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Encyclopedia > American Red Cross
A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort.
A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort.

The American Red Cross (also known as the American National Red Cross) is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States, as part of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Download high resolution version (450x690, 69 KB)WWII Red Cross poster Either fairuse or PD Source: Library of Congress: Women Who Came to the Front This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (450x690, 69 KB)WWII Red Cross poster Either fairuse or PD Source: Library of Congress: Women Who Came to the Front This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Red Cross redirects here. ...


Today, in addition to domestic disaster relief, the American Red Cross offers compassionate services in five other areas: community services that help the needy; support and comfort for military members and their families; the collection, processing and distribution of lifesaving blood and blood products; educational programs that promote health and safety; and international relief and development programs. Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Governed by volunteers and supported by community donations, the American Red Cross is a nationwide network of more than 800 chapters and Blood Services regions, now broken up into divisions, dedicated to saving lives and helping people prevent, prepare for and respond to emergencies. More than a million Red Cross volunteers and 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to families affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train almost 12 million people in lifesaving skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.S. military service personnel and their families. The Red Cross is also the largest supplier of blood and blood products to more than 3,000 hospitals across the nation and also assists victims of international disasters and conflicts at locations worldwide. For other uses, see Volunteer (disambiguation). ... A donation is to give a fund or cause or such donated gift usually for charitable reasons. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...


The American Red Cross is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and recently has had fluctuating leadership. The current interim President and Chief Executive officer is Mary S. Elcano, who replaced her "permanent" predecessor Mark W. Everson on 26 September 2007 after his resignation.[1] He himself had only been appointed in late May 2007, after another interim leader's stint and after US legislation that clarified the role of the American Red Cross' Board and senior management in the wake of difficulties after Hurricane Katrina.[2] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Mark W. Everson commissioner of the IRS Mark W. Everson (born September 10, 1954) is the current Commissioner of Internal Revenue, serving as head of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...

Contents

Founders

WWI Red Cross rally at the University of Virginia, May 1917.
WWI Red Cross rally at the University of Virginia, May 1917.
The headquarters of the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. was built in 1917 and dedicated "in memory of the heroic women of the Civil War". It is now a museum.Coordinates: 38°53′41.4″N, 77°2′23.1″W
The headquarters of the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. was built in 1917 and dedicated "in memory of the heroic women of the Civil War". It is now a museum.
Coordinates: 38°53′41.4″N, 77°2′23.1″W
WWI poster "The Spirit of America".

The American Red Cross was established on May 21, 1881 by Clara Barton, in Dansville, New York who became the first president of the organization. Barton first organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Sen. Omar D. Conger (R, MI) [3] Fifteen were present at this first meeting, including Barton, Conger, and Rep. William Lawrence (R, OH) (who became the first vice-president [4]). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x609, 106 KB) Date of Photo: Monday, May 28, 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x609, 106 KB) Date of Photo: Monday, May 28, 1917. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 384 pixelsFull resolution (3089 × 1481 pixels, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:InformationnnyDesktopamredcrossbldg. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 384 pixelsFull resolution (3089 × 1481 pixels, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:InformationnnyDesktopamredcrossbldg. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Image File history File links Crux_Rubra. ... Image File history File links Crux_Rubra. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Famed American nurse Clara Barton, first president of the American Red Cross. ... Dansville is the name of some places in the U.S. state of New York: Dansville, Livingston County, New York Dansville, Steuben County, New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Omar Dwight Conger (April 1, 1818–July 11, 1898) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the U.S. state of Michigan. ... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... William Lawrence (June 26, 1819-May 8, 1899) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Jane Delano (1862-1919) was the founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service. Jane Arminda Delano, born March 12, 1862 in Montour Falls, New York, United States – died April 15, 1919 in Savenay, Loire-Atlantique, France, was a nurse and founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service. ... The American Red Cross Nursing Service was organized by Jane Arminda Delano (1862-1919). ...


Clara Barton

Clara Barton (1821-1932) had already had a career as a teacher and federal bureaucrat when the American Civil War broke out. (She started teaching around the age of 15 or 16.) After working tirelessly on humanitarian work during and after the conflict, on advice of her doctors, in 1869, she went to Europe for a restful vacation. There, she saw and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War, and determined to bring the organization home with her to America. Famed American nurse Clara Barton, first president of the American Red Cross. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000...


When Clara Barton began the organizing work in the U.S. in 1873, no one thought the country would ever again face an experience like the Civil War. However, Barton was not one to lose hope in the face of the bureaucracy, and she finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester A. Arthur on the basis that the new American Red Cross organization could also be available to respond to other types of crisis. Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ...


