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Encyclopedia > American War of Independence

In this article, the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans," with occasional references to "Patriots," "Whigs," "Rebels" or "Revolutionaries." Colonists who supported the British in opposing the Revolution are usually referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories." The geographical area of the thirteen colonies that both groups shared is often referred to simply as "America." This article is about political and social developments, including the origins and aftermath of the war. ...

American Revolutionary War

Clockwise from top left: Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery at Quebec, Battle of Cowpens, "Moonlight Battle"
Date 1775–1783
Location Eastern Seabord, Central Canada, Hudson's Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Caribbean Sea, Central America, Indian Ocean
Result Treaty of Paris
Territorial
changes
Britain recognizes independence of the United States, cedes East Florida, West Florida, and Minorca to Spain and Tobago to France
Belligerents
United States
France
Spain
Dutch Republic
Oneida
Tuscarora
Great Britain
Loyalists
Iroquois Confederacy
Commanders
George Washington
Richard Montgomery 
Nathanael Greene
Horatio Gates
Benedict Arnold
John Paul Jones
Gilbert de La Fayette
Tadeusz Kościuszko
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
Comte de Rochambeau
Comte de Grasse
Bernardo de Gálvez
Johan Zoutman
Sir William Howe
Sir Henry Clinton
Lord Cornwallis #
Sir Guy Carleton
George Eliott
John Burgoyne #
Banastre Tarleton  #
Flag of Hesse Johann Rall  
Joseph Brant
Strength
20,000 regulars,
230,000 militia,
30-40 frigates and sloops[citation needed]
12,000 regulars,
55,000 Loyalists,
29,867 mercenaries,[citation needed]
5,000 natives,
100 ships of the line and frigates[citation needed]

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[1] began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen united former British colonies on the North American continent and ended in a global war between several European great powers. The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists and their allies overthrew British rule. In 1775, Revolutionaries seized control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the unifying Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army. The following year, they formally declared their independence as a new nation, the United States of America. In 1777 the Continentals captured a British army, leading to France entering the war on the side of the Americans in early 1778, and evening the military strength with Britain. Spain and the Dutch Republic – French allies – also went to war with Britain over the next two years. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1388x882, 1814 KB) Collage of American Revolutionary War public domain images. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... An engraving depicting the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders Richard Montgomery † Benedict Arnold James Livingston (American Revolution) Guy Carleton Strength 1,200 Continentals 1,200 British Regulars and Militia Casualties 60 dead or wounded, 426 captured 6 dead, 19 wounded Canadian theater, 1775–1776 Ticonderoga – Crown Point – Longue-Pointe – Fort St. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders Daniel Morgan Banastre Tarleton Strength c. ... Combatants Britain Spain Commanders George Rodney Juan de Lángara Strength 18 ships of the line 9 ships of the line 2 frigates Casualties 32 dead 102 wounded 1 ship destroyed 4 ships captured The naval Battle of Cape St Vincent, or Battle of Cape Santa Maria, took place on... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Map of East and West Florida in 1810. ... This article is about the region. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_España(1748-1785). ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oneida. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... An engraving depicting the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War hero. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... John Paul Jones (July 11, 1747–July 18, 1792) was Americas first well-known naval hero in the American Revolutionary War. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... KoÅ›ciuszko redirects here. ... Image File history File links US_flag_13_stars_–_Betsy_Ross. ... Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Steuben, Baron von Steuben (* September 17, 1730; † November 28, 1794) was a German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. ... Image File history File links ÃŽle-de-France_flag. ... Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (July 1, 1725 – May 10, 1807) was a French aristocrat, soldier, and a Marshal of France. ... Image File history File links ÃŽle-de-France_flag. ... François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (born 1722; died January 14, 1788 in Paris) was a French admiral. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_España(1748-1785). ... Bernardo de Gálvez, Count of Gálvez Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Spanish: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, vizconde de Gálveztown y conde de Gálvez) (July 23, 1746, Málaga, Spain—November 30, 1786, Mexico City) was... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Johan Zoutman (10 May 1724, Reeuwijk – 7 May 1793, The Hague) was a Dutch naval figure and Rear Admiral who fought at the Battle of Dogger Bank. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Cornwallis redirects here. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... George Augustus Eliott (December 25, 1717-July 6, 1790) was born at Wells House, nr Stobs Castle, Roxburghshire, the 7th son of Sir Gilbert Eliott, 3rd Baronet of Stobs, by Eleanor, daughter of William Elliot, of Wells, also in Roxburghshire. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... For other persons named Burgoyne, see Burgoyne (disambiguation). ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds General Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 1754 – 25 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hesse. ... Colonel Johannn Rall (alt. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ... Not to be confused with Joseph Brant Arseneau. ... Belligerents Colonial militia Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Israel Putnam, et al. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States American Indians, Great Britain Commanders Western Department, George Rogers Clark, William Crawford â€ , et al. ... The Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga consisted of a series of battles between the American revolutionaries and British forces, from 1778 through 1781 in what are now the New England and Mid-Atlantic states of the United States. ... The Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War became the central area of operations on land after France entered the war on the side of the United States. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants Spain, France, United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez, Matías de Gálvez, Comte de Grasse, Comte dEstaing George Rodney The naval operations of the American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence, divide themselves naturally into two periods. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... North American redirects here. ... ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... This article is about political and social developments, including the origins and aftermath of the war. ... The Massachusetts Government Act of 1774 annulled the charter the people. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Throughout the war, the British were able to use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. French involvement proved decisive, with a French naval victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a second British army at Yorktown in 1781. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west. Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Sir Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...

Contents

Combatants before 1778

American armies and militias

At the outset of the war, the Americans lacked a professional army or navy. Each colony provided for its own defenses through the use of local militia. Militiamen were lightly armed, slightly trained, and usually did not have uniforms. Their units served for only a few weeks or months at a time, were reluctant to go very far from home, and were thus generally unavailable for extended operations. Militia lacked the training and discipline of regular soldiers but were more numerous and could overwhelm regular troops as at the battles of Concord, Bennington and Saratoga, and the siege of Boston. Both sides used partisan warfare but the Americans were particularly effective at suppressing Loyalist activity when British regulars were not in the area.[2] Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War This is a list of military actions in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

German troops serving with the British were called "Hessians", due to the Hesse origin of most. (C. Ziegler after Conrad Gessner, 1799)
German troops serving with the British were called "Hessians", due to the Hesse origin of most. (C. Ziegler after Conrad Gessner, 1799)

Seeking to coordinate military efforts, the Continental Congress established (on paper) a regular army in June 1775, and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief. The development of the Continental Army was always a work in progress, and Washington used both his regulars and state militia throughout the war. The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the war, formed at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, a date regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. At the beginning of 1776, Washington's army had 20,000 men, with two-thirds enlisted in the Continental Army and the other third in the various colonial militias.[3] At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded. About 250,000 men served as regulars or as militiamen for the Revolutionary cause in the eight years of the war, but there were never more than 90,000 total men under arms at one time. Armies were small by European standards of the era; the greatest number of men that Washington personally commanded in the field at any one time was fewer than 17,000. This could be attributed to tactical preferences, but it also could be because of lack of powder on the American side.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x793, 155 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x793, 155 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... In mathematics, the Hessian matrix of a function of several real variables is the (symmetric) matrix of all second partial derivatives. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (Acting) (CDU) Votes in Bundesrat 5 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,073,000 (09/2007)[1]  - Density 288 /km... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The Continental Marines were the Marine force of the American Colonies during American Revolutionary War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... Continental Navy Jack The Continental Navy was authorized by the Continental Congress on October 13, 1775. ...


