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Encyclopedia > American Revolution

In this article, the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans," with occasional references to "Patriots," "Whigs," "Rebels" or "Revolutionaries." Colonists who supported the British in opposing the Revolution are usually referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories." The geographical area of the thirteen colonies that both groups shared is often referred to simply as "America." This article is about military actions only. ...

John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia

The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies gained independence from the British Empire to become the United States of America. In this period, the colonies united against the British Empire and entered into the armed conflict known as the American Revolutionary War (or the "American War of Independence"), between 1775 and 1783. This resulted in an American Declaration of Independence in 1776, and victory on the battlefield in October 1781. Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... This article is about the American painter. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence is an iconic 12- by 18-foot painting in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda depicting the presentation of the draft of the Declaration to Congress. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... This article is about military actions only. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


The revolutionary era began in 1763, when the French military threat to British North American colonies ended. Adopting the view that the colonies should pay a substantial portion of the costs associated with keeping them in the Empire[citation needed], Britain imposed a series of taxes followed by other laws that proved extremely unpopular. Because the colonies lacked elected representation in the governing British Parliament many colonists considered the laws to be illegitimate and a violation of their rights as Englishmen. Beginning in 1772, Patriot groups began to create committees of correspondence which would lead to their own Provincial Congress in each of most of the colonies. In the course of a few years, the Provincial Congresses or their equivalents effectively replaced the British ruling apparatus in the former colonies, culminating in the unifying Continental Congress. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... This British cartoon depicting the Intolerable Acts as an assault upon a Native American woman (a symbol of the American colonies) was copied and distributed throughout the Thirteen Colonies. ... No taxation without representation was a rallying cry for advocates of American independence from Great Britain in the eighteenth century. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... This article discusses the early American patriot group. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the historical committee of correspondence. ... The Massachusetts Government Act of 1774 annulled the charter the people. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ...


After protests in Boston, the British sent combat troops, the Americans mobilized their militia, and fighting broke out in 1775. Although Loyalists were estimated to comprise 15-20% of the population,[1] throughout the war the Patriots generally controlled 80-90% of the territory; the British could hold only a few coastal cities. In 1776, representatives of the Thirteen Colonies voted unanimously to adopt a Declaration of Independence, by which they established the United States. The Americans formed an alliance with France in 1778 that evened the military and naval strengths, later bringing Spain and the Dutch Republic into the conflict by their own alliance with France. Two main British armies were captured by the Continental Army, at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781, leading to peace with the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Boston redirects here. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


The American Revolution included a series of broad intellectual and social shifts that occurred in the early American society, such as the new republican ideals that took hold in the American population. In some colonies, sharp political debates broke out over the role of democracy in government, with a number of even the most liberal Founding Fathers fearing mob rule. The American shift to republicanism, as well as the gradually expanding democracy, caused an upheaval of the traditional social hierarchy, and created the ethic that formed the core of American political values.[2] Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ...

Contents

Origins

Before the Revolution: The Thirteen Colonies are in pink.
Before the Revolution: The Thirteen Colonies are in pink.

The American Revolution was predicated by a number of ideas and events that, combined, led to a political and social separation of colonial possessions from the home nation and a coalescing of those former, individual, colonies into an independent nation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixel Image in higher resolution (1651 × 1010 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Replacing en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixel Image in higher resolution (1651 × 1010 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Replacing en. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Liberalism, republicanism, and religion

John Locke's ideas on liberalism greatly influenced the political minds behind the revolution; for instance, his theory of the "social contract" implied the natural right of the people to overthrow their leaders, should those leaders betray the historic rights of Englishmen.[3] In terms of writing state and national constitutions, the Americans used Montesquieu's analysis of the ideally "balanced" British Constitution. For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... The right to revolution, in political philosophy, is a right articulated by John Locke in Two Treatises of Government as part of his social contract theory. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Montesquieu redirects here. ...


A motivating force behind the revolution was the American embrace of a political ideology called "republicanism", which was dominant in many of the colonies by 1775. The "country party" in Britain, whose critique of British government emphasized that corruption was to be feared, influenced American politicians. The colonists associated the "court" with luxury and inherited aristocracy, which many British Americans increasingly condemned. Corruption was the greatest possible evil, and civic virtue required men to put civic duty ahead of their personal desires. Men had a civic duty to fight for their country. For women, "republican motherhood" became the ideal, exemplified by Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren; the first duty of the republican woman was to instill republican values in her children and to avoid luxury and ostentation. The "Founding Fathers" were strong advocates of republicanism, especially Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams.[4] Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding civility, see Wikipedia:Civility Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community. ... The concept of republican motherhood arose during and after the American Revolution in the 13 colonies (later, the United States of America). ... Abigail Adams (née Smith) (November 11, 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife of John Adams the second President of the United States and mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth, and is regarded as the first Second Lady of the United States and the second First Lady of... Mercy Otis Warren Mercy Otis Warren September 14, 1728 – October 19, 1814) was born in Barnstable, Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


However, the mass of American patriots had never heard of John Locke or other Enlightenment thinkers, nor of republican political theory. “When one farmer who had fought at Concord Bridge was asked … whether he was defending the ideas of such liberal writers, he declared for his part he had never heard of Locke or Sidney, his reading having been limited to the Bible, the Catechism, Watt’s Psalms and Hymns and the Almanac.”[5]


Dissenting (non-Anglican) churches were the “school of democracy.” Puritans and Presbyterians, and other Protestant denominations, based their democratic principles and willingness to rebel against tyrants on their reading of the Hebrew Bible. The stories that influenced their political thinking the most were Genesis, which taught all men were created equal, Exodus, with its story of the ancient Israelites defying Pharaoh and escaping to freedom, and the Book of Judges, which taught there is no divine right of kings.[6] "Founding Fathers" such as Benjamin Franklin, Samuel and John Adams, were raised as Puritans, reading the Geneva Bible which had marginal notes throughout what they called the "Old Testament", which preached against kings as tyrants, church hierarchy, or obeying wicked laws.[7] James Madison stayed an extra year at Princeton University to study Hebrew and Scriptures under the famous pro-democratic Presbyterian theologian, President Witherspoon.[8] Witherspoon, one of the most educated men in America, was the most influential academic in American history, according to Michael Novak.[9] His sermons linking the American Revolution to the teachings of the Hebrew Bible influenced an entire generation, including twelve members of the Continental Congress, five delegates to the Constitutional Convention, and scores of officers in the Continental Army. One famous sermon on the Israelites rebelling against Pharaoh was distributed to 500 Presbyterian churches seven weeks before the Declaration of Independence, preparing people's consciences to accept this revolutionary act.[10] Throughout the colonies, ministers preached Revolutionary themes in their sermons, and organized their congregations as the basic unit of Revolutionary War politics. This religious motivation for Independence was not limited to an intellectual elite, as was Enlightenment thinking. It included rich and poor, men and women, frontiersmen and townsmen, farmers and merchants.[11] The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...


Navigation Acts

Great Britain regulated the economies of the colonies through the Navigation Acts according to the doctrines of mercantilism, which stated[citation needed] that anything that benefited the Empire (and hurt other empires) was good policy. Widespread evasion of these laws had long been tolerated. Now, through the use of open-ended search warrants (Writs of Assistance), strict enforcement of these Acts became the practice. In 1761, Massachusetts lawyer James Otis argued that the writs violated the constitutional rights of the colonists. He lost the case, but John Adams later wrote, "American independence was then and there born." Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... A Writ of Assistance is a legal writ that serves as a general search warrant. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... A Writ of Assistance is a legal writ that serves as a general search warrant. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ...