As Barton expanded the original concept of the Red Cross to include assisting in any great national disaster, this service brought the United States the "Good Samaritan of Nations" label in the International Red Cross. Barton naturally became President of the American branch of the society, known officially as the American National Red Cross. John D. Rockefeller gave money to create a national headquarters in Washington, DC, located one block from the White House. John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Clara Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the Great Fire of 1881 (Thumb Fire) in the Thumb region of Michigan, which occurred on Sept 4-6, 1881. Over 5000 were left homeless. The next major disaster dealt with was the Johnstown Flood which occurred on May 31, 1889. Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. She resigned from the American Red Cross in 1904. The great Thumb Fire took place on September 5, 1881 in the Thumb area of Michigan in the United States. ... The Johnstown Flood disaster (or Great Flood of 1889 as it became known locally) occurred on May 31, 1889. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Pennsylvania within the USA Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Coordinates: , Country State County Cambria Government  - Mayor Tom Trigona Area  - City  6. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Services

Blood

The American Red Cross supplies roughly 44% of the donated blood in the United States. Independent community-based blood centers supply 50% and 6% is collected directly by hospitals. In December of 2004, the American Red Cross completed their largest blood processing facility in the United States in Pomona, California on the campus grounds of the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Give blood redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Los Angeles County and the State of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Norma Torres Area  - Total 22. ... California State Polytechnic University, Pomona California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public, nationally-ranked, coeducational university situated at the western corner of the city of Pomona, a suburb of Los Angeles, California, and is adjacent to the Kellogg Interchange. ...


Tissue services

For more than twenty years, the American Red Cross provided allograft tissue for transplant through its Tissue Services Program. It cared for thousands of donor families who gave the gift of tissue donation and helped more than 1 million transplant recipients in need of this life saving or life-enhancing gift of tissue. At the end of January 2005, the American Red Cross ended its Tissue Services program in order to focus on its primary missions of Disaster Relief and Blood Services. An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ...


Plasma services

A leader in the plasma industry, the Red Cross provides more than one quarter of the nation's plasma products. Red Cross Plasma Services seeks to provide the American people with plasma products which are not only reliable and cost-effective, but also as safe as possible. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


In February 1999, the Red Cross completed its "Transformation," a $287 million program that: re-engineered Red Cross Blood Services' processing, testing and distribution system; and established a new management structure. This article is about the year. ...


Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT)

On March 1, 1999, the American Red Cross became the first U.S. blood banking organization to implement a Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) study. This process is different from traditional testing because it looks for the genetic material of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV), rather than the body's response to the disease. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... This page is for the disease. ...


The NAT tests for HIV and HCV have been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. These tests are able to detect the genetic material of a transfusion-transmitted virus like HIV without waiting for the body to form antibodies, potentially offering an important time advantage over current techniques. Randal Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Leukoreduction

A person's own leukocytes (white blood cells) help fight off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses and abnormal cells, to avoid sickness or disease. But when transfused to another person, these same leukocytes do not benefit the recipient. In fact, these foreign leukocytes in transfused red blood cells and platelets are often not well tolerated and have been associated with some types of transfusion complications. White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Stop editing pages god ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...


The Red Cross is moving toward system-wide universal prestorage leukocyte reduction to improve patient care.


Research

The Red Cross operates the Jerome H. Holland Laboratory, based in Rockville, Maryland. Each year, the Red Cross invests more than $25 million in research activities at the Holland Laboratory and in the field. Location in the State of Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Founded 1717 Incorporated 1860 Government  - Mayor Larry Giammo Area  - Total 13. ...


Cellular therapies

One technique the Red Cross has identified strong potential for treating people in new ways is through cellular therapies. This new method of treatment involves collecting and treating blood cells from a patient or other blood donor. The treated cells are then introduced into a patient to help revive normal cell function; replace cells that are lost as a result of disease, accidents or aging; or used to prevent illnesses from appearing.


Cellular therapy may prove to be particularly helpful for patients who are being treated for illnesses such as cancer, where the treated cells may help battle cancerous cells. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Johnson & Johnson suit over Red Cross image

Further information: Emblems of the Red Cross#Current controversies over the use of the Red Cross emblem

According to the American Red Cross on August the 7th 2007[5], Johnson & Johnson have filed suit against the American Red Cross over its sublicencing of the Red Cross image for the production of first aid kits and similar products, which are alleged to compete with Johnson & Johnson. The suit also asks for the destruction of all currently existing non-Johnson & Johnson Red Cross Emblem bearing products and demands the American Red Cross pay punitive damages and Johnson & Johnson's legal fees. The symbols of the Movement - The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems at the museum in Geneva. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Red_Cross. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. ... Punitive damages are damages awarded to a successful plaintiff in a civil action, over and above the amount of compensatory damages, to: punish the conduct of the civil defendant; deter the civil defendant from committing the invidious act again; and deter others from doing the same thing. ...


Since 2004, the Red Cross has worked with several licensing partners to create first aid, preparedness and related products that bear the Red Cross emblem. All money the Red Cross receives from the sale of these products to consumers is reinvested in its humanitarian programs and services. "For a multi-billion dollar drug company to claim that the Red Cross violated a criminal statute that was created to protect the humanitarian mission of the Red Cross - simply so that J&J can make more money - is obscene," said Mark Everson, the former chief executive of the charity[6]. Johnson & Johnson responded, stating that the Red Cross's commercial ventures were outside the scope of historically well-agreed usage, and were in direct violation of federal statutes[7]. Johnson & Johnson's usage of this image is prohibited by the Geneva conventions, which do not allow for the exemption allowed for by US law.[8]


Court ordered consent decree

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) took court action against the American Red Cross in response to deficiencies in their tracking and procedures for ensuring the safety of the blood supply. The consent decree outlines some of the violations of federal law that the American Red Cross engaged in before 1993.[9] Fines were imposed in the millions of dollars.


