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Encyclopedia > American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
Established 1869
Location Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY
Type Natural History
Visitor figures About 4 million visits annually
Director Ellen V. Futter
Public transit access B, C, M7, M10, M11, M79
Website http://www.amnh.org
Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. This vast space overlooks Central Park

The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), located on the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, USA, is one of the largest and most well-known museums in the world. Located on park-like grounds, the museum comprises 25 interconnected buildings that house 46 permanent exhibition halls, research laboratories, and its renowned library. The collections contain over 32 million specimens of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time. The museum has a scientific staff of more than 200, and sponsors over 100 special field expeditions each year.[1] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2000, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Ellen V. Futter is President of the American Museum of Natural History. ... The American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2000, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2000, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The famous museum was founded in 1869. Prior to construction of the present complex, the museum was housed in the old Arsenal building in Central Park. Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., the father of the 26th U.S. President, was one of the founders along with John David Wolfe, William T. Blodgett, Robert L. Stuart, Andrew H. Green, Robert Colgate, Morris K. Jesup, Benjamin H. Field, D. Jackson Steward, Richard M. Blatchford, J. Pierpont Morgan, Adrian Iselin, Moses H. Grinnell, Benjamin B. Sherman, A. G. Phelps Dodge, William A. Haines, Charles A. Dana, Joseph H. Choate, Henry G. Stebbins, Henry Parish, and Howard Potter. The founding of the Museum realized the dream of naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore. Bickmore, a one-time student of Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz, lobbied tirelessly for years for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York. His proposal, backed by his powerful sponsors, won the support of the Governor of New York, John Thompson Hoffman, who signed a bill officially creating the American Museum of Natural History on April 6, 1869. Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Photo of Theodore Roosevelt Sr. ... Andrew Haswell Green or Andrew H. Green (1820 - November 13, 1903) was an U.S. civic leader and major player in the development of New York City. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... Moses Hicks Grinnell (1803 - 1877) was a United States Navy officer, congressman representing New York, and Central Park Commissioner. ... Charles Anderson Dana (August 8, 1819 – October 17, 1897) was an American journalist, author, and government official, best known for his association with Ulysses S. Grant during the American Civil War and his aggressive political advocacy after the war. ... Joseph Hodges Choate (January 24, 1832 - 1917), was an American lawyer and diplomat. ... Albert Smith Bickmore (March 1, 1839–1914) was an American naturalist and one of the founders of the American Museum of Natural History. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... John Thompson Hoffman (10 January 1828 – 24 March 1888) was born in Ossining in Westchester County, New York. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

The American Museum of Natural History, c. 1900-1910

In 1874, ground was broken for the very first building which is now hidden from view by the many buildings in the complex that today occupy most of Manhattan Square. The original neo-Gothic building(1874–1877), by Calvert Vaux and Jacob Wrey Mould, who were collaborating with Frederick Law Olmsted in structures for Central Park, was soon eclipsed by the South range of the museum, by J. Cleaveland Cady, a robust exercise in rusticated brownstone neo-Romanesque, influenced by H. H. Richardson. A triumphal Roman entrance on Central Park West, the New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt completed by John Russell Pope in 1936, is an overscaled Beaux-Arts monument. It leads to a vast Roman basilica, where a cast of a skeleton of a rearing Barosaurus defending her young from an Allosaurus is not lost in the general monumentality. Recently the museum's 77th street foyer, renamed the 'Grand Gallery' has been redone in gleaming white and is illuminated by classic Romanesque fixtures. The famous Haida canoe is now fully suspended, giving the appearance that it is floating above the viewer. The hall offers a dramatic entrance way to the hall of North West Coast Indians, the oldest extant exhibit in the museum. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... {{Infobox Person | name = | image = FLOlmstead. ... J(osiah) Cleaveland Cady (Providence, Rhode Island, 1837 - April 17, 1919) was a New York-based architect whose most familiar surviving building is the south range of the American Museum of Natural History on New Yorks Upper West Side. ... Richardsonian Romanesque has both French and Spanish Romanesque characteristics, like the First Presbyterian Church in Detroit, Michigan by architechs George D. Mason and Zachariah Rice in 1891 Richardsonian Romanesque is a style of American architecture named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Church, Boston in Massachusetts. ... Henry Hobson Richardson, portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer Trinity Church in Boston is one of Richardsons most famous works. ... Central Park West is an avenue in New York City. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Species (type) Barosaurus (BAHR-oh-sawr-us) meaning heavy lizard (Greek baros = heavy + sauros = lizard, referring to its heavy neck bones) was a giant, long-tailed, long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur closely related to the more familiar Diplodocus. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ...