In 1762, Patrick Henry argued the Parson's Cause in Virginia, where the legislature had passed a law and it was vetoed by the King. Henry argued, "that a King, by disallowing Acts of this salutary nature, from being the father of his people, degenerated into a Tyrant and forfeits all right to his subjects' obedience."[12] Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... The Parsons Cause was an important legal and political dispute often viewed as an important event lea]]ding up to the American Revolution. ...


Western Frontier

The Proclamation of 1763 restricted colonization across the Appalachian Mountains as this was to be Indian Reserve. Regardless, groups of settlers continued to move west and lay claim to these lands. The proclamation was soon modified and was no longer a hindrance to settlement, but its promulgation and the fact that it had been written without consulting Americans angered the colonists. The Quebec Act of 1774 extended Quebec's boundaries to the Ohio River, shutting out the claims of the thirteen colonies. By then, however, the Americans had little regard for new laws from London; they were drilling militia and organizing for war.[13] The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... // The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Map of the United States portion of the territory in 1775 after Quebec laid claim to the land north of the Ohio River. ... // The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...


Taxation without representation

By 1763, Great Britain possessed vast holdings in North America. In addition to the thirteen colonies, twenty-two smaller colonies were ruled directly by royal governors. Victory in the Seven Years' War had given Great Britain New France (Canada), Spanish Florida, and the Native American lands east of the Mississippi River. In North America there were six Colonies that remained loyal to Britain. The colonies included: Province of Quebec, Province of Nova Scotia, Colony of Bermuda, Province of West Florida and the Province of East Florida. In 1765 however, the colonists still considered themselves loyal subjects of the British Crown, with the same historic rights and obligations as subjects in Britain.[14] No taxation without representation was a slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the thirteen American colonies. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; for further information, see Commonwealth realm, Elizabeth II, and British Royal Family. ...


The British did not expect the colonies to contribute to the interest or the retirement of debt incurred during the French and Indian War, but they did expect a portion of the expenses for colonial defense to be paid by the Americans. Estimating the expenses of defending the continental colonies and the West Indies to be approximately £200,000 annually, the British goal after the end of this war was that the colonies would be taxed for £78,000 of this needed amount.[15] The issues with the colonists were both that the taxes were high and that the colonies had no representation in the Parliament which passed the taxes. Lord North in 1775 argued for the British position that Englishmen paid on average twenty-five shillings annually in taxes whereas Americans paid only sixpence (the average Englishman, however, also earned quite a bit more).[16] Colonists, however, as early as 1764, with respect to the Sugar Act, indicated that “the margin of profit in rum was so small that molasses could bear no duty whatever.”[17] Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. ...


The phrase "No taxation without representation" became popular in many American circles. London argued that the Americans were represented "virtually"; but most Americans rejected the theory that men in London, who knew nothing about their needs and conditions, could represent them.[18] No taxation without representation was a slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the thirteen American colonies. ... Virtual representation was a concept in colonial-era Britain, based on the belief that a Member of Parliament virtually represented every person in the colonies, and there was no need for a specific representative from each colony. ...


New taxes 1764

In 1764, Parliament enacted the Sugar Act and the Currency Act, further vexing the colonists. Protests led to a powerful new weapon, the systemic boycott of British goods. The British pushed the colonists even further that same year by also enacting the Quartering Act, which stated that British soldiers were to be cared for by residents in certain areas. The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. ... The Currency Act of 1764 is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 4 Geo. ... The Liberty Boys erected several poles with banners to celebrate the repeal of the Stamp Act. ... Quartering Act is the name of at least two acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. ... The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. ... The Currency Act of 1764 is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 4 Geo. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quartering Act is the name of at least two acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. ...


Stamp Act 1765

Main article: Stamp Act 1765
Burning of the Gaspée
Burning of the Gaspée

In 1765 the Stamp Act was the first direct tax ever levied by Parliament on the colonies. All newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, and official documents—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps. All 13 colonies protested vehemently, as popular leaders such as Patrick Henry in Virginia and James Otis in Massachusetts, rallied the people in opposition. A secret group, the "Sons of Liberty" formed in many towns and threatened violence if anyone sold the stamps, and no one did[citation needed]. In Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice-admiralty court and looted the elegant home of the chief justice, Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765. Moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" stating that taxes passed without representation violated their Rights of Englishmen. Lending weight to the argument was an economic boycott of British merchandise, as imports into the colonies fell from £2,250,000 in 1764 to £1,944,000 in 1765. In London, the Rockingham government came to power and Parliament debated whether to repeal the stamp tax or send an army to enforce it. Benjamin Franklin eloquently made the American case, explaining the colonies had spent heavily in manpower, money, and blood in defense of the empire in a series of wars against the French and Indians, and that further taxes to pay for those wars were unjust and might bring about a rebellion. Parliament agreed and repealed the tax, but in a "Declaratory Act" of March 1766 insisted that parliament retained full power to make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".[12] The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x2376, 1104 KB) Summary The Burning of the Gaspee. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x2376, 1104 KB) Summary The Burning of the Gaspee. ... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... This article discusses the early American patriot group. ... The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October of 1765 consisting of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... The Declaration or Rights and Grievences was a document created during the Stamp Act Congress declaring that taxes imposed on British colonists without their former consent were unconstitutional. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... This article is about the American political figure. ... The Declaratory Act may also refer to the Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719. ...


Townshend Act 1767 and Boston Massacre 1770

Main articles: Townshend Act and Boston Massacre

In 1767, the Parliament passed the Townshend Acts, which placed a tax on a number of essential goods including paper, glass, and tea. Angered at the tax increases, colonists organized a boycott of British goods. In Boston on March 5, 1770, a large mob gathered around a group of British soldiers. The mob grew more and more threatening, throwing snowballs,rocks and debris at the soldiers. One soldier was clubbed and fell. All but one of the soldiers fired into the crowd. Eleven people were hit; Three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting, and two died after the incident. The event quickly came to be called the Boston Massacre. Although the soldiers were tried and acquitted (defended by John Adams), the widespread descriptions soon became propaganda to turn colonial sentiment against the British. This in turn began a downward spiral in the relationship between Britain and the Province of Massachusetts. The Townshend Acts were passed in 1767 by the British Parliament, having been proposed by Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer just before his death. ... Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution. ... The Townshend Acts (1767) passed by Parliament on June 29, 1767 refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767, which were proposed by Charles Towner . ... This article is about the day. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Engraving by Paul Revere The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution. ...


Tea Act 1773

This 1846 lithograph has become a classic image of the Boston Tea Party.
This 1846 lithograph has become a classic image of the Boston Tea Party.
Main articles: Tea Act and Boston Tea Party

In June 1772, in what became known as the Gaspée Affair, a British warship that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations was burned by American patriots. Soon afterwards, Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts reported that he and the royal judges would be paid directly from London, thus bypassing the colonial legislature. Image source : http://teachpol. ... Image source : http://teachpol. ... The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ... Burning of the Gaspee The Gaspée Affair was an important incident in the course of the American Revolution. ...


On December 16, 1773, a group of men, led by Samuel Adams and dressed to evoke American Indians, boarded the ships of British tea merchants and dumped an estimated £10,000 worth of tea on board into the harbor. This event became known as the Boston Tea Party and remains a significant part of American patriotic lore. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ...