In response to the decree, Red Cross Biomedical Services now has: a standardized computer system that efficiently maintains the blood donor database; a network of eight, state-of-the-art National Testing Laboratories (NTLs) that test about 6 million units of blood collected by the Red Cross's 36 blood regions; the Charles Drew Biomedical Institute, which allows for the Red Cross to provide training and other educational resources to Red Cross Blood Services' personnel; a highly qualified Quality Assurance/Regulatory Affairs Department, which helps to ensure compliance with FDA regulations in every Red Cross Blood Services region; and, a centrally managed blood inventory system to ensure the consistent availability of blood and blood components in every Red Cross Blood Services region throughout the country. This article is about the machine. ...


In an agreement with the American Red Cross the Consent Decree was amended in 2003 with penalties for specific violations.


The FDA can impose penalties after April 2003 up to the following maximum amounts:

  • $10,000 per event (and $10,000 per day) for any violation of an ARC standard operating procedure (SOP), the law, or consent decree requirement and timeline
  • $50,000 for preventable release of each unit of blood for which FDA determines that there is a reasonable probability that the product may cause serious adverse health consequences or death
    • $5,000 for the release of each unit that may cause temporary problems, up to a maximum of $500,000 per event
  • $50,000 for the improper re-release of each unsuitable blood unit that was returned to ARC inventory
  • $10,000 for each donor inappropriately omitted from the National Donor Deferral Registry, a list of all unsuitable donors

The Food and Drug Administration has continued to apply pressure and fines to the American Red Cross in order to enforce compliance with regulations. The most recent, $4.2 million, in September 2006.[10]


Segregated Blood

Throughout WWII and afterwards the American Red Cross maintaned a segregated blood supply. Not only was blood segregated by "White" and "Colored", but the "White" blood was further segregated into "Christian" and "Hebrew." President Eisenhower ordered that the national blood supply no longer be segregated. The Red Cross was one of the major forces opposing the merging of the blood supply. The head of the Red Cross told Eisenhower that the South did not want any mixed blood, producing Eisenhower's famous reply, "OK then the South won’t get any blood!" (Source: Blanch Weisen Cook, C-SPAN 3 History, September 28, 2007) The Red Cross and the national blood supply has been integrated ever since.


Red Cross Health and Safety services

The American Red Cross has become a household name for providing first aid, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), Automated external defibrillator (AED), water safety and lifeguarding training throughout the United States. The training programs are primarily aimed at laypersons, workplaces, and aquatic facilities. Annually, the American Red Cross teaches around 12 million Americans these skills, ranging from youth to professional rescuers. In 2005, the American Red Cross co-lead the 2005 Guidelines for First Aid, which aims to provide up-to-date and peer-reviewed first aid training material. Many American Red Cross chapters also sell first aid kits and other related equipment. First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... CPR redirects here. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... For other uses, see Lifeguard (disambiguation). ...


Disaster Services

Each year, the American Red Cross responds immediately to more than 70,000 disasters, including house or apartment fires (the majority of disaster responses), hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, hazardous materials spills, transportation accidents, explosions, and other natural and man-made disasters. A large bonfire Fire is a form of combustion. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... A hazardous material is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans and other living organisms due to being flammable or explosive, irritating or damaging the skin or lungs, interfering with oxygen intake and apsorption (asphyxiants), or causing allergic reactions (allergens). ... Alternate meanings: Accident (fallacy), Accident (philosophy), Accident (movie), Accident, Maryland An accident is something going wrong. ...


Although the American Red Cross is not a government agency, its authority to provide disaster relief was formalized when, in 1905, the Red Cross was granted a congressional charter to "carry on a system of national and international relief in time of peace and apply the same in mitigating the sufferings caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods, and other great national calamities, and to devise and carry on measures for preventing the same." The Charter is not only a grant of power, but also an imposition of duties and obligations to the nation, to disaster victims, and to the people who support its work with their donations. For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission, authority and activities of a group. ...


American Red Cross disaster relief focuses on meeting people's immediate emergency disaster-caused needs. When a disaster threatens or strikes, the Red Cross provides shelter, food, and health and mental health services to address basic human needs. In addition to these services, the core of Red Cross disaster relief is the assistance given to individuals and families affected by disaster to enable them to resume their normal daily activities independently. Emergency shelters are places for people to live temporarily when they cant live in their previous residence, similar to homeless shelters. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ...


The Red Cross also feeds emergency workers of other agencies, handles inquiries from concerned family members outside the disaster area, provides blood and blood products to disaster victims, and helps those affected by disaster to access other available resources. It is a member of the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) and works closely with other agencies such as the Salvation Army and the Amateur Radio Emergency Service with whom it has Memorandums of Understanding. Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... The Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) Logo In the United States and Canada, the Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) is a corps of trained amateur radio operator volunteers organized to assist in public service and emergency communications. ...


The American Red Cross also works hard to encourage preparedness by providing important literature on readiness. Many chapters also offer free classes to the general public.