On October 29, 1964, the Star of India, along with several other precious gems including the Eagle Diamond and the de Long Ruby, was stolen from the museum by several thieves. The group of burglars, which included Jack Murphy, gained entrance by climbing through a bathroom window they had unlocked hours before the museum was closed. The Star of India and other gems were later recovered from a locker in a Miami bus station, but the Eagle Diamond was never found; it may have been recut or lost.[citation needed] is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Star of India is a 563. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The DeLong Star Ruby, a 100. ... Theft (also known as stealing) is, in general, the wrongful taking of someone elses property without that persons willful consent. ... Jack Roland Murphy or Murph the Surf (born 1938 in Los Angeles, California) is a surfer and convicted murderer who is most famous for his role in the biggest jewel heist in American history at the American Museum of Natural History. ...


Famous names associated with the museum include the paleontologist and geologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, president for many years; the dinosaur-hunter of the Gobi Desert, Roy Chapman Andrews (one of the inspirations for Indiana Jones); George Gaylord Simpson; biologist Ernst Mayr; pioneer cultural anthropologists Franz Boas and Margaret Mead; and ornithologist Robert Cushman Murphy. J. P. Morgan was also among the famous benefactors of the Museum. The philanthropist Harry Payne Whitney financed the Whitney South Seas Expedition (1920-1932) for the Museum, greatly expanding its collection of biological and anthropological specimens from the south-west Pacific region. A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Roy Chapman Andrews (January 26, 1884–March 11, 1960) was an American explorer, adventurer and naturalist who became the director of the American Museum of Natural History, primarily known for leading a series of expeditions through the fragmented China of the early 20th century into the Gobi Desert and Mongolia. ... Dr. Henry Walden Jones, Jr. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornitha = chicken and logos = word/science) is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Robert Cushman Murphy (April 29, 1887-March 20, 1973) was an American ornithologist and former Lamont curator of birds for the American Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the financier. ... Harry Payne Whitney was a businessman, horsebreeder and the husband of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ... The Whitney South Seas Expedition (1920-c. ...


Library

From its founding in 1880, the Library of the American Museum of Natural History has grown into one of the world's great natural history collections. In its early years, the Library expanded its collection mostly through such gifts as the John C. Jay conchological library, the Carson Brevoort library on fishes and general zoology, the ornithological library of Daniel Giraud Elliot, the Harry Edwards entomological library, the Hugh Jewett collection of voyages and travel and the Jules Marcou geology collection. In 1903 the American Ethnological Society deposited its library in the Museum and in 1905 the New York Academy of Sciences followed suit by transferring its collection of 10,000 volumes. Today, the Library's collections contain over 450,000 volumes of monographs, serials, pamphlets and reprints, microforms, and original illustrations, as well as film, photographic, archives and manuscripts, fine art, memorabilia and rare book collections. The Library collects materials covering such subjects as mammalogy, geology, anthropology, entomology, herpetology, ichthyology, paleontology, ethology, ornithology, mineralogy, invertebrates, systematics, ecology, oceanography, conchology, exploration and travel, history of science, museology, bibliography, and peripheral biological sciences. The collection is rich in retrospective materials - some going back to the 15th century - that are difficult to find elsewhere. Daniel Giraud Elliot (March 7, 1835 - December 22, 1915) was an American zoologist. ... The American Ethnological Society is the oldest professional anthropological association in the United States. ... New York Academy of Sciences is a society of some 20,000 scientists of all disciplines from 150 countries. ...