Intolerable Acts 1774

Main article: Intolerable Acts
An American version of London cartoon that denounces the "rape" of Boston in 1774 by the Intolerable Acts.
An American version of London cartoon that denounces the "rape" of Boston in 1774 by the Intolerable Acts.

The British government responded by passing several Acts which came to be known as the Intolerable Acts, which further darkened colonial opinion towards the British. They consisted of four laws enacted by the British parliament.[19] The first was the Massachusetts Government Act, which altered the Massachusetts charter and restricted town meetings. The second Act, the Administration of Justice Act, ordered that all British soldiers to be tried were to be arraigned in Britain, not in the colonies. The third Act was the Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston until the British had been compensated for the tea lost in the Boston Tea Party (the British never received such a payment). The fourth Act was the Quartering Act of 1774, which allowed governors to house British troops in unoccupied buildings. The First Continental Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, which declared the Intolerable Acts to be unconstitutional, called for the people to form militias, and called for Massachusetts to form a Patriot government. This British cartoon depicting the Intolerable Acts as an assault upon a Native American woman (a symbol of the American colonies) was copied and distributed throughout the Thirteen Colonies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 584 pixelsFull resolution (1450 × 1058 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Full Caption: ”The able Doctor, or America Swallowing the Bitter Draught. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 584 pixelsFull resolution (1450 × 1058 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Full Caption: ”The able Doctor, or America Swallowing the Bitter Draught. ... This British cartoon depicting the Intolerable Acts as an assault upon a Native American woman (a symbol of the American colonies) was copied and distributed throughout the Thirteen Colonies. ... The Massachusetts Government Act (citation 14 Geo. ... The Administration of Justice Act, passed by Britains Parliament and becoming law on 20 May 1774 is one of the measures (variously called the Intolerable Acts, the Punitive Acts or the Coercive Acts) that were designed to secure Britains jurisdiction over her American dominions. ... The Boston Port Act, passed by Britains Parliament and becoming law on 31 March 1774, is one of the measures (variously called the Intolerable Acts, the Punitive Acts or the Coercive Acts) that were designed to secure American dominions. ... Quartering Act is the name of at least two acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... The Suffolk Resolves was a declaration made in September, 1774, by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, originally written in Stoughton, Massachusetts, (current day Milton, Massachusetts, now in Norfolk County, Massachusetts), of which Boston is the major city. ...


American political opposition

American political opposition was initially through the colonial assemblies such as the Stamp Act Congress, which included representatives from all thirteen colonies. In 1765, the Sons of Liberty were formed which used public demonstrations, violence and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable. In late 1772, after the Gaspée Affair, Samuel Adams set about creating new Committees of Correspondence, which linked Patriots in all thirteen colonies and eventually provided the framework for a rebel government. In early 1773 Virginia, the largest colony, set up its Committee of Correspondence, on which Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson served.[20] The Stamp Act Congress was a meeting in New York City in October of 1765 consisting of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act. ... This article discusses the early American patriot group. ... Burning of the Gaspee The Gaspée Affair was an important incident in the course of the American Revolution. ... This article is about the historical committee of correspondence. ...


In response to the Massachusetts Government Act, Massachusetts Bay and then other colonies formed provisional governments called Provincial Congresses. In 1774, the Continental Congress was formed, made up of representatives from each of the Provincial Congresses or their equivalents, to serve as a provisional national government. Standing Committees of Safety were created in each colony for the enforcement of the resolutions by the Committee of Correspondence, Provincial Congress, and the Continental Congress. The Massachusetts Government Act (citation 14 Geo. ... The Massachusetts Government Act of 1774 annulled the charter the people. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ...


Factions: Patriots, Loyalists and Neutrals

The population of the Thirteen Colonies was far from homogenous, particularly in their political views and attitudes. Loyalties and allegencies varied widely not only within regions and communities, but within families and - sometimes - shifted during the course of the revolution.


Patriots - The Revolutionaries

Further information: Patriot (American Revolution), Sons of Liberty

At the time, revolutionaries were called 'Patriots', 'Whigs', 'Congress-men', or 'Americans'. They included a full range of social and economic classes, but a unanimity regarding the need to defend the rights of Americans. After the war, Patriots such as George Washington, James Madison, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay were deeply devoted to republicanism while also eager to build a rich and powerful nation, while Patriots such as Patrick Henry, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson represented democratic impulses and the agrarian plantation element that wanted a localized society with greater political equality. This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article discusses the early American patriot group. ... Unanimity is near complete agreement by everyone. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... This article is about the American political figure. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


The word "patriot" is used in this context simply to mean a person in the colonies who sided with the American revolution. Calling the revolutionaries "patriots" is a long standing historical convention, and was done at the time. It is not meant to express bias in favor of either side.[citation needed]


Class differences among the Patriots

Historians, such as J. Franklin Jameson in the early 20th century, examined the class composition of the Patriot cause, looking for evidence that there was a class war inside the revolution. In the last 50 years, historians have largely abandoned that interpretation, emphasizing instead the high level of ideological unity. Just as there were rich and poor Loyalists, the Patriots were a 'mixed lot', with the richer and better educated more likely to become officers in the Army. Ideological demands always came first: the Patriots viewed independence as a means of freeing themselves from British oppression and taxation and, above all, reasserting what they considered to be their rights. Most yeomen farmers, craftsmen, and small merchants joined the patriot cause as well, demanding more political equality. They were especially successful in Pennsylvania and less so in New England, where John Adams attacked Thomas Paine's Common Sense for the "absurd democratical notions" it proposed.[21] John Franklin Jameson, (19 Sept. ... Common Sense redirects here. ...


Loyalists and neutrals

While there is no way of knowing the actual numbers, historians have estimated that about 15-20% of the population remained loyal to the British Crown; these were known at the time as 'Loyalists', 'Tories', or 'King's men'. Perhaps 40-45% were known as Rebels or Patriots depending on whose side one was on and the others remained neutral.[22] Loyalists were typically older, less willing to break with old loyalties, often connected to the Anglican church, and included many established merchants with business connections across the Empire, for example, Thomas Hutchinson of Boston. However; this was America's first civil war and like most civil wars it divided families, such as the Franklins. William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin and Governor of New Jersey remained Loyal to the Crown throughout the war and never spoke to his father again. Recent immigrants who had not been fully Americanized were also inclined to support the King, such as recent Scottish settlers in the back country; among the more striking examples of this, see Flora MacDonald.[23] Britannia offers solace and a promise of compensation for her exiled American born Loyalists. ... This article is about the American political figure. ... Flora MacDonald (Gaelic: Fionnghal MacDonald) (1722 – March 4, 1790), Jacobite heroine, was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Milton on the island of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and his wife Marion, the daughter of Angus MacDonald. ...


There are notable examples of Loyalists who were not high-born, however, and it seems unlikely that their numbers are included in estimates of the number of Loyalists. Notable among these were Native Americans, who mostly rejected American pleas that they remain neutral. Most groups aligned themselves with the loyalists. There were also incentives provided by both sides that helped to secure the affiliations of regional peoples and leaders, and the tribes that depended most heavily upon colonial trade tended to side with the revolutionaries, though political factors were important as well. The most prominent Native American leader siding with the Loyalists was Joseph Brant of the Mohawk nation, who led frontier raids on isolated settlements in Pennsylvania and New York until an American army under John Sullivan secured New York in 1779, forcing all the Loyalist Indians permanently into Canada.[24] Chief Quanah Parker of the Quahadi Comanche Native Americans in the United States (also Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are those indigenous peoples within the territory which is now encompassed by the continental United States, and their descendants in... Not to be confused with Joseph Brant Arseneau. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... John Sullivan (b. ...