A major misconception by the general public is that the American Red Cross provides medical facilities, engages in search and rescue operations or deploys ambulances to disaster areas. As an emergency support agency, the American Red Cross does not engage in these first responder activities; instead, these first responder roles are left to local, state or federal agencies as dictated by the National Response Plan. The confusion arises since other Red Cross societies across the globe may provide these functions; for example, the Cruz Roja Mexicana (Mexican Red Cross) runs a national ambulance service. Furthermore, American Red Cross Emergency Response Vehicles (ERVs) look similar to ambulances. These ERVs instead are designed for bulk distribution of relief supplies, such as hot meals, drinks or other relief supplies. Although American Red Cross shelters usually have a nurse assigned to the facility, they are not equipped to provide medical care beyond emergency first aid. The National Response Plan is the Department of Homeland Securitys plan to handle terrorist attacks, natural disasters or other large-scale emergency. ...


Disaster Services Human Resources system

The Disaster Services Human Resources (DSHR) system enrolls volunteers from individual American Red Cross chapters into a national database of responders, classified by their ability to serve in one or more Activities within Groups. Responders must complete training requirements specific to the Activities they wish to serve in, as well as the basics required of all Disaster Service volunteers, which include a background check as well as training in First Aid, CPR/AED and Red Cross internal training.


National Response Plan

As a National Response Plan direct service provider, the American Red Cross feeds and shelters victims of disasters. In addition to fulfilling this role, the American Red Cross is responsible for coordinating federal efforts to address mass care, housing, and human services under Emergency Support Function 6 with FEMA. The American Red Cross is the only charity to serve as a primary agency under any Emergency Support Function. The plan gives the American Red Cross responsibility for coordinating federal mass care assistance in support of state and local efforts. The American Red Cross also has responsibilities under other Emergency Support Functions, such as providing counseling services and working with the federal government to distribute ice and water. FEMA’s responsibilities include convening regular meetings with key agencies and coordinating the transition of service delivery from mass care operations to long-term recovery activities, among other responsibilities.[11] The National Response Plan is the Department of Homeland Securitys plan to handle terrorist attacks, natural disasters or other large-scale emergency. ...


September 11 controversy

In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Red Cross, like many charitable organizations, solicited funds and blood donations for Red Cross activities for the victims of the attacks. Dr. Bernadine Healy, the president of the American Red Cross, appeared on telethons urging individuals to give generously.[citation needed] However, according to America's Blood Centers, the nonprofit consortium that provides the other 50% of the United States blood supply, no national blood drive was needed, since localized blood drives in the affected areas would be sufficient to meet the demand. The American Red Cross felt that the terrorist attacks were a sign of increased instability and urged people to donate blood, even though it wasn't needed at that time. In the end, some blood was destroyed unused [citation needed]. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Dr. Bernadine Patricia Healy (b. ...


Also, the American Red Cross created the Liberty Fund that was ostensibly designed for relief for victims of the terrorist attacks. However, when the fund was closed in October, after reaching the goals of donations, only 30% of the $547 million received was spent. Dr. Healy announced that the majority of the remainder of the money would be used to increase blood supply, improve telecommunications, and prepare for terror attacks in other parts of the country.


In February 2002, The New Yorker magazine reported that American Red Cross representatives were visiting upscale apartment buildings in wealthy Manhattan neighborhoods and distributing donated money (up to three months' rent or mortgage payments) to New Yorkers who had been "displaced, traumatized, or merely inconvenienced" by the terrorist attacks, without any regard to whether the recipients were actually in financial need. For other uses, see New Yorker. ...


Many donors felt that they had donated specifically to the victims of the September 11 attacks and objected to Healy's official plan for the diversion of funds. Survivors complained of the bureaucratic process involved in requesting funds and the slow delivery of the checks to meet immediate needs. Congressional hearings were called and New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer investigated the Red Cross. In the end, the American Red Cross appointed former U.S. senator George Mitchell to handle distribution of the funds. Dr. Healy was forced to resign for her role in the situation, and the Red Cross pledged that all funds would go to directly benefit the victims of the September 11 attacks.[12] Healy received a severance payment of $1,569,630.[13] In the end, out of the $961 million received, 71% went as cash assistance to those directly affected, 15% went for long term mental care and hospital care for the victims and people in the affected region, and 10% went for immediate disaster relief like shelters, food, and health care. The remaining 4% went for administration. Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959 ) is an American lawyer, politician and the current Governor of New York. ... For other persons with a similar name, see George Mitchell George John Mitchell, GBE (born August 20, 1933) is a former Democratic Party politician and United States Senator from the state of Maine, and currently serves as Chairman of the global law firm DLA Piper US LLP and also as...


Significant changes to Red Cross fundraising collection and policy have since been implemented after the Liberty Fund debacle. Numerous watchdog organizations, such as Charity Navigator, have since given high praise to the improved system of honoring donor's intent and minimizing administration costs.