Loyalists

Historians have estimated that approximately 40-45% of the colonists actively supported the rebellion while 15-20% of the population of the thirteen colonies remained loyal to the British Crown. The remaining 35-45% attempted to remain neutral.[5] Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ...


At least 25,000 Loyalists fought on the side of the British. Thousands served in the Royal Navy. On land, Loyalist forces fought alongside the British in most battles in North America. Many Loyalists fought in partisan units, especially in the Southern theater.[6]


The British military encountered difficulties in maximizing the use of Loyalist factions. British historian Jeremy Black wrote, “In the American war it was clear to both royal generals and revolutionaries that organized and significant Loyalist activity would require the presence of British forces.”[7] In the South, the use of Loyalists presented the British with “major problems of strategic choice” since while it was necessary to widely disperse troops in order to defend Loyalist areas, it was also recognized that there was a need for “the maintenance of large concentrated forces able” to counter major attacks from the American forces.[8] The British also were also forced to insure that their military actions would not “offend Loyalist opinion”, eliminating such options as attempting to “live off the country’, destroying property for intimidation purposes, or coercing payments from colonists (“laying them under contribution”).[9]


British armies and mercenaries

Early in 1775, the British Army consisted of about 36,000 men worldwide, but wartime recruitment steadily increased this number. Additionally, over the course of the war the British hired about 30,000 soldiers from German princes; these professional soldiers were generically called "Hessians" because many came from Hesse-Kassel. Rebel propagandists[Neutrality disputed  — See talk page] called German soldiers "foreign mercenaries," and they are scorned as such in the Declaration of Independence. Germans made up about one-third of the British troop strength in North America. By 1779, the number of British and German troops stationed in North America was over 60,000, although these were spread from Canada to Florida.[10] About 10,000 Loyalist Americans under arms for the British are included in these figures.[11] The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, such as the People of Hesse, see, see Hessian (disambiguation). ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...


African Americans

This 1780 drawing of American soldiers from the Yorktown campaign shows a black infantryman from the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
This 1780 drawing of American soldiers from the Yorktown campaign shows a black infantryman from the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.

African Americans — slave and free — served on both sides during the war. The British actively recruited slaves belonging to Patriot masters. Because of manpower shortages, George Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army in January 1776. Small all-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many were slaves promised freedom for serving. Another all-black unit came from Haiti with French forces. At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the Revolutionary cause[12] and more than 20,000 black soldiers fought on the British side.[13] Image File history File links American_Foot_Soldiers. ... Image File history File links American_Foot_Soldiers. ... The 1st Rhode Island Regiment also known as 9th Continental Regiment was raised on May 8, 1775 under Colonel James Mitchell Varnum outside of Boston, Massachusetts for service with the Continental Army. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Native Americans

Most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River were affected by the war, and many communities were divided over the question of how to respond to the conflict. Most Native Americans opposed the United States, since native lands were threatened by expanding American settlement. An estimated 13,000 warriors fought on the British side; the largest group, the Iroquois Confederacy, fielded about 1,500 men.[14] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


War in the north, 1775–1780

Massachusetts

Main article: Boston campaign

Before the war, Boston had been the scene of much revolutionary activity, leading to the Massachusetts Government Act that ended home rule as a punishment in 1774. Popular resistance to these measures, however, compelled the newly appointed royal officials in Massachusetts to resign or to seek refuge in Boston. Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, the British North American commander-in chief, commanded four regiments of British regulars (about 4,000 men) from his headquarters in Boston, but the countryside was in the hands of the Revolutionaries. Belligerents Colonial militia Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Israel Putnam, et al. ... Boston redirects here. ... The Massachusetts Government Act (citation 14 Geo. ... Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ... The office of Commander-in-Chief, North America was the commander of British forces in North America before 1859. ...

The British marching to Concord in April 1775

On the night of April 18, 1775, General Gage sent 700 men to seize munitions stored by the colonial militia at Concord, Massachusetts. Riders including Paul Revere alerted the countryside, and when British troops entered Lexington on the morning of April 19, they found 77 minutemen formed up on the village green. Shots were exchanged, killing several minutemen. The British moved on to Concord, where a detachment of three companies was engaged and routed at the North Bridge by a force of 500 minutemen. As the British retreated back to Boston, thousands of militiamen attacked them along the roads, inflicting great damage before timely British reinforcements prevented a total disaster. With the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the war had begun. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1635 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Total 25. ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... Lexington Minuteman representing John Parker Minutemen is a name given to members of the militia of the American Colonies, who would be ready for battle in a minutes notice. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ...


The militia converged on Boston, bottling up the British in the city. About 4,500 more British soldiers arrived by sea, and on June 17, 1775, British forces under General William Howe seized the Charlestown peninsula at the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans fell back, but British losses were so heavy that the attack was not followed up. The siege was not broken, and Gage was soon replaced by Howe as the British commander-in-chief.[15] Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...


In July 1775, newly appointed General Washington arrived outside Boston to take charge of the colonial forces and to organize the Continental Army. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. Arsenals were raided and some manufacturing was attempted; 90% of the supply (2 million pounds) was imported by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[16]


The standoff continued throughout the fall and winter. In early March 1776, heavy cannons that the patriots had captured at Fort Ticonderoga were placed on Dorchester Heights by Major Henry Knox. Since the artillery now overlooked the British positions, Howe's situation was untenable, and the British fled on March 17, 1776, sailing to their naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia.[17] Washington then moved most of the Continental Army to fortify New York City. Combatants Vermont, Connecticut Great Britain Commanders Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold William Delaplace Strength 83 48 Casualties None 48 captured The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Continental Army Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the British evacuation of Boston, ending the ongoing siege of Boston. ... Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts is Evacuation Day, an official holiday commemorating the evacuation of the city (which was a town at the time) of Boston by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Canada

During the long standoff at Boston, the Continental Congress sought a way to seize the initiative elsewhere. Congress had initially invited the French Canadians to join them as the fourteenth colony, but when that failed to happen, Congress authorized an invasion of Canada. The goal was to remove British rule from the primarily francophone province of Quebec (comprising present-day Quebec). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Two Canada-bound expeditions were undertaken. On September 16, 1775, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery marched north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,700 militiamen, capturing Fort St. Jean on November 2 and then Montreal on November 13. General Guy Carleton, the governor of Quebec, escaped to Quebec City. The second expedition, led by Colonel Benedict Arnold, was a logistical nightmare, with many men succumbing to smallpox. By the time Arnold reached Quebec City in early November, he had but 600 of his original 1,100 men. Montgomery's force joined Arnold's, and they attacked Quebec City on December 31, but were defeated by Carleton and Montgomery was killed. The remaining Americans held on outside Quebec City until the spring of 1776, and then withdrew when a squadron of British ships under Captain Charles Douglas arrived to relieve the siege. An engraving depicting the death of General Montgomery at the Battle of Quebec. ... U.S. 1955 postage stamp depicting Ethan Allen and Fort Ticonderoga. ... The Battle of Fort St. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Québec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Québec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Jean-Paul LAllier 1989-Dec. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders Richard Montgomery † Benedict Arnold James Livingston (American Revolution) Guy Carleton Strength 1,200 Continentals 1,200 British Regulars and Militia Casualties 60 dead or wounded, 426 captured 6 dead, 19 wounded Canadian theater, 1775–1776 Ticonderoga – Crown Point – Longue-Pointe – Fort St. ... Rear Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, 1st Baronet of Carr (b. ...