Another poorly-documented group that joined the Loyalist cause were African-American slaves, who were actively recruited into the British forces in return for manumission, protection for their families, and the (often broken)[citation needed] promise of land grants. Following the war, many of these "Black Loyalists" settled in Nova Scotia, Upper and Lower Canada, and other parts of the British Empire, where the descendants of some remain today.[25] Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ... Black Loyalists is the name given to formerly enslaved Africans or Free Blacks of the North American continent who joined the British Army in their war against the American Revolutionaries. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ...


A minority of uncertain size tried to stay neutral in the war. Most kept a low profile. However, the Quakers, especially in Pennsylvania, were the most important group that was outspoken for neutrality. As patriots declared independence, the Quakers, who continued to do business with the British, were attacked as supporters of British rule, "contrivers and authors of seditious publications" critical of the revolutionary cause.[26] Quaker redirects here. ...


After the war, the great majority of Loyalists remained in America and resumed normal lives. Some, such as Samuel Seabury, became prominent American leaders. 62,000 Loyalists (of the total estimated number of 450-500,000) relocated to Canada (46,000 according to the Canadian book on Loyalists, True Blue), Britain (7,000) or to Florida ([number missing]) or the West Indies (9,000), making it one of the largest mass migrations in history. This made up approximately 2% of the total population of the colonies. When the Loyalists left the South in 1783, they took thousands of their slaves with them to the British West Indies,[27] where their descendants would become free men 26 years earlier than their United States counterparts. Samuel Seabury The Right Reverend Samuel Seabury (November 30, 1729 – February 25, 1796), was the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Women

All types of women contributed to the American Revolution in multiple ways. Like men, women participated on both sides of the war. Among women, Anglo-Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans also divided between the Patriot and Loyalist causes. PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... Abigail Adams (née Smith) (November 11, 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife of John Adams the second President of the United States and mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth, and is regarded as the first Second Lady of the United States and the second First Lady of... // The American Revolution was a movement conceived by men who assumed that the war was theirs to make. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ...


While formal Revolutionary politics did not include women, ordinary domestic behaviors became charged with political significance as Whig women confronted a war that permeated all aspects of political, civil, and domestic life. Patriot women participated by boycotting British goods, spying on the British, following armies as they marched, washing, cooking, and tending for soldiers, delivering secret messages, and fighting disguised as men.[citation needed] Above all, they continued the agricultural work at home to feed the armies and their families.[citation needed] This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ...


The boycott of British goods involved the willing participation of American women;[citation needed] the boycotted items were largely household items such as tea and cloth. Women had to return to spinning and weaving—skills that had fallen into disuse. In 1769, the women of Boston produced 40,000 skeins of yarn, and 180 women in Middletown, Massachusetts, wove 20,522 yards (18,765 m) of cloth.[28]


A crisis of political loyalties could also disrupt the fabric of colonial America women’s social worlds: whether a man did or did not renounce his allegiance to the king could dissolve ties of class, family, and friendship, isolating women from former connections. A woman’s loyalty to her husband, once a private commitment, could become a political act, especially for women in America committed to men who remained loyal to Great Britain.[citation needed]


African Americans, both men and women, understood Revolutionary rhetoric as promising freedom and equality. These hopes were not realized. Although both British and American governments made promises of freedom for service[citation needed] throughout the war and many slaves[who?] attempted to better their lives by fighting in or assisting the armies, the war ultimately brought few changes for African American women both slave and free.[citation needed] After the Revolution, gradual abolition occurred in the North, but slavery expanded in the South and racial prejudice was near universal in the new nation.[citation needed]


For Native Americans, the American Revolution was not a war of patriotism or independence. Many Native Americans wished to remain neutral, seeing little value in participating yet again in a European conflict, but most were forced to take sides.[citation needed] During the war, Native American towns were often[when?] among the first to be attacked by patriot militias, sometimes[when?] without regard to which side the inhabitants espoused.[citation needed] One of the most fundamental effects of the war on Native American women was the disruption of home, family, and agricultural life.[citation needed] Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ...


Slaves and slavery

Main article: Somersett's Case

In the 1770s there were thousands of slaves held in England worth, in today’s money $110,000,000[29] and Great Britain “still led the world in its dominance of the African slave trade”.[30] In 1772 a court case was heard in London concerning James Somerset - a runaway slave whose Virginian master was trying to recover him through the courts.[31] Prior to the publicity surrounding this case, the British thought of slavery “as existing only on the other side of the Atlantic.”[32] The ruling by Lord Chief Justice Mansfield, confirming a previous earlier ruling, was that slavery had never existed as an institution under British Law and therefore Somerset was free.[33][34] Mansfield tried to downplay the significance of the case, but its underlying result was to effectively ban slavery in Great Britain, meaning any slave who went there was free.[35] When word of the decision reached the American colonies, antislavery protests occurred in Massachusetts and some slaves, according to a newspaper report, attempted to stow away on ship to England where they believed they would be free.[36] James Somersett or Somerset was a slave who was brought by his owner from Virginia to England. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... James Somersett or Somerset was a slave who was brought by his owner from Virginia to England. ... A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield (March 2, 1705 - March 20, 1793), was a British judge and politician who reached high office in the House of Lords. ... Slave redirects here. ...


During the Revolution, efforts were made by the British to turn slavery against the Americans,[37] but historian David Brion Davis explains the difficulties with a policy of wholesale arming of the slaves:


"

But England greatly feared the effects of any such move on its own West Indies, where Americans had already aroused alarm over a possible threat to incite slave insurrections. The British elites also understood that an all-out attack on one form of property could easily lead to an assault on all boundaries of privilege and social order, as envisioned by radical religious sects in Britain’s seventeenth-century civil wars.”[38]

Davis further wrote that “Britain, when confronted by the rebellious American colonists, hoped to exploit their fear of slave revolts while also reassuring the large number of slaveholding Loyalists and wealth Caribbean planters and merchants that their slave property would be secure".[39] A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ...


The colonists did subsequently accuse the British of encouraging slave revolts.[40]


American advocates of independence were commonly lampooned in Britain for their hypocritical calls for human rights, while many of their leaders were slave-holders. Samuel Johnson observed "how is it we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the [slave] drivers of the negroes?"[41] Benjamin Franklin countered by criticizing the British self-congratulation about "the freeing of one negro" (Somersert) while they continued to permit the Slave Trade.[42][43] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American political figure. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Creating new state constitutions

Following the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, the Patriots had control of most of the territory and population; the Loyalists were powerless.[dubious ] In all thirteen colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing governments, closing courts and driving British governors, agents and supporters from their homes. They had elected conventions and "legislatures" that existed outside of any legal framework; new constitutions were used in each state to supersede royal charters. They declared they were states now, not colonies.[44] For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...


On January 5, 1776, New Hampshire ratified the first state constitution, six months before the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Then, in May 1776, Congress voted to suppress all forms of crown authority, to be replaced by locally created authority. Virginia, South Carolina, and New Jersey created their constitutions before July 4. Rhode Island and Connecticut simply took their existing royal charters and deleted all references to the crown.[45] is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ...


The new states had to decide not only what form of government to create, they first had to decide how to select those who would craft the constitutions and how the resulting document would be ratified. In states where the wealthy exerted firm control over the process, such as Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, New York and Massachusetts, the results were constitutions that featured: This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...