Blood donation controversy

There are those that accuse the Red Cross of discriminating against gay men because of their reaction to a 1992 FDA recommendation regarding blood donations by gay men. While not an FDA policy, the Red Cross has adopted this recommendation as part of its own internal blood donation policies as part of its regulatory process. This policy bars men from donating blood if they have had "homosexual sexual contact" any time since 1977.[14][15] "Red Cross chapters in Ohio, including Cleveland and Columbus, report that an increasing number of gay-affirming churches and civic organizations are refusing to host bloodmobiles, to avoid the appearance of supporting discrimination."[16]


2005 Hurricanes

The 2005 Hurricane Season proved to be the most challenging disaster response the American Red Cross had ever seen in its history. Forecasting a major disaster before the landfall of Hurricane Katrina, the organization enlisted 2,000 volunteers throughout the nation to be on a "stand by" deployment list. This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


According to the American Red Cross, during and after the Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma and Rita, they opened 1,470 different shelters across and registered 3.8 million overnight stays. A total of 244,000 Red Cross workers (95% of whom were non-paid volunteers) were utilized to provide sheltering, casework, communication and assessment services throughout these three hurricanes. In addition, 346,980 comfort kits (which contain hygiene essentials such as toothpaste, soap, washclothes and toys for children) and 205,360 clean up kits (containing brooms, mops and bleach) were distributed. For mass care, the organization served 68 million snacks and meals to victims of the disasters and to rescue workers. The Red Cross also had their Disaster Health services meet 596,810 contacts, and Disaster Mental Health services met 826,590 contacts. Red Cross emergency financial assistance was provided to 1.4 million families, which encompassed a total of 4 million people. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States that the American Red Cross utilized their "Safe and Well" family location website. [17][18]


On February 3, 2006, 5 months after Katrina's landfall, the American Red Cross announced that it had met its fundraising goals, and would no longer engage in new 2005 Hurricane relief fundraising. The National organization urged the public to help other charities engaged in hurricane relief work, or to donate to their local Red Cross chapters. An American Red Cross statement was issued saying that 91 cents of every dollar donated specifically for the Hurricane Katrina disaster will go directly to disaster relief. This overhead of only 9% is quite low for such a large organization.


Hurricane Katrina controversy

In March 2006, investigations of allegations of fraud and theft by volunteers and contractors within the American Red Cross Katrina operations were launched by the Louisiana Attorney-General and the FBI.[19] In response, the American Red Cross increased its internal and external education of the organization's fraud and waste hotline for confidential reporting to a third party agency.[citation needed] The organization also elected to implement a background check policy for all volunteers and staff, starting in 2006.[citation needed] This article is about the U.S. State. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


In April 2006, an unnamed former American Red Cross official leaked reports made by the International Committee of the Red Cross and the British Red Cross. Such reports are typical in a large-scale disaster relief operation involving other national Red Cross societies to solicit their input, but are usually confidential and not released to the general public. These particular reports were particularly critical of American Red Cross operations in Hurricane Katrina affected regions, although the British Red Cross report highly praised the American Red Cross volunteers in their efforts. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The British Red Cross Society is a prominent part of the largest independent humanitarian organisation in the world – the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. ...


Other Disaster Responses

Comair Air Crash

In response to the crash of commuter aircraft Comair Flight 5191, the Bluegrass Area Chapter and the American Red Cross Critical Response Team (CRT) members were dispatched to the scene. This was the worst air disaster within the United States since American Airlines Flight 587. Family and Friends reception centers were established near the arrival and departure airports and in Cincinnati, site of the Comair headquarters. Local chapters in Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky and California provided health, mental health and spiritual services to family members and friends of the victims not present in Lexington. Volunteers also staffed the local Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Lexington, the incident command post at the airport site and the State EOC. As of August 29th 2006, 400 meals had been served by the American Red Cross to family and friends of those involved in the crash, in addition to rescue workers. The Red Cross provided emotional and spiritual support to the family members of the victims at a local hotel. Additionally, the Red Cross organized and provided a Memorial Service at the Lexington Opera House for family and friends of the victims. [20] Comair Flight 5191 was a domestic U.S. flight from Lexington, Kentucky, to Atlanta, Georgia, operated on behalf of Delta Connection by Comair. ... American Airlines Flight 587 crashed into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens in New York City shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport on November 12, 2001. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lexington is: The USS Lexington is one of five different ships of the United States Navy named after the battle of the American Revolutionary War at Lexington, Massachusetts. ...


2007 Florida Tornadoes

In response to the Central Florida Tornado of February 2007, the American Red Cross began a large scale disaster relief operation. At least seven shelters have been opened in the disaster affected region, with Southern Baptists starting to provide food. 40,000 pre-packaged meals are being sent by the American Red Cross, and across the nation, almost 400 Red Cross volunteers are being deployed to assist with the local relief efforts. The organization has also deployed more than 30 Emergency Response Vehicles for community food and supply distribution. [21] 1Time from first tornado to last tornado 2Most severe tornado damage; see Enhanced Fujita scale The Central Florida Tornado of February 2007 was an isolated, but devastating, tornado that took place in Lake County, Florida in the morning of February 2, 2007. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ...


2007 Kansas Tornadoes

The American Red Cross immediately responded to the May 2007 Tornado Outbreak in central Kansas by setting up emergency shelters for hundreds of displaced residents and started the distribution of food, water and relief supplies. [1] The 'Safe and Well' family notification website for locating missing loved ones was also activated. [2] 1Time from first tornado to last tornado 2Most severe tornado damage; see Enhanced Fujita Scale The May 2007 Tornado Outbreak was an extended tornado outbreak that started on May 4, 2007, affecting portions of the Central United States. ...