Another attempt was made by the Americans to push back towards Quebec, but they failed at Trois-Rivières on June 8, 1776. Carleton then launched his own invasion and defeated Arnold at the Battle of Valcour Island in October. Arnold fell back to Fort Ticonderoga, where the invasion of Canada had begun. The invasion of Canada ended as a disaster for the Americans, but Arnold's efforts in 1776 delayed a full-scale British counteroffensive until the Saratoga campaign of 1777. Combatants United States of America United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders John Sullivan Sir Guy Carleton Strength 2,500 3,000 Casualties 25 dead, 140 wounded, 236 captured 8 dead, 9 wounded The Battle of Trois-Rivières was fought on June 8, 1776, in the American Revolutionary... The Battle of Valcour Island, 11 October 1776, also known as Battle of Valcour Bay, was a naval engagement fought on Lake Champlain in a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. ... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ...


The invasion cost the Americans their base of support in British public opinion, "So that the violent measures towards America are freely adopted and countenanced by a majority of individuals of all ranks, professions, or occupations, in this country."[18]


New York and New Jersey

Having withdrawn his army from Boston, General Howe now focused on capturing New York City. To defend the city, General Washington divided his 20,000 soldiers between Long Island and Manhattan. While British troops were assembling on Staten Island for the campaign, Washington had the newly issued Declaration of American Independence read to his men. No longer was there any possibility of compromise. On August 27, 1776, after landing about 22,000 men on Long Island, the British drove the Americans back to Brooklyn Heights in the largest battle of the entire Revolution. Howe then laid siege to fortifications there. In a feat considered by many historians to be one of his most impressive actions as Commander in Chief, Washington personnaly directed the withdrawal of his entire remaining army and all their supplies across the East River in one night without discovery by the British or losing a single man.[19] Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... View of Brooklyn Heights from Manhattan Brooklyn Heights is a neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... New York City waterways: 1. ...


On September 15, Howe landed about 12,000 men on lower Manhattan, quickly taking control of New York City. The Americans withdrew to Harlem Heights, where they skirmished the next day but held their ground. When Howe moved to encircle Washington's army in October, the Americans again fell back, and a battle at White Plains was fought on October 28. Once more Washington retreated, and Howe returned to Manhattan and captured Fort Washington in mid November, taking about 2,000 prisoners (with an additional 1,000 having been captured during the battle for Long Island). Thus began the infamous "prison ships" system the British maintained in New York for the remainder of the war, in which more American soldiers and sailors died of neglect than died in every battle of the entire war, combined.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Combatants American milita British Army Commanders William Douglas William Howe Strength 900 4,000 Casualties 60 killed or wounded, 320 captured 12 killed The Landing at Kips Bay was a British maneuver during the New York Campaign in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Harlem Heights was a skirmish in the New York Campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 14,500 men 14,000 men Casualties 300 killed and wounded 313 killed and wounded Battle of White Plains Historic Site : George Washingtons HQ The Battle of White Plains was an inconclusive meeting on October 28, 1776 in the... Fort Washington (New York) was a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island and was located at the highest point on the island. ... uring the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... Prison Ship Martyrs Monument Program of the Dedicatory Ceremonies of the Prison Ship Martyrs Monument, November 14, 1908 Erected in Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, New York. ...

Emanuel Leutze's stylized depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851)
Emanuel Leutze's stylized depiction of Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851)

General Lord Cornwallis continued to chase Washington's army through New Jersey, until the Americans withdrew across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania in early December. With the campaign at an apparent conclusion for the season, the British entered winter quarters. Although Howe had missed several opportunities to crush the diminishing American army, he had killed or captured over 5,000 Americans. Download high resolution version (950x558, 918 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: American Revolutionary War Emanuel Leutze George Washington Delaware River Washington Crossing the Delaware Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (950x558, 918 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: American Revolutionary War Emanuel Leutze George Washington Delaware River Washington Crossing the Delaware Categories: U.S. history images ... Washington Crossing the Delaware Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 – July 18, 1868) was a German-born American painter. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware is an 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by Emanuel Leutze. ... Cornwallis redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas). ...


The outlook of the Continental Army was bleak. "These are the times that try men's souls," wrote Thomas Paine, who was with the army on the retreat. The army had dwindled to fewer than 5,000 men fit for duty, and would be reduced to 1,400 after enlistments expired at the end of the year. Congress had abandoned Philadelphia in despair, although popular resistance to British occupation was growing in the countryside.[citation needed] For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ...


Washington decided to take the offensive, stealthily crossing the Delaware on Christmas night and capturing nearly 1,000 Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on December 26, 1776. Cornwallis marched to retake Trenton but was outmaneuvered by Washington, who successfully attacked the British rearguard at Princeton on January 3, 1777. Washington then entered winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey, having given a morale boost to the American cause. New Jersey militia continued to harass British and Hessian forces throughout the winter, forcing the British to retreat to their base in and around New York City. Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Hugh Mercer†, John Haslet† Charles Mawhood Strength 4,600 1,200 (Rearguard of main force) Casualties 46 killed c. ... Nickname: Location of Morris County in New Jersey; Inset: Location of Morristown in Morris County Coordinates: , Country State County Morris Founded 1715 Incorporated April 6, 1865 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Donald Cresitello (D; term ends December 31, 2009. ...


At every stage the British strategy assumed a large base of Loyalist supporters would rally to the King given some military support. In February 1776 Clinton took 2,000 men and a naval squadron to invade North Carolina, which he called off when he learned the Loyalists had been crushed at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. In June he tried to seize Charleston, South Carolina, the leading port in the South, hoping for a simultaneous rising in South Carolina. It seemed a cheap way of waging the war but it failed as the naval force was defeated by the forts and because no local Loyalists attacked the town from behind. The loyalists were too poorly organized to be effective, but as late as 1781 senior officials in London, misled by Loyalist exiles, placed their confidence in their rising.[citation needed] Combatants Patriot militia Loyalist militia Commanders Richard Caswell, Alexander Lillington Donald McLeod Strength 1,000 1,500 Casualties 1 killed, 1 wounded 30 killed or wounded, 850 captured The Battle of Moores Creek Bridge was fought near Wilmington, North Carolina, on February 27, 1776, between North Carolina patriots and... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Saratoga and Philadelphia

When the British began to plan operations for 1777, they had two main armies in North America: Carleton's army in Canada, and Howe's army in New York. In London, Lord George Germain approved campaigns for these armies which, because of miscommunication, poor planning, and rivalries between commanders, did not work in conjunction. Although Howe successfully captured Philadelphia, the northern army was lost in a disastrous surrender at Saratoga. Both Carleton and Howe resigned after the 1777 campaign. Lord George Germain (1780). ...


Saratoga campaign

Main article: Saratoga campaign

The first of the 1777 campaigns was an expedition from Canada led by General John Burgoyne. The goal was to seize the Lake Champlain and Hudson River corridor, effectively isolating New England from the rest of the American colonies. Burgoyne's invasion had two components: he would lead about 10,000 men along Lake Champlain towards Albany, New York, while a second column of about 2,000 men, led by Barry St. Leger, would move down the Mohawk River valley and link up with Burgoyne in Albany, New York. Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... For other persons named Burgoyne, see Burgoyne (disambiguation). ... For ships named after the lake, see USS Lake Champlain. ... , The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois,[1][2][3] or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, Θkahnéhtati[4] in Tuscarora), is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Barrimore Matthew St. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... For other uses, see Albany. ...