  • Substantial property qualifications for voting and even more substantial requirements for elected positions (though New York and Maryland lowered property qualifications);[44]
  • Bicameral legislatures, with the upper house as a check on the lower;
  • Strong governors, with veto power over the legislature and substantial appointment authority;
  • Few or no restraints on individuals holding multiple positions in government;
  • The continuation of state-established religion.

In states where the less affluent had organized sufficiently to have significant power—especially Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New Hampshire—the resulting constitutions embodied In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...

  • universal white manhood suffrage, or minimal property requirements for voting or holding office (New Jersey enfranchised some property owning widows, a step that it retracted 25 years later);
    Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1783
    Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1783
  • strong, unicameral legislatures;
  • relatively weak governors, without veto powers, and little appointing authority;
  • prohibition against individuals holding multiple government posts;

Whether conservatives or radicals held sway in a state did not mean that the side with less power accepted the result quietly. The radical provisions of Pennsylvania's constitution lasted only fourteen years. In 1790, conservatives gained power in the state legislature, called a new constitutional convention, and rewrote the constitution. The new constitution substantially reduced universal white-male suffrage, gave the governor veto power and patronage appointment authority, and added an upper house with substantial wealth qualifications to the unicameral legislature. Thomas Paine called it a constitution unworthy of America.[46] Download high resolution version (749x889, 292 KB)Dr. Benjamin Rush painted by Charles Wilson Peale in 1783 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (749x889, 292 KB)Dr. Benjamin Rush painted by Charles Wilson Peale in 1783 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ...


Fighting begins at Lexington: 1775

Further information: Shot heard round the world, Boston campaign, Invasion of Canada (1775)
Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.
Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.

The Battle of Lexington and Concord took place April 19, 1775, when the British sent a force of roughly 700 troops to confiscate arms and arrest revolutionaries in Concord.[47] They clashed with the local militia, marking the first fighting of the American Revolutionary War. The news aroused the 13 colonies to call out their militias and send troops to besiege Boston. The Battle of Bunker Hill followed on June 17, 1775. While a British victory, it did little to change the overall strategic situation.[48][49] The stanza is inscribed at the base of The Minute Man statue by Daniel Chester French The Shot heard round the world is a well known phrase that has come to represent several historical incidents throughout world history. ... Belligerents Colonial militia Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Israel Putnam, et al. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The cartoon Join, or Die is a famous political cartoon created by Benjamin Franklin and first published in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1635 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Total 25. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Second Continental Congress convened in 1775, after the war had started. The Congress created the Continental Army and extended the Olive Branch Petition to the crown as an attempt at reconciliation. King George III refused to receive it, issuing instead the Proclamation of Rebellion, requiring action against the "traitors." John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... The Olive Branch Petition The Olive Branch Petition, written in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, was a letter to King George III from members of the Second Continental Congress who—for the final time—appealed to their king to readdress colonial grievances in order to avoid more... George III redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In March 1776, with George Washington as commander, the Continental Army forced the British to evacuate Boston, withdrawing their garrison to Halifax, Nova Scotia. The revolutionaries were in control of governments throughout the 13 colonies and were ready to declare independence. While there still were many Loyalists, they were no longer in control anywhere by July 1776, and all of the Royal officials had fled.[50] George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts is Evacuation Day, an official holiday commemorating the evacuation of the city (which was a town at the time) of Boston by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. ... Halifax County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ...


Declaration of Independence, 1776

Common Sense by Thomas Paine
Common Sense by Thomas Paine

On January 10, 1776, Thomas Paine published a political pamphlet entitled Common Sense arguing that the only solution to the problems with Britain was republicanism and independence from Great Britain.[51] In the ensuing months, before the United States as a political unit declared its independence, several states individually declared their independence. Virginia, for instance, declared its independence from Great Britain on May 15. Download high resolution version (510x800, 130 KB)Common Sense This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (510x800, 130 KB)Common Sense This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Common Sense redirects here. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Common Sense redirects here. ...


On July 2, 1776, Congress declared the independence of the United States; two days later, on July 4, it adopted the Declaration of Independence, which date is now celebrated as the US independence day. Although the bulk of delegates signed the Declaration on that date, signing continued over the next several months because many members weren't immediately available. The war began in April 1775, while the declaration was issued in July 1776. Until this point, the colonies had sought favorable peace terms; now all the states called for independence.[52] Except for a failed attempt on September 11, 1776 by the British after the Battle of Long Island to secure, from a Congressional delegation on Staten Island including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, a revocation of the Declaration of Independence, there would be no negotiations until 1783. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American political figure. ...


The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, formed the first governing document of the United States of America, combining the colonies into a loose confederation of sovereign states. The Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles in November 1777, though they were not formally ratified until March 1, 1781. On that date the Continental Congress was dissolved and the new government of the United States in Congress Assembled was formed.[53][54] The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation meet at Frankfurt in 1863. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ...


War

This article is about military actions only. ...

British return: 1776-1777

Further information: New York and New Jersey campaign, Saratoga campaign, Philadelphia campaign

The British returned in force in August 1776, landing in New York and engaging the fledgling Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island in one of the largest engagements of the war. They eventually seized New York City and nearly captured General Washington. The British made the city their main political and military base of operations in North America, holding it until 1783, when they relinquished it under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Patriot evacuation and British military occupation made the city the destination for Loyalist refugees, and a focal point of Washington's intelligence network.[55][56] The British also took New Jersey, but in a surprise attack, Washington crossed the Delaware into New Jersey and defeated British armies at Trenton and Princeton, thereby regaining New Jersey. While the victories were relatively minor,[clarify] they gave an important boost to pro-independence supporters at a time when morale was flagging, and have become iconic images of the war. Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir... Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the state. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Paul Reveres ride Intelligences in the American Revolutionary War was essentially monitored and sanctioned by the Continental Congress to provide military intelligence to the Continental Army to aid them in fighting the British during the American Revolutionary War. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas). ... Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Hugh Mercer†, John Haslet† Charles Mawhood Strength 4,600 1,200 (Rearguard of main force) Casualties 46 killed c. ...


In 1777, as part of a grand strategy to end the war, the British launched two uncoordinated attacks. The army based in New York City defeated Washington and captured the rebel capital at Philadelphia. Simultaneously a second army invaded from Canada with the goal of cutting off New England. It was trapped and captured during the Battle of Saratoga, New York, in October 1777. The British army had agreed to surrender only on condition of being a Convention Army with repatriation to Britain.[57] Realizing that their cause would be adversely effected if the captured troops could be switched with other British troops who would be brought out to America, Congress repudiated these terms, and imprisoned them instead.[58] This was poorly received in Britain, as a violation of the rules of war, and contributed further to the drift apart. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... The Convention Army (1777-1783) were the British and allied troops captured after the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War. ...


American alliances after 1778

Further information: France in the American Revolutionary War, Spain in the American Revolutionary War

Saratoga encouraged the French to formally enter the war, as Benjamin Franklin negotiated a permanent military alliance in early 1778, significantly becoming the first country to officially recognise the declaration of independence. William Pitt spoke out in parliament for Britain to make peace in America, and unite against France,[59] while other British politicians who had previously supported independence now turned against the American rebels for allying with the old mutual enemy. i like pie ... Spain entered the American Revolutionary War as an ally of France in June 1779, a renewal of the Bourbon Family Compact. ... Several places and events that have shared the name Saratoga. ... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great...

The French alliance was not a universally popular move in America. It angered Loyalists, while some members in the Continental Army had fought the French in the French and Indian War, and many still harboured resentment. The French alliance has been acknowledged as a factor in the defection of Benedict Arnold to the British. Others objected on ideological grounds because France was an absolute monarchy. The Continental Army was an army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...