Minneapolis Bridge Collapse

Following the collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge, the American Red Cross of the Twin Cities Area Chapter responded with their Disaster Action Team to provide families and rescuers food, information and comfort. A family service center was set up close to the accident site, along with deploying mental health counselors to numerous locations.[22] Donations contributed for this cause totaled US$138,368 and covered the cost of Red Cross services[23] but not $65,000 in unexpected expenses.[24] Weather conditions and the collapse placed 70% of Minnesota counties in federal primary or contiguous disaster areas during August 2007.[25] As of 2007-08-24 the Red Cross needed Disaster Relief Fund donations for the flooding in the Midwestern United States including Minnesota that followed a prolonged drought.[26] On 2007-08-08, the Twin Cities chapter lowered the United States, state of Minnesota and Red Cross flags to half-staff indefinitely.[27] The I-35W Mississippi River bridge was an eight-lane, steel truss bridge that carried Interstate 35W across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. ... List of Minnesota counties: Minnesota counties Aitkin County Anoka County Becker County Beltrami County Benton County Big Stone County Blue Earth County Brown County Carlton County Carver County Cass County Chippewa County Chisago County Clay County Clearwater County Cook County Cottonwood County Crow Wing County Dakota County Dodge County Douglas... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the the floods in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


International Services

The American Red Cross, as part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and its nearly 100 million volunteers, educates and mobilizes communities to overcome life-threatening vulnerabilities. The core focus areas of the American Red Cross International Services Department are global health, disaster preparedness and response, and Restoring Family Links and International Humanitarian Law dissemination. The American Red Cross is involved with many international projects, such as the Measles Initiative, malaria programs in Africa, disaster responses worldwide, and relief efforts in response to the 2004 South Asia tsunami.


American Red Cross international disaster response and preparedness programs provide relief and development assistance to millions of people annually who suffer as a result of natural and human-made disasters around the world. To respond quickly and effectively, the American Red Cross has pre-positioned emergency relief supplies in two warehouses managed by the International Federation in Dubai and Panama, which are used to respond to disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, the 2005 Pakistan/South Asia earthquake, ongoing crises in Africa and hurricanes in the Caribbean and the Americas. An Emergency Response Unit (ERU) is another method with which the American Red Cross responds to international emergencies. An ERU is made up of trained personnel and pre-packaged technical equipment that is crucial in responding to sudden, large-scale disasters and emergencies in remote locations.


American Red Cross International Services global health initiatives focus on reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating infectious diseases. Through cost-effective, community-based health interventions, the American Red Cross targets large numbers of people in need and focuses on accessibility and equity of care, community participation, and integration with other community development initiatives, such as water and sanitation projects and food and nutrition programs. An example of its health programming is the Measles Initiative, launched in 2001, as a partnership committed to reducing measles deaths globally, with the goal of cutting measles deaths by 90% by 2010 compared to 2000. Leading these efforts are the American Red Cross, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the World Health Organization. During its first five years (2001-2005), the Initiative supported the vaccination of more than 217 million children in Africa, saving 1.2 million lives. Through these efforts, measles cases and deaths have dropped by 48% worldwide and by 60% in Africa, where measles deaths and disability are highest. Building on its success in Africa, the Initiative has expanded into Asia. The Initiative increasingly provides additional complementary life-saving health interventions in its campaigns, including vitamin A, de-worming medicine and insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention. The Measles Initiative has mobilized more than $308 million to support campaigns in more than 43 countries in Africa and Asia.


In December 2006, the American Red Cross joined as a founding partner of the Malaria No More campaign, which was formed by leading non-governmental organizations to inspire individuals, institutions and organizations in the private sector to support a comprehensive approach to end malaria, a devastating but preventable disease The American Red Cross role in Malaria No More is to support local Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers in Africa who are educating families and communities about malaria prevention and treatment, such as proper and consistent use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The American Red Cross provides technical assistance and capacity-building support to its partners to fight malaria in even the most difficult-to-reach communities.


The American Red Cross handles international tracing requests and searches for families who have been separated by war or natural or man-made disaster and are trying to locate relatives worldwide. This is not a genealogical service but one that attempts to re-establish contact between family members separated at a time of war or disaster. Restoring Family Links services also provide the exchange of hand-written Red Cross Messages between individuals and their relatives who may be refugees or prisoners of war. At any given time, the American Red Cross Restoring Family Links program is handling the aftermath of 20-30 wars and conflicts. The world-wide structure of Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross make this service possible. When new information from many former Soviet Union archives became available in that 1990s, a special unit, named the Holocaust and War Victims Tracing Center, was created to handle World War II and Holocaust tracing services.


As part of its mission, American Red Cross International Services has a mandate to educate the American public about the guiding principles of international humanitarian law (IHL) for conduct in warfare as set forth by the Geneva Conventions of 1949. In doing so, American Red Cross International Services provides support to American Red Cross chapters nationwide in their IHL dissemination efforts, offering IHL courses and providing training opportunities for IHL instructors. It is also working toward the implementation of the Exploring Humanitarian Law (EHL) program in the United States.