Features

Model of a Blue Whale in the Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life

The museum boasts habitat groups of African, Asian and North American mammals, the full-size model of a Blue Whale suspended in the Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life (reopened in 2003), the 62 foot (19 m) Haida carved and painted war canoe from the Pacific Northwest, the massive Cape York meteorite, and the "Star of India", the largest blue sapphire in the world. The circuit of an entire floor is devoted to vertebrate evolution. A diorama is any of the two display devices mentioned below. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about the boat. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... The Cape York meteorite, which collided with Earth nearly 10,000 years ago, is named for Cape York, the location of its discovery in Greenland, and is one of the largest meteorites in the world. ... The Star of India is a 563. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


The museum has extensive anthropological collections: Asian Peoples, Pacific Peoples, Man in Africa, Native Americans in the United States collections, general Native American collections, and collections from Mexico and Central America. This article is about the social science. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


The Hayden Planetarium, connected to the museum, is now part of the Rose Center for Earth and Space, housed in a glass cube containing the spherical Space Theater, designed by James Stewart Polshek. The Heilbrun Cosmic Pathway, which serves as the exit ramp for the Space Theater, though really a minor exhibit, is one of the more popular exhibits in the Rose Center. The Center was opened February 19, 2000. Hayden Planetarium is a public planetarium located on Central Park West, New York City, next to the famous American Museum of Natural History. ... The Rose Center for Earth and Space is a notable part of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. ... James Polshek (born 1930) is an American architect currently residing in New York. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Human Biology and Evolution

The 77th street entrance to the museum
The 77th street entrance to the museum

The Anne and Bernard and Anne Spitzer Hall of Human Origins, formerly The Hall of Human Biology and Evolution, opened on February 10, 2007.[1], Originally known under the name "Hall of the Age of Man", it is located on the first floor of the museum. It was the only major exhibit in the United States to present an in-depth investigation of human evolution. The displays traced the story of Homo sapiens, displayed the path of human evolution and examined the origins of human creativity. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1257 KB) Photo of side entrance of American Museum of Natural History I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1257 KB) Photo of side entrance of American Museum of Natural History I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...


The hall featured four life-size dioramas of the human predecessors Australopithecus afarensis, Homo ergaster, Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon, showing each species in its habitat and demonstrating the behaviors and capabilities that scientists believe it had. Also displayed were full-sized casts of important fossils, including the 3.2-million-year-old "Lucy" skeleton and the 1.7-million-year-old "Turkana Boy," and Homo erectus specimens including a cast of "Peking Man." Binomial name Johanson & White, 1978 Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominid which lived between 3. ... Binomial name †Homo ergaster Groves & Mazak, 1975 Homo ergaster (working man) is an extinct hominid species (or subspecies, according to some authorities) which lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... Lucy (also given a second (Amharic) name: ድንቅነሽ dinqineš, or “Dinkenesh,” meaning “You are beautiful” or you are wonderful[2]) is the common name of AL 288-1, the 40% complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered on November 24, 1974 by the International Afar Research Expedition (IARE; director: Maurice Taieb, co-directors... Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy is the designation given to fossil KNM-WT 15000[1], a nearly complete skeleton of an 11- or 12-year-old hominid boy who died 1. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... Trinomial name Homo erectus pekinensis (Black, 1927) Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus. ...


The hall also featured replicas of ice age art found in the Dordogne region of southwestern France. The limestone carvings of horses were made nearly 26,000 years ago and are considered to represent the earliest artistic expression of humans. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Dordogne (Occitan: Dordonha) is a department in central France named after the Dordogne River. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...


Halls of Minerals and Gems

The Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Minerals is a vast, darkened room in which hundreds of unusual and rare specimens glow under brilliant spotlights. It adjoins the Morgan Memorial Hall of gems.