Later Spain (in 1779) and the Dutch (1780) became allies of the French leaving Britain to fight a global war alone without major allies and trying to slip through a combined blockade of the Atlantic. The American theatre thus became only one front in Britain's war.[60] The British were forced to withdraw troops from continental America to reinforce the sugar-producing Caribbean islands, which were considered more valuable. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


Because of the alliance and the deteriorating military situation, Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander, evacuated Philadelphia to reinforce New York City. General Washington attempted to intercept the retreating column, resulting in the Battle of Monmouth Court House, the last major battle fought in the north. After an inconclusive engagement, the British successfully retreated to New York City. The northern war subsequently became a stalemate, as the focus of attention shifted to the smaller southern theatre.[60] General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... Combatants United States of America Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir Henry Clinton Strength 11,000 10,000 Casualties 69 killed, 37 died of heat-stroke 160 wounded 95 missing Total: 361 65 killed 59 died of heat-stroke 170 wounded 50 captured 14 missing Total: 358 The Battle of...


The British move South, 1778-1783

Further information: Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War

The British strategy in America now concentrated on a campaign in the southern colonies. With fewer regular troops at their disposal, the British commanders saw the Southern Strategy as a more viable plan, as the south was perceived as being more strongly Loyalist, with a large population of poorer recent immigrants as well as large numbers of African Americans, both groups who tended to favour them. The Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War became the central area of operations on land after France entered the war on the side of the United States. ... Combatants Spain, France, United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders Bernardo de Gálvez, Matías de Gálvez, Comte de Grasse, Comte dEstaing George Rodney The naval operations of the American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence, divide themselves naturally into two periods. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


In late December 1778, the British had captured Savannah. In 1780 they launched a fresh invasion and took Charleston as well. A significant victory at the Battle of Camden meant that government forces soon controlled most of Georgia and South Carolina. The British set up a network of forts inland, hoping the Loyalists would rally to the flag. Despite the disaster at Saratoga, they once again appeared to have gained the upper hand. There was even a consideration of ten state independence (with the three southernmost colonies remaining British). Savannah redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain United States Commanders Sir Henry Clinton and Mariot Arbuthnot Benjamin Lincoln Strength 14,000 troops 5,000 troops Casualties 76 killed, 182 wounded 92 killed, 148 wounded, 4,650 captured (see Trivia below) The Siege of Charleston was one of the major battles which took... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Charles Cornwallis Horatio Gates Johann de Kalb† Strength 2,239 3,052 Casualties 68 killed 245 wounded 64 missing 1,000 killed or wounded 1,000 captured 132 missing The Battle of Camden was an important battle in the Southern Theatre of the American Revolutionary...


Not enough Loyalists turned out, however, and the British had to fight their way north into North Carolina and Virginia, with a severely weakened army. Behind them much of the territory they had already captured dissolved into a chaotic guerrilla war, fought predominantly between bands of Loyalist and rebel Americans, which negated many of the gains the British had previously made. Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


Yorktown 1781

Main article: Siege of Yorktown
The siege of Yorktown ended with the surrender of a British army, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
The siege of Yorktown ended with the surrender of a British army, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.

The southern British army marched to Yorktown, Virginia where they expected to be rescued by a British fleet which would take them back to New York.[61] When that fleet was defeated by a French fleet, however, they became trapped in Yorktown.[62] In October 1781 under a combined siege by the French and Continental armies, the British under the command of General Cornwallis, surrendered.[63] Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ...


News of the defeat effectively ended major offensive operations in America. Support for the conflict had never been strong in Britain, where many sympathised with the rebels, but now it reached a new low.[64]


Although King George III personally wanted to fight on, his supporters lost control of Parliament, and no further major land offensives were launched in the American Theatre.[60] A final naval battle was fought by Captain John Barry and his crew of the Alliance as three British warships led by the HMS Sybil tried to take the payroll of the Continental Army on March 10, 1783 off the coast of Cape Canaveral. Portrait by Gilbert Stuart Statue in Independence Square John Barry (1745 – 13 September 1803) was an officer in the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War and later in the United States Navy. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the area of Florida. ...


Prisoners

Further information: Prisoners in the American Revolutionary War

In August 1775, the King declared Americans in arms against royal authority to be traitors to the Crown. The British government at first started treating captured rebel combatants as common criminals and preparations were made to bring them to trial for treason. American Secretary Lord Germain and First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Sandwich were especially eager to do so, with a particular emphasis on those who had previously served in British units (and thereby sworn an oath of allegiance to the crown). uring the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war was very different from the standards of modern warfare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville (January 26, 1716 - August 26, 1785) was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord Norths cabinet during the American Revolution. ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough For other persons of the same name, see John Montagu. ...


Many of the prisoners taken by the British at Bunker Hill apparently expected to be hanged. But the government declined to take the next step: treason trials and executions. There were tens of thousands of Loyalists under American control who would have been at risk for treason trials of their own (by the Americans)[clarify] , and the British built much of their strategy around using these Loyalists. After the surrender at Saratoga in 1777, there were thousands of British prisoners in American hands who were effectively hostages. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ... The Battle of Saratoga is considered, by many historians, to have been the turning point of the American Revolutionary War and one of the most decisive battles in history. ...


Therefore no American prisoners were put on trial for treason, and although most were badly treated and many died nonetheless,[65][66] eventually they were technically accorded the rights of belligerents. In 1782, by act of Parliament, they were officially recognized as prisoners of war rather than traitors. At the end of the war, both sides released their surviving prisoners.[67] Prison Ship Martyrs Monument Program of the Dedicatory Ceremonies of the Prison Ship Martyrs Monument, November 14, 1908 Erected in Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, New York. ...


Peace treaty

The peace treaty with Britain, known as the Treaty of Paris, gave the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, though not including Florida (On September 3, 1783, Britain entered into a separate agreement with Spain under which Britain ceded Florida back to Spain.). The Native American nations actually living in this region were not a party to this treaty and did not recognize it until they were defeated militarily by the United States. Issues regarding boundaries and debts were not resolved until the Jay Treaty of 1795.[68] Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ...


Aftermath of war

Interpretations

Interpretations about the effect of the Revolution vary. At one end of the spectrum is the older view that the American Revolution was not "revolutionary" at all, that it did not radically transform colonial society but simply replaced a distant government with a local one.[69] A more recent view pioneered by historians such as Bernard Bailyn, Gordon Wood, and Edmund Morgan is that the American Revolution was a unique and radical event that produced deep changes and had a profound impact on world affairs, based on an increasing belief in the principles of republicanism, such as peoples' natural rights, and a system of laws chosen by the people.[70] It has been suggested that The Peopling of British North America be merged into this article or section. ... Gordon S. Wood (born 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History at Brown University and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution. ... Edmund Sears Morgan (b. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ...