Mohawk leader Joseph Brant led both Native Americans and white Loyalists in battle.
Mohawk leader Joseph Brant led both Native Americans and white Loyalists in battle.

Burgoyne set off in June, and recaptured Fort Ticonderoga in early July. Thereafter, his march was slowed by Americans who knocked down trees in his path. A detachment was sent out to seize supplies but was decisively defeated by American militia in August, depriving Burgoyne of nearly 1,000 men. Image File history File links Joseph Brant painting by George Romney in London, 1776. ... Image File history File links Joseph Brant painting by George Romney in London, 1776. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... Not to be confused with Joseph Brant Arseneau. ... Whites redirects here. ... Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders John Burgoyne General Arthur St. ... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August...


Meanwhile, St. Leger — half of his force Native Americans led by Sayenqueraghta — had laid siege to Fort Stanwix. American militiamen and their Native American allies marched to relieve the siege but were ambushed and scattered at the Battle of Oriskany. When a second relief expedition approached, this time led by Benedict Arnold, St. Leger broke off the siege and retreated to Canada. Sayenqueraghta (early 18th century – 1786) was the war chief of the eastern Seneca tribe in the mid 18th century. ... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... Combatants Tryon County militia 40 Oneida Indians Hanau Jager detachment Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Seneca Indians Natives of the Seven Nations of Canada: Mohawks, Abenakis, Algonquins, Nipissings and Hurons Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson, John Butler, Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450+ Casualties...


Burgoyne's army was now reduced to about 6,000 men. Despite these setbacks, he determined to push on towards Albany — a fateful decision which would later produce much controversy. An American army of 8,000 men, commanded by the General Horatio Gates, had entrenched about 10 miles (16 km) south of Saratoga, New York. Burgoyne tried to outflank the Americans but was checked at the first battle of Saratoga in September. Burgoyne's situation was desperate, but he now hoped that help from Howe's army in New York City might be on the way. It was not: Howe had instead sailed away on an expedition to capture Philadelphia. American militiamen flocked to Gates' army, swelling his force to 11,000 by the beginning of October. After being badly beaten at the second battle of Saratoga, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17. Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... Saratoga is a town located in Saratoga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,141. ... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ...


Saratoga was the turning point of the war. Revolutionary confidence and determination, suffering from Howe's successful occupation of Philadelphia, was renewed. More importantly, the victory encouraged France to make an open alliance with the Americans, after two years of semi-secret support. For the British, the war had now become much more complicated.[29]


Philadelphia campaign

Main article: Philadelphia campaign

Having secured New York City in 1776, General Howe concentrated on capturing Philadelphia, the seat of the Revolutionary government, in 1777. He moved slowly, landing 15,000 troops in late August at the northern end of Chesapeake Bay. Washington positioned his 11,000 men between Howe and Philadelphia but was driven back at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. The Continental Congress once again abandoned Philadelphia, and on September 26, Howe finally outmaneuvered Washington and marched into the city unopposed. Washington unsuccessfully attacked the British encampment in nearby Germantown in early October and then retreated to watch and wait. Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. ... Belligerents United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 8,000 6,000 Casualties and losses 300 killed 600 wounded 400 captured 11 guns lost 93 Killed 488 wounded 11 missing The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 11,700 8,000 Casualties 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 4...

Washington and Lafayette look over the troops at Valley Forge.
Washington and Lafayette look over the troops at Valley Forge.

After repelling a British attack at White Marsh, Washington and his army encamped at Valley Forge in December 1777, about 20 miles (32 km) from Philadelphia, where they stayed for the next six months. Over the winter, 2,500 men (out of 10,000) died from disease and exposure. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a training program supervised by Baron von Steuben. Indeed, von Steuben introduced the most modern Prussian methods of organization and tactics. Image File history File links Washington_and_Lafayette_at_Valley_Forge. ... Image File history File links Washington_and_Lafayette_at_Valley_Forge. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... Combatants Continental Army Colonial militia Great Britain German mercenaries Commanders George Washington William Howe Charles Cornwallis W. von Knyphausen Strength 11,000 14,000 Casualties 90 killed or wounded 32 captured 60 killed or wounded Map of the Battle of White Marsh The Battle of White Marsh was a battle... This article is about the American Revolutionary War winter encampment. ... Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Steuben, Baron von Steuben (* September 17, 1730; † November 28, 1794) was a German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. ...


General Clinton replaced Howe as British commander-in-chief. French entry into the war had changed British strategy, and Clinton abandoned Philadelphia in order to reinforce New York City, now vulnerable to French naval power. Washington shadowed Clinton on his withdrawal and forced a strategic victory at the battle at Monmouth on June 28, 1778, the last major battle in the north. Clinton's army went to New York City in July, just before a French fleet under Admiral d'Estaing arrived off the American coast. Washington's army returned to White Plains, New York, north of the city. Although both armies were back where they had been two years earlier, the nature of the war had now changed.[30] Combatants United States of America Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir Henry Clinton Strength 11,000 10,000 Casualties 69 killed, 37 died of heat-stroke 160 wounded 95 missing Total: 361 65 killed 59 died of heat-stroke 170 wounded 50 captured 14 missing Total: 358 The Battle of... Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Portrait by Benson John Lossing in The pictorial field-book of the revolution Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing Comte Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector d Estaing (November 1729 - April 28, 1794) was a French admiral. ... For other places with the same name, see White Plains (disambiguation). ...


An international war, 1778–1783

In 1778, the war over the rebellion in North America became international; spreading not only to Europe, but to the European colonies, chiefly in India. After learning of the American victory in Saratoga, France signed the Treaty of Alliance with the United States on February 6, 1778. Spain entered the war as an ally of France in June 1779, a renewal of the Bourbon Family Compact. Unlike France, however, Spain initially refused to recognize the independence of the United States — Spain was not keen on encouraging similar anti-colonial rebellions in the Spanish Empire. Both countries had quietly provided assistance to the Americans since the beginning of the war, hoping to dilute British power. So too had the Netherlands, eventually brought into open war at the end of 1780. The Treaty of Alliance of (1778) resulted from the success of American forces in the Battle of Saratoga. ... A series of 18th century alliances between France, Spain and the Two Sicilies known as the Bourbon Family Compact or just the Family Compact (pactes de families in French), because the kingdoms were all ruled by members of the House of Bourbon. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


In London King George III gave up hope of subduing America by more armies while Britain had a European war to fight. "It was a joke," he said, "to think of keeping Pennsylvania." There was no hope of recovering New England. But the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal."[31] His plan was to keep the 30,000 men garrisoned in New York, Rhode Island, in Canada, and in Florida; other forces would attack the French and Spanish in the West Indies. To punish the Americans the King planned to destroy their coasting-trade, bombard their ports; sack and burn towns along the coast (like New London, Connecticut), and turn loose the Native Americans to attack civilians in frontier settlements. These operations, the King felt, would inspire the Loyalists; would splinter the Congress; and "would keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse" and they would beg to return to his authority.[32] The plan meant destruction for the Loyalists and loyal Native Americans, and indefinite prolongation of a costly war, as well as the risk of disaster as the French and Spanish were assembling an armada to invade the British isles and seize London. The British planned to re-subjugate the rebellious colonies after dealing with their European allies. Nickname: Motto: MARE LIBERUM Coordinates: , NECTA Norwich-New London Region Southeastern Connecticut Settled 1646 (Pequot Plantation) Named 1658 (New London) Incorporated (city) 1784 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City council Margaret Mary Curtin, Mayor Kevin J. Cavanagh, Dep. ...