On display are many renowned pieces that are chosen from among the museum's more than 100,000 specimens. Included among these are the Patricia Emerald, a 632 carat (126 g), 12 sided stone that is considered to be one of the world's most fabulous emeralds. It was discovered during the 1920's in a mine high in the Colombian Andes and was named for the mine-owner's daughter. The Patricia is one of the few, large, gem quality emeralds that remains uncut. Also on display is the 563 carat (113 g) Star of India, the largest, and most famous, star sapphire in the world. It was discovered over 300 years ago in Sri Lanka, most likely in the sands of ancient river beds from where star sapphires continue to be found today. It was donated to the museum by the financier J.P. Morgan. The thin, radiant, six pointed 'star', or 'asterism', is created by incoming light that reflects from needle-like crystals of the mineral rutile which are found within the sapphire. The Star of India is polished into the shape of a cabochon, or dome, to enhance the star's beauty. Among other notable specimens on display are the 596 pound Brazilian Princess topaz, the largest topaz in the world, and a four and one half ton specimen of blue azurite/malachite ore that was found in the Copper Queen Mine in Bisbee Arizona at the turn of the century.


Fossil Halls

Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs
Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs

Most of the museum's rich collections of mammalian and dinosaur fossils remain hidden from public view. They are kept in numerous storage areas located deep within the museum complex. Among these many treasure troves, the most significant storage facility is the ten story Frick Building which stands within an inner courtyard of the museum. During construction of the Frick, giant cranes were employed to lift steel beams directly from the street, over the roof, and into the courtyard in order to ensure that the classic museum facade remained undisturbed. The predicted great weight of the fossil bones lead designers to add special steel reinforcement to the building's framework. The fossil collections occupy the basement and lower seven floors of the Frick Building while the top three floors contain laboratories and offices. It is inside this particular building that many of the museum's intensive research programs into vertebrate paleontology are carried out. Image File history File linksMetadata Amnh19saurischia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Amnh19saurischia. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ...


Other areas of the museum contain equally fascinating repositories of life from thousands and millions of years in the past. The Whale Bone Storage Room is a cavernous space in which powerful winches come down from the ceiling to move the giant fossil bones about. Upstairs in the museum attic there are yet more storage facilities including the Elephant Room, and downstairs from that space one can find the tusk vault and boar vault.


The great fossil collections that are open to public view occupy the entire fourth floor of the museum as well as a separate spectacular exhibit that is on permanent display in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Hall, the museum's main entrance. The architecture of the fourth floor lends itself perfectly to the exhibits which are viewed by following a circuitous path that leads through several museum buildings. On the 77th street side of the museum the visitor begins in the Orientation Center which leads directly into the wonderful Moorish architecture of the museum's oldest building where the 'fossil tour' begins. A carefully marked path takes the visitor along an evolutionary tree of life. As the tree 'branches' the visitor is presented the family relationships among vertebrates. This evolutionary pathway is known as a cladogram; of which the museum's fourth floor is the world's largest and most dramatic.


To create a cladogram, scientists look for shared physical characteristics to determine the relatedness of different species. For instance a cladogram will show a relationship between amphibians, mammals, turtles, lizards, and birds since these apparently disparate groups share the trait of having 'four limbs with movable joints surrounded by muscle'. This makes them tetrapods. A group of related species such as the tetrapods is called a 'clade'. Within the tetrapod group only lizards and birds display yet another trait: 'two openings in the skull behind the eye'. Lizards and birds therefore represent a smaller, more closely related clade known as diapsids. In a cladogram the evolutionary appearance of a new trait for the first time is known as a 'node'. Throughout the fossil halls the nodes are carefully marked along the evolutionary path and these nodes alert us to the appearance of new traits representing whole new branches of the evolutionary tree. Species showing these traits are on display in alcoves on either side of the path.