Service to the Armed Forces

Although not a government agency, the American Red Cross provides important services to the United States military. The most notable service is emergency family communications, where families can contact the Red Cross to send important family messages (e.g. death in the family, or new birth). In such, the Red Cross can also act as a verifying agency of the situation. The American Red Cross works closely with other military societies, such as the Veteran's Administration, to provide other services to soldiers and their families. The American Red Cross is not involved with prisoners of war; rather, these are monitored by the International Committee of the Red Cross, an international rather than national body. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


For many Second World War vets, their memory is of the American Red Cross selling "comfort items" such as toothpaste and cigarettes to the troops. The American Red Cross acknowledges that they did indeed sell such items, and the unfortunate repercussions have marred the agency's name for many years. In response to such allegations, the American Red Cross responded:[28]

  • At the request of the Secretary of War, the American Red Cross charged a nominal fee for coffee and doughnuts, as well as for lodging, barber and valet services, in stationary military installations overseas. It did not charge in mobile facilities such as Clubmobiles.
  • This request was made because other agencies working overseas were compelled to charge for similar items. Giving these items free to U.S. service members would, it was feared, demoralize Allied troops.
  • The official War Department recommendation was made in a letter dated May 20, 1942, written by Mr. Stimson, Secretary of War, and addressed to the Chairman of The American National Red Cross.

Many Second World War-era veterans also recall Red Cross staff members devoting their professional efforts and off-duty time to higher-ranking American service personnel rather than providing on-the-ground relief to troops. In this regard, the Salvation Army is more fondly remembered. Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ...


Clara Barton National Historic Site

In 1975, Clara Barton National Historic Site was established as a unit of the National Park Service at her Glen Echo, Maryland home near Washington, D.C. The first National Historic Site dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross and the last home of its founder. Clara Barton spent the last 15 years of her life in her Glen Echo home, and it served as an early headquarters of the American Red Cross as well. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Clara Barton National Historic Site was established in 1975 at the former home in Glen Echo, Maryland outside Washington DC of Clara Barton (1821-1912), an American pioneer teacher, nurse, and humanitarian who was the founder of the American Red Cross. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The National Park Service has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, parlors and Miss Barton's bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Miss Barton lived and worked surrounded by all that went into her life's work. Visitors to the site are led through the three levels on a guided tour emphasizing Miss Barton's use of her unusual home, and come to appreciate the site in the same way visitors did in Clara Barton's lifetime.[29]


Celebrity Cabinet

Every year, the American Red Cross establishes a "National Celebrity Cabinet", started in 2002 as part of the "Entertainment Outreach Program" to help the ARC highlight initiatives and response efforts.


The public figures are described as being "on-call" to help the Red Cross by donating their time to lend their names to various projects.[30]


2007 members include Kristen Bell, Zach Braff, Pierce Brosnan, Jackie Chan, George Foreman, Vivica Fox, The Rock, Eli Manning, Dr Phil McGraw, Julianne Moore, Jane Seymour and Daddy Yankee.[31] Kristen Anne Bell (born July 18, 1980) is an American actress who is best known for starring in the title role on the television show Veronica Mars. ... Zachary Israel Braff (born April 6, 1975) is an American television and film actor, director, screenwriter, and producer. ... Pierce Brendan Brosnan, OBE[1] (born May 16, 1953) is an Irish actor and producer best known for portraying James Bond in four films from 1995 to 2002: GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough and Die Another Day. ... Chan Kong-Sang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Jackie Chan Sing Lung (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or Jackie Chan SBS, (born on April 7, 1954) is a Chinese martial artist, action star, actor, director, screenwriter, film producer, singer and stunt performer. ... George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American two-time World Heavyweight Boxing Champion. ... Vivica Anjanetta Fox (born July 30, 1964) is an American movie and television actress. ... Dwayne Douglas Johnson[2] (born May 2, 1972) better known by his former ring name The Rock, is an American actor and former professional wrestler. ... Elisha Nelson Eli Manning (born January 3, 1981 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is a professional American football player and the starting quarterback for the New York Giants of the NFL. He is the younger brother of Peyton Manning and Cooper Manning and the son of Archie Manning. ... This article is about the person. ... Julianne Moore (born December 3, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning American actress. ... Ḷ For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Raymond Ayala (born on December 12, 1977 in Rio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee is a successful Latin Grammy Award-winning Puerto Rican reggaeton recording artist. ...