Loyalist expatriation

For roughly five percent of the inhabitants of the United States, defeat was followed by exile. Approximately 62,000 United Empire Loyalists left the newly founded republic, most settling in the remaining British colonies in North America, such as the Province of Quebec (concentrating in the Eastern Townships), Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. The new colonies of Upper Canada (now Ontario) and New Brunswick were created by Britain for their benefit.[71] The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... The Eastern Townships (in French les Cantons de lest) is a region in south central Quebec, lying between the Saint Lawrence River and the US border. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Worldwide influence

The Revolution began in states without inherited rank or position, despite the unsuccessful efforts of the Society of the Cincinnati to create such a division.[neutrality disputed] After the Revolution, genuinely democratic politics, such as those of Matthew Lyon, became possible, despite the opposition and dismay of the Federalist Party.[neutrality disputed][72] The rights of the people were incorporated into state constitutions. Thus came the widespread assertion of liberty, individual rights, equality and hostility toward corruption which would prove core values of republicanism to Americans. The greatest challenge to the old order in Europe was the challenge to inherited political power and the democratic idea that government rests on the consent of the governed. The example of the first successful revolution against a European empire provided a model for many other colonial peoples who realized that they too could break away and become self-governing nations.[73] Seal of the Society of the Cincinnati The General Society of the Cincinnati is a historic association in the United States and France with limited and strict membership requirements. ... Matthew Lyon (July 14, 1749 - August 1, 1822), (father of Chittenden Lyon and great-grandfather of William Peters Hepburn), was a printer, farmer, soldier, and politician, serving as a United States Representative from Vermont and from Kentucky. ... The label Federalist refers to two major groups in the history of the United States of America: (1. ...


Morocco was the first country to recognize the independence of the United States of America from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1777. The two countries signed the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship ten years later. Friesland, one of the seven United Provinces of the Dutch Republic, was the next to recognize American independence (on February 26, 1782, followed by the Staten-Generaal of the Dutch Republic on April 19, 1782). John Adams became the first US Ambassador in The Hague.[74] The American Revolution was the first wave of the Atlantic Revolutions that took hold in the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Latin American wars of liberation. Aftershocks reached Ireland in the 1798 rising, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and in the Netherlands.[75] // The 1786 Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship was signed by President Thomas Jefferson and the great Moroccan king Muhammad III.[1] Muhammad III, or Sidi Muhammad ibn Abdallah, came to power towards the end of the 18th Century. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Atlantic Revolutions is a cover term for a wave of late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century revolutions associated with the Enlightenment. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... Bolívars War is a term coined by some historians to refer to a series of independence wars in South America from 1811 to 1825 led by General Simón Bolívar. ... Combatants United Irishmen French First Republic Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders Local leaders, General Humbert Cornwallis Lake Strength  ? Various, at peak mid-June c. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The Revolution had a strong, immediate impact in Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, and France. Many British and Irish Whigs spoke in favor of the American cause. The Revolution, along with the Dutch Revolt (end of the 16th century) and the English Civil War (in the 17th century), was one of the first lessons in overthrowing an old regime for many Europeans who later were active during the era of the French Revolution, such as Marquis de Lafayette. The American Declaration of Independence had some impact on the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of 1789.[76][77] The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757 – May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, (French: La Déclaration des droits de lhomme et du citoyen), is one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights (and...


The North American states' new-found independence from the British Empire, resulted in the aboliton of slavery in some Northern states 51 years before it would be be banned in the British colonies, and allowed slavery to continue in the the Southern states until 1865, 32 years after it was banned in all British colonies.


National debt

See also: United States public debt

The national debt after the American Revolution fell into three categories. The first was the $11 million owed to foreigners—mostly debts to France during the American Revolution. The second and third—roughly $24 million each—were debts owed by the national and state governments to Americans who had sold food, horses, and supplies to the revolutionary forces. Congress agreed that the power and the authority of the new government would pay for the foreign debts. There were also other debts that consisted of promissory notes issued during the Revolutionary War to soldiers, merchants, and farmers who accepted these payments on the premise that the new Constitution would create a government that would pay these debts eventually. The war expenses of the individual states added up to $114,000,000, compared to $37 million by the central government.[78] In 1790, at the recommendation of first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Congress combined the state debts with the foreign and domestic debts into one national debt totaling $80 million. Everyone received face value for wartime certificates, so that the national honor would be sustained and the national credit established. US Debt from 1940 on. ... A promissory note is a contract detailing the terms of a promise by one party (the maker) to pay a sum of money to the other (the payee). ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ...


See also

This article is about military actions only. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... A great number of military leaders played a role in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Boston Massacre, an engraving by patriot Paul Revere. ... The forces deployed by the colonists during the American Revolutionary War included units organized as a national army and units of militia raised by each state. ... Map of campaigns in the Revolutionary War This is a list of military actions in the American Revolutionary War. ... Films, television shows, musicals, and plays interpreting the American Revolution 1776, or The Hessian Renegades (1909) film by D.W. Griffith Scouting for Washington (1917), Edison Studios The Spirit of 76(1917), film Cardigan (1922), film America (1924), film; epic directed by D.W. Griffith and starring Lionel Barrymore Sons...

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Calhoon, "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (2000) p.235
  2. ^ Wood (1992); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 70
  3. ^ Charles W. Toth, Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite: The American Revolution & the European Response. (1989) p. 26.
  4. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 9
  5. ^ Patricia U. Bonomi, “Under the Cope of Heaven. Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America”, Oxford University Press, 1986, p.5
  6. ^ David Gelernter, ‘Americanism, the Fourth Great Western Religion,” Doubleday, 2007. pp 64,71,81,96
  7. ^ Gelernter, p 81
  8. ^ Michael Novak, "On Two Wings. Humble Faith and Common Sense at the American Founding," Encounter Books, 2002, p. 52
  9. ^ Novak, p15
  10. ^ Novak, p. 15
  11. ^ Bonomi, p186, Chapter 7 “Religion and the American Revolution
  12. ^ a b Miller (1943)
  13. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 15
  14. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 11
  15. ^ Middlekauff pg. 62.
  16. ^ Miller, p.89
  17. ^ Miller pg. 101
  18. ^ William S. Carpenter, "Taxation Without Representation" in Dictionary of American History, Volume 7 (1976); Miller (1943)
  19. ^ Miller (1943) pp 353-76
  20. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 22-24
  21. ^ Nash (2005); Resch (2006)
  22. ^ Calhoon, "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (2000) p.235
  23. ^ Calhoon, Robert M. "Loyalism and neutrality" in Greene and Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1991)
  24. ^ Nash, Lawrence (2005) Freedom Bound, in The Beaver: Canada's History Magazine.[1] Feb/Mar., 2007, by Canada's National History Society. pp. 16-23. ISSN 0005-7517
  25. ^ Hill (2007), see also blackloyalist.com
  26. ^ Gottlieb 2005
  27. ^ Greene & Pole (1994) ch 20-22
  28. ^ Berkin (2006); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 41
  29. ^ Hochschild p. 49
  30. ^ Davis p. 149
  31. ^ Schama p.70-73
  32. ^ Hochschild p. 49
  33. ^ Harvey p.234
  34. ^ Schama p.73
  35. ^ Schama p.73-76
  36. ^ Hoschild p. 51
  37. ^ Revolutionary War: The Home Front, The Library of Congress
  38. ^ Davis p. 148
  39. ^ Davis p. 149
  40. ^ Schama p.28-30 p. 78-90
  41. ^ Weintraub p.7
  42. ^ Schama p.75
  43. ^ Hochschild p.50-51
  44. ^ a b Nevins (1927); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 29
  45. ^ Nevins (1927)
  46. ^ Wood (1992)
  47. ^ Morrisey p.35
  48. ^ Harvey p.208-210
  49. ^ Urban p.74
  50. ^ Miller (1948) p. 87
  51. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 26.
  52. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 27.
  53. ^ Greene and Pole (1994) ch 30;
  54. ^ Klos, Stanley L. (2004). President Who? Forgotten Founders. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Evisum, Inc.. ISBN 0-9752627-5-0. 
  55. ^ Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. Walker & Company. New York. October 2002. ISBN 0-8027-1374-2
  56. ^ McCullough, David. 1776. Simon & Schuster. New York. May 24, 2005. ISBN 978-0743226714
  57. ^ Harvey p.347-350
  58. ^ Harvey p.353
  59. ^ Weintraub p.
  60. ^ a b c Mackesy, 1992; Higginbotham (1983)
  61. ^ Harvey p.493-95
  62. ^ Harvey p.502-06
  63. ^ Harvey p.515
  64. ^ Harvey p.528
  65. ^ Onderdonk, Henry. "Revolutionary Incidents of Suffolk and Kings Counties; With an Account of the Battle of Long Island and the British Prisons and Prison-Ships at New York." ISBN 978-0804680752
  66. ^ Dring, Thomas and Greene, Albert. "Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship" (American Experience Series, No 8), 1986 (originally printed 1826). ISBN 978-0918222923
  67. ^ John C. Miller, Triumph of Freedom, 1775-1783 1948. Page 166.
  68. ^ Miller (1948), pp 616-48
  69. ^ Greene, Jack. "The American Revolution Section 25". The American Historical Review. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  70. ^ Wood (2003)
  71. ^ Van Tine (1902)
  72. ^ Wood, Radicalism, p. 278-9
  73. ^ Palmer, (1959)
  74. ^ "Frisians first to recognize USA! (After an article by Kerst Huisman, Leeuwarder Courant 29th Dec. 1999)". Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
  75. ^ Palmer, (1959); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 53-55
  76. ^ Palmer, (1959); Greene & Pole (1994) ch 49-52.
  77. ^ "Enlightenment and Human Rights". Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  78. ^ Jensen, The New Nation (1950) p 379