The updated fossil halls celebrate the museum's architecture. Grand windows overlook Central Park and classic fixtures provide light. Many of the fossils on display represent unique and historic pieces that were collected during the museum's golden era of world-wide expeditions (1930s through the 1950s). On a smaller scale, expeditions continue into the present and have resulted in additions to the collections from Vietnam, Madagascar, South America, and central and eastern Africa.


The fourth-floor halls include the Hall of Vertebrate Origins, Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs (recognized by their grasping hand, long mobile neck, and the downward/forward position of the pubis bone, they are forerunners of the modern bird), Hall of Ornithischian Dinosaurs (defined for a pubic bone that points toward the back), Hall of Primitive Mammals, and Hall of Advanced Mammals.

Anatotitan fossil skeletons.
Anatotitan fossil skeletons.

Among the many outstanding fossils on display include: Image File history File links Amnh_fg08. ... Image File history File links Amnh_fg08. ... Species (type) (Marsh, 1897) Olshevsky, 1991 Anatotitan (a-NAT-o-TIE-tan; duck titan) is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur from the very end of the Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America. ...

  • Tyrannosaurus rex: Composed almost entirely of real fossil bones, it is mounted in a horizontal stalking pose beautifully balanced on powerful legs. The specimen is actually composed of fossil bones from two T. rex skeletons discovered in Montana in 1902 and 1908 by the legendary dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown.
  • Mammuthus: Larger than its relative the wooly mammoth, these fossils are from an animal that lived 11 thousand years ago in India.
  • Apatosaurus: This giant specimen was discovered at the end of the 19th century. Although most of its fossil bones are original, the skull is not, since none was found on site. It was only many years later that the first Apatosaurus skull was discovered and so a plaster cast of that skull was made and placed on the museum's mount. A Camarasaurus skull had been used mistakenly until a correct skull was found.
  • Brontops: Extinct mammal distantly related to the horse and rhinoceros. It lived 35 million years ago in what is now South Dakota. It is noted for its magnificent and unusual pair of horns.
  • Two skeletons of Anatotitan, a large herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur.
  • On September 27, 2007, an 80-million-year-old, 2-feet-in-diameter fossil of ammonite made its debut at the Museum of Natural History. Neil Landman, curator, said that it became extinct 65 million years ago, at the time of the dinosaurs. Korite International donated it after its discovery in Alberta.[2]

there is also a triceratops and a stegasarus on display. Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus gigas Dynamosaurus imperiosus Dinotyrannus megagracilis Nanotyrannus lancensis? Tyrannosaurus (IPA pronunciation or ; from the Greek τυραννόσαυρος, meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur. ... This article is about the extinct mammal. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic... Species (holotype) The Camarasaurus (pronounced KAM-a-rah-SORE-us) was a genera of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Species (type) Brontops, BRON-tops (thunder face) was an extinct genus of rhinoceros-like perissodactyl mammal. ... Species (type) (Marsh, 1897) Olshevsky, 1991 Anatotitan (a-NAT-o-TIE-tan; duck titan) is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur from the very end of the Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Korite International is the largest commercial producer of ammolite. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


The Art of the Diorama: Recreating Nature

Renowned naturalists, artists, photographers, taxidermists and other museum personnel have all blended their talents to create the great habitat dioramas which can be found in halls throughout the museum. These world famous dioramas represent an unparalleled melding of art and science. Some of the diorama halls have themselves become major attractions for museum visitors from around the world. Notable among these is the Akeley Hall of African Mammals which opened in 1936. The enormous hall with its muted lighting creates a reverential space that showcases the vanishing wildlife of Africa. A herd of eight enormous elephants appear to thunder down the middle of the room while along the perimeter 28 brilliantly lighted windows usher the viewer into a world that many will never personally see. The hall is decorated in rich serpentinite, a volcanic stone that deepens the contrast with the diorama windows. Some of the displays are up to 18 feet (5 m) in height and 23 feet (7 m) in depth.

This is an example of the world famous dioramas that can be found in the Hall of North American Mammals.