Widening of the naval war

Further information: Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War, France in the American Revolutionary War, Spain in the American Revolutionary War

When the war began, the British had overwhelming naval superiority over the American colonists. The Royal Navy had over 100 ships of the line and many frigates and smaller craft, although this fleet was old and in poor condition, a situation which would be blamed on Lord Sandwich, the First Lord of the Admiralty. During the first three years of the war, the Royal Navy was primarily used to transport troops for land operations and to protect commercial shipping. The American colonists had no ships of the line, and relied extensively on privateering to harass British shipping. The privateers caused worry disproportionate to their material success although those operating out of French channel ports before and after France joined the war caused significant embarrassment to the Royal Navy and inflamed Anglo-French relations. The Continental Congress authorized the creation of a small Continental Navy in October, 1775, which was primarily used for commerce raiding. John Paul Jones became the first great American naval hero, capturing HMS Drake on April 24, 1778, the first victory for any American military vessel in British waters.[33] Combatants Spain, France, United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez, Matías de Gálvez, Comte de Grasse, Comte dEstaing George Rodney The naval operations of the American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence, divide themselves naturally into two periods. ... i like pie ... Spain entered the American Revolutionary War as an ally of France in June 1779, a renewal of the Bourbon Family Compact. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough For other persons of the same name, see John Montagu. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... Continental Navy Jack The Continental Navy was authorized by the Continental Congress on October 13, 1775. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... John Paul Jones (July 11, 1747–July 18, 1792) was Americas first well-known naval hero in the American Revolutionary War. ... HMS Drake was a twenty-gun sloop-of-war of the Royal Navy. ...

The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 13, 1782, by John Singleton Copley.
The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 13, 1782, by John Singleton Copley.

French entry into the war meant that British naval superiority was now contested. The Franco-American alliance began poorly, however, with failed operations at Rhode Island in 1778 and Savannah, Georgia, in 1779. Part of the problem was that France and the United States had different military priorities: France hoped to capture British possessions in the West Indies before helping to secure American independence. While French financial assistance to the American war effort was already of critical importance, French military aid to the Americans would not show positive results until the arrival in July 1780 of a large force of soldiers led by the Comte de Rochambeau. Image File history File links The_Siege_and_Relief_of_Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links The_Siege_and_Relief_of_Gibraltar. ... The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782 (also called The Siege of Gibraltar[1] or The Siege and Relief of Gibraltar) is the title of a 1783 oil-on-canvas painting by Boston-born American artist John Singleton Copley. ... Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart. ... Combatants United States British Commanders John Sullivan Robert Pigot Strength 10,100 7,139 Casualties 30 killed, 137 wounded, 44 missing 38 killed, 210 wounded, 12 missing The Battle of Rhode Island, also known as the Battle of Quaker Hill, took place on August 29, 1778, when units of the... Combatants United States France Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders General Benjamin Lincoln Admiral Comte dEstaing Count Kazimierz Pulaski † General Augustin Prevost Strength 1,550 American troops; 3,500 French troops and sailors 3,200 troops Casualties Total Allied: 800 killed 1200 wounded 40 killed 63 wounded The Siege of... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (July 1, 1725 – May 10, 1807), French soldier, was born at Vendôme (Loir-et-Cher). ...


Spain entered the war on the side of the Americans with the goal of recapturing Gibraltar and Minorca, which had been lost to the British in 1704. Gibraltar was besieged for more than three years, but the British garrison stubbornly resisted for years and was finally resupplied after Admiral Rodney's victory in the "Moonlight Battle" (January, 1780). Further Franco-Spanish efforts to capture Gibraltar were unsuccessful. One notable success took place on February 5, 1782 when Spanish and French forces captured Minorca, which Spain retained after the war. Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... For the painting, see The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782. ... Admiral Lord George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, 1719–1792 by Jean-Laurent Mosnier, painted 1791, George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney (February 1718 – May 24, 1792), was a British naval officer. ... Combatants Britain Spain Commanders George Rodney Juan de Lángara Strength 18 ships of the line 9 ships of the line 2 frigates Casualties 32 dead 102 wounded 1 ship destroyed 4 ships captured The naval Battle of Cape St Vincent, or Battle of Cape Santa Maria, took place on... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ...


West Indies and Gulf Coast

There was much action in the West Indies, with several islands changing hands, especially in the Lesser Antilles. At the Battle of the Saintes in April 1782, a victory by Rodney's fleet over the French Admiral de Grasse frustrated the hopes of France and Spain to take Jamaica and other colonies from the British. On May 8, 1782, Count Bernardo de Gálvez, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, captured the British naval base at New Providence in the Bahamas. Nevertheless, except for the French retention of the small island of Tobago, sovereignty in the West Indies was returned to the status quo ante bellum in the 1783 peace treaty. Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... The Battle of the Saintes, 12 April 1782: surrender of the Ville de Paris by Thomas Whitcombe, painted 1783, shows Hoods Barfleur, centre, attacking the French flagship Ville de Paris, right. ... François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse François Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (1722 - Paris, 14th of January 1788), French admiral, was born at Bar, in the present départment of the Alpes-Maritimes. ... Bernardo de Gálvez Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Galvez (23 July 1746 born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain – 1786) was Spanish governor of Louisiana from 1777 to 1785, and Viceroy of New Spain 1785-1786. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see New Providence (disambiguation). ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ...


On the Gulf Coast, Gálvez seized three British Mississippi River outposts in 1779: Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez. Gálvez then captured Mobile in 1780 and forced the surrender of the British outpost at Pensacola in 1781. His actions led to Spain acquiring East and West Florida in the peace settlement. The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Battle of Fort Bute signalled the opening of Spanish intervention in the American Revolutionary War on the side of France and the United States. ... The Battle of Baton Rouge was decided on September 21, 1779 during the American Revolutionary War. ... Melrose, an antebellum home in Natchez, Mississippi. ... Combatants Spain Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez Elias Durnford Strength 754 regulars and militia 98 regulars 169 militia Casualties Unknown 267 dead, wounded, or captured. ... Combatants Spain Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez John Campbell Strength 7,000 regulars and militia 3,000 regulars, sailors, militia, and natives Casualties 74 dead, 198 wounded 105 dead, 382 wounded, 2,213 captured The Battle of Pensacola marked the culmination of Spains reconquest of Florida from Britain... Nickname: Motto: Enhancing the Quality of Life for all Citizens Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country United States State Florida County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg (R) Area  - City 39. ... Map of East and West Florida in 1810. ... This article is about the region. ...


India and the Netherlands

The military action in North America and the Caribbean helped spark a conflict between Britain and France over India, in the form of the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784). The two chief combatants were Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and a key French ally, and the British government of Madras. The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) was a conflict in India between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Mysore. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ...


In 1780, the British struck against the United Provinces of the Netherlands in order to preempt Dutch involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality, a declaration of several European powers that they would conduct neutral trade during the war. Britain was not willing to allow the Netherlands to openly give aid to the American rebels. Agitation by Dutch radicals and a friendly attitude towards the United States by the Dutch government — both influenced by the American Revolution — also encouraged the British to attack.[citation needed] The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War lasted into 1784 and was disastrous to the Dutch mercantile economy. It effectively ended the last Dutch pretence to being a global power, and paved the way for the Batavian Republic. Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The top global powers usually have relatively high military budgets, reflecting their powerful military capabilities. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ...


