largely attributable to the power of the former British Empire and the widespread global commerce it encouraged under free trade, and this is reflected in the continued use of the language in both its successor (the British Commonwealth, and later the Commonwealth of Nations) and many other countries.
American and British English spelling differences - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3214 words)
For this reason, the term Commonwealth English is used throughout this page to collectively refer to the spelling used in the British Isles and the English-speaking countries of the Commonwealth of Nations, as opposed to American spelling.
Many of the differences were introduced into the United States by Noah Webster's dictionary; he was a strong proponent of spelling reform for a variety of reasons, both nationalistic and philosophical.
British Methodism retains the eighteenth century spelling connexion to describe its national organisation, for historical reasons, and this spelling has also found favour amongst recent government initiatives such as connexions (the national careers and training scheme for school early leavers).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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