Carl Akeley was an outstanding taxidermist employed at the Field Museum in Chicago when the American Museum of Natural History sent him to Africa to collect elephant hides. Akeley fell in love with the rain forests of Africa and decried the encroachment of farming and civilization into formerly pristine natural habitats. Fearing the permanent loss of these natural areas, Akeley was motivated to educate the American public by creating the hall that bears his name. Akeley died in 1926 from infection while exploring the Kivu Volcanoes in his beloved Belgian Congo, an area near to that depicted by the hall's magnificent gorilla diorama. Carl Ethan Akeley (19 May 1864 - 17 November 1926) was a taxidermist, artist, biologist, conservationist, and nature photographer, noted for his contributions to American museums, most notably to the American Museum of Natural History. ...


With the 1942 opening of the Hall of North American Mammals, diorama art reached a pinnacle. It took more than a decade to create the scenes depicted in the hall which includes a 432 square foot (40 m²) diorama of the American bison. Today, although diorama art has ceased to be a major exhibition technique, dramatic examples of this art form are still employed. In 1997 museum artists and scientists traveled to the Central African Republic to collect samples and photographs for the construction of a 3,000 square foot (300 m²) recreation of a tropical African rain forest, the Dzanga-Sangha rain forest diorama in the Hall of Biodiversity.


Other notable dioramas, some dating back to the 1930s have recently been restored in the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life. The hall is a 29,000 square foot (2,700 m²) bi-level room that includes a delicately mounted 94 foot (29 m) long model of a blue whale swimming beneath and around video projection screens and interactive computer stations. The entire room is bathed in a blue shimmering light that gives a distinct feel of the vast oceans of our world. Among the hall's notable dioramas are the 'sperm whale and giant squid', which represents a true melding of art and science since an actual encounter between these two giant creatures at over one half mile depth has never been witnessed. Another celebrated diorama in the hall is the 'Andros coral reef' in the Bahamas, a two-story-high diorama that features the land form of the Bahamas and the many inhabitants of the coral reef found beneath the water's surface.


Rose Center and Planetarium

The original Hayden Planetarium, opened in 1935, was demolished and replaced in 2000 by the $210 million Frederick Phineas and Sandra Priest Rose Center for Earth and Space. Designed by James Stewart Polshek, the building consists of a six-story high glass cube enclosing a 87-foot illuminated sphere that appears to float - although it is actually supported by truss work. James Polshek has referred to his work as a 'cosmic cathedral'. The facility encloses 333,500 square feet of research, education, and exhibition space as well as the Hayden planetarium. Also located in the facility is the Department of Astrophysics, the newest academic research department in the museum. Further, Polshek designed the 1,800 square foot Weston Pavilion, a 43 foot high transparent structure of 'water white' glass along the museum's west facade. This structure, a small companion piece to the Rose Center, offers a new entry way to the museum as well as opening further exhibition space for astronomically related objects. James Polshek (born 1930) is an American architect currently residing in New York. ...


The Hayden planetarium was founded in 1933 with a donation by philanthropist Charles Hayden. The planetarium's magazine, 'The Sky', now 'Sky and Telescope' remains as a premier international resource for astronomical news. There was significant controversy over the destruction of the original structure.[citation needed]


Access

The museum is located at 79th Street and Central Park West, accessable via the B and C lines of the New York City subway. The B Sixth Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The A Eighth Avenue Express and C Eighth Avenue Local are two services of the New York City Subway. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ...