Southern theater

During the first three years of the American Revolutionary War, the primary military encounters were in the north. After French entry into the war, the British turned their attention to the southern colonies, where they hoped to regain control by recruiting Loyalists. This southern strategy also had the advantage of keeping the Royal Navy closer to the Caribbean, where the British needed to defend their possessions against the French and Spanish. The Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War became the central area of operations on land after France entered the war on the side of the United States. ...

The British Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1782.
The British Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1782.

On December 29, 1778, an expeditionary corps from Clinton's army in New York captured Savannah, Georgia. An attempt by French and American forces to retake Savannah failed on October 9, 1779. Clinton then besieged Charleston, capturing it on May 12, 1780. With relatively few casualties, Clinton had seized the South's biggest city and seaport, paving the way for what seemed like certain conquest of the South. Download high resolution version (615x1000, 110 KB)General Sir Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (615x1000, 110 KB)General Sir Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds General Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 1754 – 25 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Combatants United States France Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders General Benjamin Lincoln Admiral Comte dEstaing Count Kazimierz Pulaski † General Augustin Prevost Strength 1,550 American troops; 3,500 French troops and sailors 3,200 troops Casualties Total Allied: 800 killed 1200 wounded 40 killed 63 wounded The Siege of... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain United States Commanders Sir Henry Clinton and Mariot Arbuthnot Benjamin Lincoln Strength 14,000 troops 5,000 troops Casualties 76 killed, 182 wounded 92 killed, 148 wounded, 4,650 captured (see Trivia below) The Siege of Charleston was one of the major battles which took...


The remnants of the southern Continental Army began to withdraw to North Carolina but were pursued by Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton, who defeated them at the Waxhaws on May 29, 1780. With these events, organized American military activity in the region collapsed, though the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion. Cornwallis took over British operations, while Horatio Gates arrived to command the American effort. On August 16, 1780, Gates was defeated at the Battle of Camden, setting the stage for Cornwallis to invade North Carolina. Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds General Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 1754 – 25 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician. ... Combatants Britain 17th Lancers{then called Dragoons} British Legion (1778) United States 3rd Virginia Detachment composed of 2nd and 7th Virginia Regiments Commanders Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton Colonel Abraham Buford Strength 270 400 Casualties 5 killed 12 wounded {11 horses killed 19 horses wounded} 113 killed 150 wounded and paroled... Francis Marion (February 26, 1732–February 27, 1795) was a lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army and later brigadier general in the South Carolina Militia during the American Revolutionary War. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Charles Cornwallis Horatio Gates Johann de Kalb† Strength 2,239 3,052 Casualties 68 killed 245 wounded 64 missing 1,000 killed or wounded 1,000 captured 132 missing The Battle of Camden was an important battle in the Southern Theatre of the American Revolutionary... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


Cornwallis' victories quickly turned, however. One wing of his army was utterly defeated at the Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780. Tarleton was decisively defeated at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, by American General Daniel Morgan. Combatants Patriot militia Loyalist militia Commanders William Campbell, John Sevier, Frederick Hambright, Joseph McDowell, Benjamin Cleveland, James Williams†, Isaac Shelby Patrick Ferguson† Strength 900 (+500 nearby) 1,100 (+200 nearby) Casualties 28 killed (including James Williams), 62 wounded 157 killed, 163 wounded, 698 captured (nine of the captured were later... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders Daniel Morgan Banastre Tarleton Strength c. ... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ...


General Nathanael Greene, Gates' replacement, proceeded to wear down the British in a series of battles, each of them tactically a victory for the British but giving no strategic advantage to the victors. Greene summed up his approach in a motto that would become famous: "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again." Unable to capture or destroy Greene's army, Cornwallis moved north to Virginia. This article is about the American Revolutionary War hero. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In March 1781, General Washington dispatched General Lafayette to defend Virginia. The young Frenchman skirmished with Cornwallis, avoiding a decisive battle while gathering reinforcements. Cornwallis was unable to trap Lafayette, and so he moved his forces to Yorktown, Virginia, in July so the Royal Navy could return his army to New York. Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ...


Northern and western Frontier

Further information: Western theater of the American Revolutionary War
George Rogers Clark's 180 mile (290 km) winter march led to the capture of General Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor of Canada.

West of the Appalachian Mountains and along the Canadian border, the American Revolutionary War was an "Indian War." Most Native Americans supported the British. Like the Iroquois Confederacy, tribes such as the Cherokees and the Shawnees split into factions. Combatants United States American Indians, Great Britain Commanders Western Department, George Rogers Clark, William Crawford â€ , et al. ... Capture of FtSack The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Capture of FtSack The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the preeminent American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Henry Hamilton (c. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... This page contains special characters. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


The British supplied their native allies with muskets and gunpowder and advised raids against civilian settlements, especially in New York, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. Joint Iroquois-Loyalist attacks in the Wyoming Valley and at Cherry Valley in 1778 provoked Washington to send the Sullivan Expedition into western New York during the summer of 1779. There was little fighting as Sullivan systematically destroyed the Native American winter food supplies, forcing them to flee permanently to British bases in Canada and the Niagara Falls area. Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties three killed, eight wounded over 300 killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots and Loyalists... Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ... The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists (Tories) and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. ...


In the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, the Virginia frontiersman George Rogers Clark attempted to neutralize British influence among the Ohio tribes by capturing the outposts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the summer of 1778. When General Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit, retook Vincennes, Clark returned in a surprise march in February 1779 and captured Hamilton himself. The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the preeminent American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... Kaskaskia is a village located in Randolph County, Illinois. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders Henry Hamilton # George Rogers Clark Strength 80 British regulars, militia and French volunteers Native American raiding party-in skirmish with Clarks forces between 47 and 170 Casualties 1 killed+4 POW Killed {Native Americans}. 2 wounded & 1 POW (Native American}. British Garrison captured... Henry Hamilton (c. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...


In 1782 came the Gnadenhütten massacre, when Pennsylvania militiamen killed about a hundred neutral Native Americans. In August 1782, in one of the last major encounters of the war, a force of 200 Kentucky militia was defeated at the Battle of Blue Licks. This 37 foot (11 m) monument to the Gnadenhutten massacre, located next to a reconstructed Moravian cabin in what was the center of the original village, was dedicated on June 5, 1872. ... Combatants Kentucky militia (United States) Great Britain, American Indians Commanders John Todd † Stephen Trigg † Daniel Boone William Caldwell Alexander McKee Simon Girty Strength 182 militiamen 50 rangers 300 natives Casualties 72 killed, 11 captured about 11 killed The Battle of Blue Licks was fought on August 19, 1782, and was...


Yorktown and the Surrender of Cornwallis

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by (John Trumbull, 1797).
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by (John Trumbull, 1797).

The northern, southern, and naval theaters of the war converged in 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia. In early September, French naval forces defeated a British fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, cutting off Cornwallis' escape. Washington hurriedly moved American and French troops from New York, and a combined Franco-American force of 17,000 men commenced the Siege of Yorktown in early October. For several days, the French and Americans bombarded the British defenses. Cornwallis' position quickly became untenable, and he surrendered his entire army of 7,000 men on October 19, 1781. Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... This article is about the American painter. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Sir Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses...


