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Encyclopedia > American Psychiatric Association

Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isn't immune to this.

Psychiatry
SPECIALTIES

Biopsychiatry
Neuropsychiatry
Social psychiatry
Cross-cultural
Behavioral
Forensic
Liason
Pharmacology
Psychotherapy
Psychiatrist redirects here. ... Biological psychiatry, sometimes referred to as bio-psychiatry, is a term used mainly by critics of mainstream mental health orthodoxy to describe what some believe are unproven and subjective diagnostic and treatment practices in the mental health field. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cross-cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services. ... Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... Liaison psychiatry, also known as consultative psychiatry or consultation-liaison psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in the interface between other medical specialties and psychiatry, and concerns itself with patients with problems in both physical and mental health, as well as patients who may report physical symptoms as... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ...

SOCIETIES

American Board
American Psychiatric
UK Psychiatric A professional body or professional organization is an organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further a particular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests of professionals. ... The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology was founded in 1934 following conferences of committees appointed by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Neurological Association, and the then Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases of the American Medical Association. ... The Royal College of Psychiatrists has been in existence in some form since 1841. ...

LISTS

Psychiatrists
Famous psychiatrists
Physicians
Psychiatric drugs
Drugs by condition
Neurological disorders
Psychotherapies This list includes notable medical doctors specializing in the field of psychiatry. ... Categories: | | ... This is a list of famous physicians in history: // Thomas Addis (1881–1949) — pioneered urine testing and the study of renal diseases Virginia Apgar (1909–1974) — anesthesiologist who devised the Apgar score used after childbirth Hans Asperger (1906–1980) — Austrian paediatrician after whom Aspergers Syndrome is named Jean Astruc... This is a list of psychiatric drugs or medications used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of psychiatric drugs used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...


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The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the most influential world-wide. Its some 36,000 members are mainly American but some are international. The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM. The DSM codifies psychiatric conditions and is used world-wide as a key guide to diagnosing disorders. This article or section should be merged with professional association A professional body or professional organization is an organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further a particular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests of professionals. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ...


The abbreviation 'APA' is also in common and similar usage by the American Psychological Association and their 'APA style guide' for journal articles. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...

Contents

History

At a meeting in 1844 in Philadelphia, 13 superintendents and organizers of insane asylums and hospitals formed the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), which later became the American Psychiatric Association in 1921. The group included Thomas Kirkbride creator of the asylum model which was used throughout the United States. Jan. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called at various places and times, mental hospital, mental ward, asylum or sanitarium) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Thomas Story Kirkbride was born July 31, 1809 in Morrisville, Pennsylvania. ...


The Association was Incorporated in the District of Columbia in 1927. Incorporation (abbreviated Inc. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ...


The APA emblem, dating to 1890, became more officially adopted from 1921 - a round medallion with a purported facial likeness of Benjamin Rush and 13 stars over his head to represent the 13 founders of the organization. The outer ring contains the words "American Psychiatric Association 1844." Rush's name and an M.D. [1] 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Wilson Peale, c. ...


In 1948, APA formed a small task force to create a new standardized psychiatric classification system. This resulted in the 1952 publication of the first DSM. In 1965 a new task force of 10 people developed DSM-II, published in 1968. DSM-III was published in 1980, after a larger process involving some 600 clinicians. The book was now 500 pages long, including many more disorders, and it sold nearly half a million copies. APA published a revised DSM-III-R in 1987 and DSM-IV in 1994, the latter selling nearly a million copies by the end of 2000. DSM-IV-TR with minor revisions was published in 2000. APA is currently developing and consulting on a DSM-IV planned for around 2011. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The assembly membership voted against a further proposed name change in 2002, to the American Psychiatric Medical Association [2] amidst increasing concern to differentiate themselves from clinical psychologists. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ...


Organization and Membership

APA is led by a President (currently Pedro Ruiz) and a Board of Trustees with an Executive Committee.


APA reports [3] that its membership is comprised primarily of medical specialists who are qualified, or in the process of becoming qualified, as psychiatrists. The basic eligibility requirement is completion of a residency program in psychiatry accredited by the Residency Review Committee for Psychiatry of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPS(C)), or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA). Applicants for membership must also hold a valid medical license (with the exception of medical students and residents) and provide one reference who is an APA member.