References

  1. ^ Rucker, Philip (2007-11-27), Red Cross CEO Everson Ousted, The Washington Post, <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/27/AR2007112701307.html?hpid=topnews>. Retrieved on 2007-27-11
  2. ^ Strom, Stephanie (2007-04-18), American Red Cross Announces New Chief, The New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/18/us/18cnd-cross.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin>. Retrieved on 2007-04-18
  3. ^ The Federal Charter of the American Red Cross, American Red Cross website. Retrieved 2007-04-18
  4. ^ McCormick, K. Todd A Brief History of Logan County, Ohio, Logan County Museum website. Retrieved on 2007-04-18
  5. ^ http://www.redcross.org/pressrelease/0,1077,0_314_6907,00.html
  6. ^ http://news.independent.co.uk/business/news/article2851498.ece
  7. ^ Johnson & Johnson Press Release. Statement on Civil Complaint Against The American National Red Cross. August 9, 2007.
  8. ^ http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/fe20c3d903ce27e3c125641e004a92f3 1st Geneva Convention. Chapter VII. Art 44.
  9. ^ Consent Decree Notification, U.S. Food and Drug Administration website, (2003-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  10. ^ Harris, Gardiner (2006-09-16), F.D.A. Adds $4 Million Fine For Red Cross Blood System, The New York Times, <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C0DE0DE1431F93AA3575AC0A9609C8B63&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss>. Retrieved on 2007-04-18
  11. ^ Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Provision of Charitable Assistance United States Government Accountability Office, 2005-12-13 pp. 3-4. Retrieved 2007-04-18
  12. ^ Williams, Grant Red Cross President Resigns Under Pressure From Board, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, 2001-10-26. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  13. ^ American Red Cross report Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance, May 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  14. ^ http://www.fda.gov/oashi/aids/1992policy.html
  15. ^ http://www.redcross.org/services/biomed/0,1082,0_557_,00.html
  16. ^ http://www.gaypeopleschronicle.com/stories05/august/0826053.htm
  17. ^ A Year of Healing The American Red Cross, August 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-18
  18. ^ Hurricane Season 2005, American Red Cross website, 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  19. ^ Red Cross probed on Katrina fraud, BBC News Online, 2006-03-27. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  20. ^ Lawson, Katie Red Cross Responds to Commercial Jet Crash in Kentucky, American Red Cross, 2006-08-26. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  21. ^ Hackett, Alexandra Volunteers descend on Central Florida, Tampa Bay's 10 News. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  22. ^ Boone, Beth. "Red Cross Chapter Serves as Focal Point of Response Efforts", The American National Red Cross, 2007-08-03. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.  and The American National Red Cross (2007-08-02). Red Cross on Scene of Minneapolis I-35W Bridge Collapse. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  23. ^ O'Connor, Debra. "How to give wisely after Minnesota's disasters", Pioneer Press, MediaNews Group, Inc., 2007-08-24. Retrieved on 2007-08-25. 
  24. ^ Louwagie, Pam. "Bridge Disaster Fund tops $564,000", Star Tribune, Avista Capital Partners, 2007-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 
  25. ^ Minnesota designated counties are found in three places: Farm Service Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture (2007-08-07). USDA DESIGNATES 24 MINNESOTA COUNTIES AS PRIMARY NATURAL DISASTER AREAS. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-25. and Preston, Steven C., Administrator (2007-08-22). Disaster Declaration #10991 (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. Retrieved on 2007-08-25. and Federal Emergency Management Agency (2007-08-23, updated 2007-08-28). Designated Counties for Minnesota Severe Storms and Flooding (Disaster Summary For FEMA-1717-DR, Minnesota). Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  26. ^ The American National Red Cross (2007-08-24). Persistent Flooding Devastates the Midwest and South Central U.S.. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  27. ^ American Red Cross Twin Cities Area Chapter (2007-08-08). Flags Lowered to Half Staff at Red Cross Headquarters. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  28. ^ Materials prepared in 1947 to help chapters answer GI complaints Atlanta Chapter of the American Red Cross. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  29. ^ Clara Barton National Historic Site: The House, National Park Service website. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  30. ^ American Red Cross National Celebrity Cabinet, ARC website. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  31. ^ National Celebrity Cabinet 2007 Members, ARC website. Retrieved 2007-09-24.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chronicle of Philanthropy is a biweekly newspaper that covers the nonprofit world. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The BBB Wise Giving Alliance (WGA) is an alliance of charities formed by a merger of the National Charities Information Bureau and the Council of Better Business Bureaus Foundation and its Philanthropic Advisory Service. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WTSP, Tampa Bays 10 is a CBS-affiliate television station on the west coast of Florida (Tampa–St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Foster Rhea Dulles American Red Cross (Harper & Brothers, 1952)
  • Charles Hurd The Compact History of the American Red Cross (Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1959)
  • Kevin R. Kosar The Congressional Charter of the American National Red Cross: Overview, History, and Analysis http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33314.pdf
  • Kevin R. Kosar The Red Cross Response to the Mississippi Flood of 1927 http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33126.pdf

See also

The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... CPR redirects here. ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organisations. ... The Johnstown Flood disaster (or Great Flood of 1889 as it became known locally) occurred on May 31, 1889. ... Medical Cadet Corps The Medical Cadet Corps is an organization based on the beliefs and doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (Adventist church). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Red Cross - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3819 words)
The American Red Cross (chartered as the American National Red Cross) is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States, as part of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
The headquarters of the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. was built in 1917 and dedicated "in memory of the heroic women of the Civil War".
The American Red Cross is not involved with prisoners of war; rather, these are monitored by the International Committee of the Red Cross, an international rather than national body.
American Red Cross: Donate Now (778 words)
The American Red Cross is where people mobilize to help their neighbors—down the street, across the country and around the world—in emergencies.
Your local Red Cross chapter is committed to meeting the humanitarian needs of the people in your area, be it in disaster preparedness, disaster response, first aid and CPR training, or disease prevention.
The value of your donation is increased by the fact that the ratio of volunteer Red Cross workers to paid staff is almost 36 to one.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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