With the surrender at Yorktown, King George lost control of Parliament to the peace party, and there were no further major military activities on land. The British had 30,000 garrison troops occupying New York City, Charleston, and Savannah. The war continued at sea between the British and the French fleets in the West Indies.[34] The British may have sent more troops to attack the colonists, if not for the numerous American ships attacking British shipping lanes worldwide.[citation needed] Due to the impact on British pocketbooks, the merchants put pressure on Parliament to end the war.[citation needed]


Treaty of Paris

In London as political support for the war plummeted after Yorktown, Prime Minister Lord North resigned in March 1782. In April 1782, the Commons voted to end the war in America. Preliminary peace articles were signed in Paris at the end of November, 1782; the formal end of the war did not occur until the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, and the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the treaty on January 14, 1784. The last British troops left New York City on November 25, 1783. Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the last vestige of British authority in the United States — its troops in New York — departed from Manhattan. ...


Britain negotiated the Paris peace treaty without consulting her Native American allies and ceded all Native American territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River to the United States. Full of resentment, Native Americans reluctantly confirmed these land cessions with the United States in a series of treaties, but the fighting would be renewed in conflicts along the frontier in the coming years, the largest being the Northwest Indian War. The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ...


Costs of the war

Casualties

The total loss of life resulting from the American Revolutionary War is unknown. As was typical in the wars of the era, disease claimed more lives than battle. Historian Joseph Ellis suggests that Washington's decision to have his troops inoculated against the smallpox epidemic was one of his most important decisions.[35] Joseph John Ellis (1943- ) is a Pulitzer Prize - winning Professor of History on the Ford Foundation at Mount Holyoke College. ... This article is about the disease. ...


An estimated 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service. About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 deaths were from disease, including about 8,000 - 12,000 who died while prisoners of war, most in rotting prison ships in New York. The number of Revolutionaries seriously wounded or disabled by the war has been estimated from 8,500 to 25,000. The total American military casualty figure was therefore as high as 50,000.[36] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... uring the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ...


About 171,000 seamen served for the British during the war; about 25 to 50 percent of them had been pressed into service. About 1,240 were killed in battle, while 18,500 died from disease. The greatest killer was scurvy, a disease known at the time to be easily preventable by issuing lemon juice to sailors. About 42,000 British sailors deserted during the war.[37] Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


Approximately 1,200 Germans were killed in action and 6,354 died from illness or accident. About 16,000 of the remaining German troops returned home, but roughly 5,500 remained in the United States after the war for various reasons, many eventually becoming American citizens. No reliable statistics exist for the number of casualties among other groups, including Loyalists, British regulars, Native Americans, French and Spanish troops, and civilians.


Financial costs

The British spent about £80 million and ended with a national debt of £250 million, which it easily financed at about £9.5 million a year in interest. The French spent 1.3 billion livres (about £56 million). Their total national debt was £187 million, which they could not easily finance; over half the French national revenue went to debt service in the 1780s. The debt crisis became a major enabling factor of the French Revolution as the government was unable to raise taxes without public approval.[38] The United States spent $37 million at the national level plus $114 million by the states. This was mostly covered by loans from France and the Netherlands, loans from Americans, and issuance of more and more paper money (which became "not worth a continental.") The U.S. finally solved its debt problem in the 1790s.[39] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Historical assessment

The war of American independence could be summed up as a civil war fought on foreign soil, as opposing forces comprised both nations' residents. One could argue that after the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, it was a war between two different nations, the Americans and the British. However, both sides were technically of English or European descent; as a result one could compare the American Revolutionary War to the English Civil War, in which the Parliamentarians and Royalists were both English, but in their own way, two different nations or factions.[opinion needs balancing] That said, it is a war that America could not have survived without French assistance. In addition, Britain had significant military disadvantages. Distance was a major problem: most troops and supplies had to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean. The British usually had logistical problems whenever they operated away from port cities, while the Americans had local sources of manpower and food and were more familiar with (and acclimated to) the territory. Additionally, ocean travel meant that British communications were always about two months out of date: by the time British generals in America received their orders from London, the military situation had usually changed.[40] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ...


Suppressing a rebellion in America also posed other problems. Since the colonies covered a large area and had not been united before the war, there was no central area of strategic importance. In Europe, the capture of a capital often meant the end of a war; in America, when the British seized cities such as New York and Philadelphia, the war continued unabated. Furthermore, the large size of the colonies meant that the British lacked the manpower to control them by force. Once any area had been occupied, troops had to be kept there or the Revolutionaries would regain control, and these troops were thus unavailable for further offensive operations. The British had sufficient troops to defeat the Americans on the battlefield but not enough to simultaneously occupy the colonies. This manpower shortage became critical after French and Spanish entry into the war, because British troops had to be dispersed in several theaters, where previously they had been concentrated in America.[41] In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ...

Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War.
Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War.

The British also had the difficult task of fighting the war while simultaneously retaining the allegiance of Loyalists. Loyalist support was important, since the goal of the war was to keep the colonies in the British Empire, but this imposed numerous military limitations. Early in the war, the Howe brothers served as peace commissioners while simultaneously conducting the war effort, a dual role which may have limited their effectiveness. Additionally, the British could have recruited more slaves and Native Americans to fight the war, but this would have alienated many Loyalists, even more so than the controversial hiring of German mercenaries. The need to retain Loyalist allegiance also meant that the British were unable to use the harsh methods of suppressing rebellion they employed in Ireland and Scotland. Even with these limitations, many potentially neutral colonists were nonetheless driven into the ranks of the Revolutionaries because of the war. This combination of factors led ultimately to the downfall of British rule in America and the rise of the revolutionaries' own independent nation, the United States of America.[42] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x1768, 546 KB) 1923 William R. Shepherd File links The following pages link to this file: American Revolutionary War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x1768, 546 KB) 1923 William R. Shepherd File links The following pages link to this file: American Revolutionary War ...


See also

Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War This is a list of military actions in the American Revolutionary War. ... Paul Reveres ride Intelligences in the American Revolutionary War was essentially monitored and sanctioned by the Continental Congress to provide military intelligence to the Continental Army to aid them in fighting the British during the American Revolutionary War. ... uring the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... This is a list of British Forces in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) who fought against the American rebels (also known as the Patriots) and their French and Spanish allies, including battles in Florida and the West Indies. ... The forces deployed by the colonists during the American Revolutionary War included units organized as a national army and units of militia raised by each state. ... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...

Notes

To avoid duplication, notes for sections with a link to a "Main article" will be found in the linked article.