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Reference works

  • Ian Barnes and Charles Royster. The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution (2000), maps and commentary
  • Blanco, Richard. The American Revolution: An Encyclopedia 2 vol (1993), 1850 pages
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. (1966); revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1; new expanded edition 2006 ed. by Harold E. Selesky
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, and Richard A. Ryerson, eds. The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO 2006) 5 vol; 1000 entries by 150 experts, covering all topics
  • Greene, Jack P. and J. R. Pole, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1994), 845pp; emphasis on political ideas; revised edition (2004) titled A Companion to the American Revolution
  • Nash, Lawrence Freedom Bound, in The Beaver: Canada's History Magazine.[2] Feb/Mar., 2007, by Canada's National History Society. pp. 16-23. ISSN 0005-7517
  • Purcell, L. Edward. Who Was Who in the American Revolution (1993); 1500 short biographies
  • Resch, John P., ed. Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 1 (2005)

Primary sources

  • The American Revolution: Writings from the War of Independence (2001), Library of America, 880pp
  • Commager, Henry Steele and Morris, Richard B., eds. The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution As Told by Participants (1975) (ISBN 0-06-010834-7) short excerpts from hundreds of official and unofficial primary sources
  • Humphrey; Carol Sue, ed. The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 to 1800 Greenwood Press, 2003
  • Morison, Samuel E. ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution (1923). 370 pp online version
  • Tansill, Charles C. ed.; Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. Govt. Print. Office. (1927). 1124 pages online version
  • Martin Kallich and Andrew MacLeish, eds. The American Revolution through British eyes (1962) primary documents

Surveys

  • Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 4-10 online edition
  • Cogliano, Francis D. Revolutionary America, 1763-1815; A Political History (2000), British textbook
  • Harvey, Robert A few bloody noses: The American Revolutionary War (2004)
  • Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (1983) Online in ACLS History E-book Project. Comprehensive coverage of military and other aspects of the war.
  • Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains: The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (2006)
  • Jensen, Merrill. The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution 1763-1776. (2004)
  • Bernhard Knollenberg, Growth of the American Revolution: 1766-1775 (2003) online edition
  • Lecky, William Edward Hartpole. The American Revolution, 1763-1783 (1898), British perspective online edition
  • Mackesy, Piers. The War for America: 1775-1783 (1992), British military study online edition
  • Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (2005). The 1985 version is available online at online edition
  • Miller, John C. Triumph of Freedom, 1775-1783 (1948) online edition
  • Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution (1943) online edition
  • Morrissey, Brendan. Boston 1775:The Shot Heard Around The World. Osprey (1993)
  • Schama, Simon. Rough Crossings: Britain, The Slaves and the American Revolution (2006)
  • Urban, Mark. Generals:Ten British Commanders who shaped the World (2005)
  • Weintraub, Stanley. Iron Tears: Rebellion in America 1775-83 (2005)
  • Wood, Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History (2003), short survey
  • Wrong, George M. Washington and His Comrades in Arms: A Chronicle of the War of Independence (1921) online short survey by Canadian scholar

Specialized studies

  • Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press, 1967. ISBN 0-674-44301-2
  • Becker, Carl. The Declaration of Independence: A Study on the History of Political Ideas (1922)online edition
  • Samuel Flagg Bemis. The Diplomacy of the American Revolution (1935) online edition
  • Berkin, Carol.Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America's Independence (2006)
  • Breen, T. H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (2005)
  • Crow, Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise, eds. The Southern Experience in the American Revolution (1978)
  • Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery n the New World. (2006)
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Washington's Crossing (2004), 1775 campaigns; Pulitzer prize
  • Greene, Jack, ed. The Reinterpretation of the American Revolution (1968) collection of scholarly essays
  • Kerber, Linda K. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1979)
  • McCullough, David. 1776 (2005). ISBN 0-7432-2671-2
  • Morris, Richard B. ed. The Era of the American revolution (1939); older scholarly essays
  • Nash, Gary B. The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America. (2005). ISBN 0-670-03420-7
  • Nevins, Allan; The American States during and after the Revolution, 1775-1789 1927. online edition
  • Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800 (1980)
  • Palmer, Robert R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760-1800. vol 1 (1959) online edition
  • Resch, John Phillips and Walter Sargent, eds. War And Society in the American Revolution: Mobilization And Home Fronts (2006)
  • Rothbard, Murray, Conceived in Liberty (2000), Volume III: Advance to Revolution, 1760-1775 and Volume IV: The Revolutionary War, 1775-1784. ISBN 0-945466-26-9.
  • Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. Walker & Company. New York. October 2002. ISBN 0-8027-1374-2
  • Shankman, Andrew. Crucible of American Democracy: The Struggle to Fuse Egalitarianism and Capitalism in Jeffersonian Pennsylvania. University Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Van Tyne, Claude Halstead. American Loyalists: The Loyalists in the American Revolution (1902)
  • Volo, James M. and Dorothy Denneen Volo. Daily Life during the American Revolution (2003)
  • Wahlke, John C. ed. The Causes of the American Revolution (1967) readings
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ... Conceived in Liberty, authored by Murray Rothbard, is a 4-volume set covering the complete history of the United States from the pre-colonial period through the American Revolutionary War. ...

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Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Union Jack. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... 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Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today,the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
American Revolution - MSN Encarta (1275 words)
The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies gained independence from the British Empire to become the...
American Revolution (1775-1783), conflict between 13 British colonies in North America and their parent country, Great Britain.
It was made up of two related events: the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the formation of the American government as laid out by the Constitution of the United States in 1787.
American Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5420 words)
The Revolution was also a series of broad intellectual and social shifts that occurred in American society as new republican ideals took hold in the population.
The end of the Revolution is usually marked by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, with the recognition of the United States as an independent nation.
The American Revolution was the first wave of the Atlantic Revolutions that took hold in the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Latin American wars of liberation.
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