APA holds an annual conference attended by a US and international audience.


APA is made up of some 75 district associations throughout the US[4]


Theoretical Position

APA can generally be considered to reflect mainstream, particularly US, psychiatry. In the past it has been predominantly associated with psychodynamic approaches, or the approach exemplified by Adolf Meyer, but more recently has become more associated with a biomedical approach also known as biopsychiatry. Image File history File links DSM-IV.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links DSM-IV.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ... Psychiatrist redirects here. ... Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, usually meeting about once or twice a week. ... Adolf Meyer could refer to several individuals: Adolf Meyer, 1866-1950 Swiss-born US psychiatrist Adolf Meyer, 1881-1921 German architect This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Biological psychiatry, sometimes referred to as bio-psychiatry, is a term used mainly by critics of mainstream mental health orthodoxy to describe what some believe are unproven and subjective diagnostic and treatment practices in the mental health field. ...


The DSM is currently intended to be atheoretical, having moved away from psychodynamic theories to be more widely accepted, and is proposed to not be committed to a particular theorized etiology for mental disorders. The criteria for many of the mental disorders have been expanded and involve a checklist of so-called 'Feighner Criteria' to try and capture the varying sets of features which would be necessary to diagnose a particular disorder. As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes...


Publications and campaigns

APA position statements[5] and practice guidelines[6] and description of its core diagnostic manual the DSM[7] are published.


APA publishes several journals[8] focused on different areas of psychiatry, for example, academic, clinical practice, or news.


APA recently launched a health campaign[9] with a new PR approach[10]


Notable figures

  • Adolf Meyer rose to prominence as the president of the American Psychiatric Association and was one of the most influential figures in psychiatry in the first half of the twentieth century.
  • Robert Spitzer was a key figure in the development of later editions of the DSM.
  • Donald Ewen Cameron is best known for his mind and behavior controlling work for the CIA. Cameron was President of the APA in 1952-1953.

Adolf Meyer could refer to several individuals: Adolf Meyer, 1866-1950 Swiss-born US psychiatrist Adolf Meyer, 1881-1921 German architect This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dr. Robert L. Spitzer is a Professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University. ... Donald Ewen Cameron (1901-1967) was a Scottish-American psychiatrist. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...

Controversies

Controversies have related to Anti-psychiatry and disability rights campaigners, who regularly protest at American Psychiatric Association offices or meetings. In 2003, activists from MindFreedom International staged a 21-day hunger strike, protesting at a perceived unjustified biomedical focus and challenging APA to provide evidence of the widespread claim that mental disorders are due to chemical imbalances in the brain. APA published a position statement in response[11] and the two organizations exchanged views on the evidence. Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... A banner ad for MindFreedom International MindFreedom International is a coalition of over 100 grassroots groups and thousands of individual members in 14 nations committed to winning and protecting the human rights of people labeled with psychiatric disorders. ...


In the late 1960s and early 1970s, activists campaigned against the DSM classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, protesting at APA offices and at annual meetings from 1970 to 1973. In 1973 the Board of Trustees voted to remove homosexuality as a disorder category from the DSM, a decision ratified by a small majority (58%) of the general APA membership the following year. A category of "sexual orientation disturbance" was introduced in its place in 1974. A lesser degree of controversy has continued in regard to this and subsequent categories of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" and "gender identity disorder".[1]


There was controversy when it emerged that US psychologists and psychiatrists were helping interrogators in Guantanamo and other US facilities to torture the prisoners there. The American Psychiatric Association released a policy statement that psychiatrists should not take a direct part in interrogation of particular prisoners [2] but could "offer general advice on the possible medical and psychological effects of particular techniques and conditions of interrogation, and on other areas within their professional expertise." Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


References

  1. ^ Barbara De La Torre Declassifying Homosexuality UTMB Magazine, Annals of Medicine
  2. ^ Psychiatric participation in interrogation of detainees

See also

This list includes notable medical doctors specializing in the field of psychiatry. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... kkdkd ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ... The American Psychoanalytic Association is an organization of psychoanalysts within the United States. ... The Royal College of Psychiatrists has been in existence in some form since 1841. ... The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology was founded in 1934 following conferences of committees appointed by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Neurological Association, and the then Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases of the American Medical Association. ...

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