  1. ^ British writers generally favor "American War of Independence", "American Rebellion", or "War of American Independence". See Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Bibliography at http://revolution.h-net.msu.edu/bib.html for usage in titles.
  2. ^ Black, War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783, p. 59. On militia see Boatner, p. 707, and Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War (1973), ch. 2.
  3. ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum, 51. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  4. ^ Boatner, p. 264 says the largest force Washington commanded was "under 17,000"; Christopher Duffy (The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715–1789, p. 17) estimates Washington's maximum was "only 13,000 troops". By comparison, Duffy notes that Frederick the Great usually commanded from 1,000 to 2,000 in battle.
  5. ^ Calhoon, "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (2000) p.235
  6. ^ Savas and Dameron p. xli
  7. ^ Black p. 12
  8. ^ Black pg. 13-14
  9. ^ Black p. 14
  10. ^ Black, pp. 27–29; Boatner, pp. 424–26.
  11. ^ Weintraub, p. 240; figure for 1780.
  12. ^ Revolutionary all-black units: Kaplan and Kaplan, pp. 64–69.
  13. ^ American Revolution — African Americans In The Revolutionary Period.
  14. ^ James H. Merrell, "Indians and the New Republic" in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, p. 393; Boatner, p. 545.
  15. ^ Higginbotham, p. 75–77.
  16. ^ Orlando W. Stephenson, "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776," American Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Jan. 1925), pp. 271–281 in JSTOR.
  17. ^ Arthur S. Lefkowitz, "The Long Retreat: The Calamitous American Defense of New Jersey 1776, 1998. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
  18. ^ Rockingham to Burke September 1776, Watson The Reign of George III p. 203.
  19. ^ McCullough
  20. ^ Stiles, Henry Reed. "Letters from the prisons and prison-ships of the revolution." Thomson Gale, December 31, 1969. ISBN 978-1432812225
  21. ^ Dring, Thomas and Greene, Albert. "Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship" (American Experience Series, No 8). Applewood Books. November 1, 1986. ISBN 978-0918222923
  22. ^ Taylor, George. "Martyrs To The Revolution In The British Prison-Ships In The Wallabout Bay." (originally printed 1855) Kessinger Publishing, LLC. October 2, 2007. ISBN 978-0548592175.
  23. ^ Banks, James Lenox. "Prison ships in the Revolution: New facts in regard to their management." 1903.
  24. ^ Hawkins, Christopher. "The life and adventures of Christopher Hawkins, a prisoner on board the 'Old Jersey' prison ship during the War of the Revolution." Holland Club. 1858.
  25. ^ Andros, Thomas. "The old Jersey captive: Or, A narrative of the captivity of Thomas Andros...on board the old Jersey prison ship at New York, 1781. In a series of letters to a friend." W. Peirce. 1833.
  26. ^ Lang, Patrick J.. "The horrors of the English prison ships, 1776 to 1783, and the barbarous treatment of the American patriots imprisoned on them." Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick, 1939.
  27. ^ Onderdonk. Henry. "Revolutionary Incidents of Suffolk and Kings Counties; With an Account of the Battle of Long Island and the British Prisons and Prison-Ships at New York." Associated Faculty Press, Inc. June, 1970. ISBN 978-0804680752.
  28. ^ West, Charles E.. "Horrors of the prison ships: Dr. West's description of the wallabout floating dungeons, how captive patriots fared." Eagle Book Printing Department, 1895.
  29. ^ Higginbotham, pp. 188–98.
  30. ^ George Athan Billias. George Washington's Generals and Opponents: Their Exploits and Leadership (1994); Higginbotham, pp. 175–188.
  31. ^ George Otto Trevelyan, George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution. (1912), vol. 1, p. 4.
  32. ^ Trevelyan, George the Third and Charles Fox vol. 1, p. 5.
  33. ^ Higginbotham, pp. 331–46.
  34. ^ Number of British troops still in America: Piers Mackesy, The War for America: 1775–1783, p. 435.
  35. ^ Smallpox epidemic: Elizabeth Anne Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82, p. 275. A great number of these smallpox deaths occurred outside the theater of war — in Mexico or among Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. Washington and inoculation: Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington, p. 87.
  36. ^ American dead and wounded: John Shy, A People Numerous and Armed, pp. 249–50. The lower figure for number of wounded comes from Chambers, p. 849.
  37. ^ British seamen: Mackesy, p. 6, 176.
  38. ^ Robert and Isabelle Tombs, That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present (2007), p. 179.
  39. ^ Merrill Jensen, The New Nation (1950), p. 379.
  40. ^ Black, p. 39; Don Higginbotham, "The War for Independence, to Saratoga", in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, p. 298, 306.
  41. ^ Higginbotham, p. 298, 306; Black, p. 29, 42.
  42. ^ Harsh methods: Black, pp. 14–16; slaves and Indians: Black, p. 35, 38. Neutrals into Revolutionaries: Black, p. 16.

Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...

References

  • Black, Jeremy. War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783. (2001). Analysis from a noted British military historian.
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1. Military topics, references many secondary sources
  • Chambers, John Whiteclay II, ed. in chief. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-507198-0.
  • Duffy, Christopher. The Military Experience in the Age of Reason, 1715–1789. (1987). ISBN 0-689-11993-3.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. (2004). ISBN 1-4000-4031-0.
  • Fenn, Elizabeth Anne. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. ISBN 0-8090-7820-1.
  • Greene, Jack P. and J.R. Pole, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1991; reprint 1999. ISBN 1-55786-547-7. Collection of essays focused on political and social history.
  • Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789. Northeastern University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-930350-44-8. Overview of military topics; online in ACLS History E-book Project.
  • Kaplan, Sidney and Emma Nogrady Kaplan. The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Amherst, Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. ISBN 0-87023-663-6.
  • Mackesy, Piers. The War for America: 1775–1783. London, 1964. Reprinted University of Nebraska Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8032-8192-7. Highly regarded examination of British strategy and leadership. online edition
  • McCullogh, David. 1776. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.
  • Savas, Theodore P. and Dameron, J. David. A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution. New York: Savas Beatie LLC, 2006. ISBN 10: 1-932714-12-X.
  • Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976 (ISBN 0-19-502013-8); revised University of Michigan Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-472-06431-2). Collection of essays.
  • J. Steven Watson; The Reign of George III, 1760–1815. 1960. Standard history of British politics. online edition
  • Weintraub, Stanley: Iron Tears; America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire: 1775-1783. New York: Free Press, 2005 (a division of Simon and Schuster). ISBN 0-7432-2687-9 An account of the British politics on the conduct of the war.
  • Everest, Allan (2005-05-02). "Hazen, Moses". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved on 2008-12-11.

In library and information science, historiography and some other areas of scholarship, a secondary source is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. ... David Gaub McCullough (mÉ™-kÅ­lÉ™) (born July 7, 1933) is an American historian and bestselling author. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

These are some of the standard works about the war in general which are not listed above; books about specific campaigns, battles, units, and individuals can be found in those articles.

  • Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854–78), vol. 7–10.
  • Bobrick, Benson. Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution. Penguin, 1998 (paperback reprint).
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Richard A. Ryerson, eds. The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2006) 5 volume paper and online editions; 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics
  • George Athan Billias. George Washington's Generals and Opponents: Their Exploits and Leadership (1994) scholarly studies of key generals on each side
  • Hibbert, Christopher. Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution through British Eyes. New York: Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-02895-X.
  • Jensen, Merrill. The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution 1763–1776. (2004)
  • Kwasny, Mark V. Washington's Partisan War, 1775–1783. Kent, Ohio: 1996. ISBN 0-87338-546-2. Militia warfare.
  • Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. Oxford University Press, 1984; revised 2005. ISBN 0-19-516247-1. online edition
  • Savas, Theodore P., and Dameron, J. David. A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution. New York, 2006.
  • Symonds, Craig L. A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution (1989), newly drawn maps
  • Ward, Christopher. The War of the Revolution. 2 volumes. New York: Macmillan, 1952. History of land battles in North America.
  • Weintraub, Stanley. Iron Tears: America's Battle for Freedom, Britain's Quagmire: 1775–1783. Free Press, 2004. Examination of the British political viewpoint.
  • Wood, W. J. Battles of the Revolutionary War, 1775–1781. ISBN 0-306-81329-7 (2003 paperback reprint). Analysis of tactics of a dozen battles, with emphasis on American military leadership.
  • Men-at-Arms series: short (48pp), very well illustrated descriptions:
    • Marko Zlatich, Peter Copeland. General Washington's Army (1): 1775–78 (1994); Zlatich. General Washington's Army (2): 1779–83 (1994); Rene Chartrand. The French Army in the American War of Independence (1994); Robin May, The British Army in North America 1775–1783 (1993)
  • The Partisan in War, a treatise on light infantry tactics written by Colonel Andreas Emmerich in 1789.

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