In popular culture

  • In J.D. Salinger's book The Catcher in the Rye, the protagonist Holden Caulfield at one point finds himself heading towards the museum, reflecting on past visits and remarking that what he likes is the permanence of the exhibits there.
  • On early seasons of Friends, Ross Geller worked at the museum.
  • The museum in the film Night at the Museum is based on the AMNH. The interior scenes were shot at a sound stage in Vancouver, Canada, but exterior shots of the museum's façade were done at the actual AMNH. The museum in the film itself features a Hall of African Mammals, a Hall of Reptiles is mentioned, "Gems and Minerals" can be seen on a sign, there is a brief scene featuring the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life, and it is dedicated to Teddy Roosevelt. AMNH officials have credited the movie with increasing the number of visitors during the holiday season in 2006 by almost 20%. According to a museum official, there were 50,000 more visits during the period December 22, 2006 to January 2, 2007 over the previous year.[3]
  • The museum has appeared repeatedly in the fiction of dark fantasy author Caitlín R. Kiernan, including appearances in her fifth novel Daughter of Hounds, her work on the DC/Vertigo comic book The Dreaming (#47, "Trinket"), and many of her short stories, including "Valentia" and "Onion" (both collected in To Charles Fort, With Love, 2005).
  • A scene in John Boorman's Exorcist II: The Heretic is set before one of the dioramas.
  • Several scenes in the 2004 movie The Day After Tomorrow were set in the museum's halls.
  • As the "New York Museum of Natural History", the museum is a favorite setting in many Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child novels, including Relic, Reliquary, The Cabinet of Curiosities, and The Book of the Dead. F.B.I. Special Agent Aloysius X. L. Pendergast plays a major role in all of these thrillers. However, the film version of Relic was not filmed at the AMNH. (Parts were filmed at the Field Museum in Chicago.)
  • The title of Noah Baumbach's 2005 film The Squid and the Whale IMDB entry refers to a diorama in the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life. The diorama is shown at the end of the film.
  • Other novels in which the AMNH is featured include Murder at the Museum of Natural History by Michael Jahn (1994), Funny Bananas: The Mystery in the Museum by Georgess McHargue (1975), 'The Bone Vault' by Linda Fairstein and a brief scene in Motherless Brooklyn by Jonathan Lethem (1999).
  • An ending for the film We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story shows all four dinosaurs finally reaching the AMNH.
  • Portions of the PlayStation game Parasite Eve take place within the AMNH.
  • The AMNH appears as a Resistance-controlled building in the Sierra game Manhunter: New York.

A scene from Malcolm X is filmed in the hall with prehistoric elephants. Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Holden Caulfield is a fictional character, the protagonist of J.D. Salingers 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye. ... This article is about the television show. ... Ross Eustace Geller, Ph. ... Night at the Museum is a 2006 American adventure comedy film. ... Soundstage redirects here. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses, see facade (disambiguation). ... Dark fantasy is a subgenre that combines elements of fantasy, including marvelous abilities, with those of horror. ... Caitlín Rebekah Kiernan (born May 26, 1964 in Skerries, Dublin, Ireland) is the author of many science fiction and dark fantasy works, including six novels, many comic books, more than one hundred published short stories, novellas, and vignettes, and numerous scientific papers. ... Daughter of Hounds is a 2007 dark fantasy novel by Caitlín R. Kiernan about the existence of a secret subterranean race of ghouls, set in New England. ... The Dreaming is a fictional place, the domain of Dream of the Endless in Neil Gaimans The Sandman comic book series. ... Cover art by Ryan Obermeyer To Charles Fort, With Love is a short-story collection by fantasist Caitlin R. Kiernan, published by Subterranean Press in 2005. ... John Boorman (born January 18, 1933 in Shepperton, Surrey, United Kingdom), is a British filmmaker, currently based in Ireland, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Deliverance, Excalibur, and The General. ... Exorcist II: The Heretic is a 1977 American horror film and the sequel to The Exorcist. ... For other uses, see The Day After Tomorrow (disambiguation). ... Douglas Preston (born 1956 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) is an author of several techno-thriller and horror novels with Lincoln Child. ... Lincoln Child (born 1957) is an author of techno-thriller and horror novels. ... Relic is a 1995 novel by Douglas J. Preston and Lincoln Child. ... Reliquary is the New York Times Best Selling sequel to Relic, by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. ... The Cabinet of Curiosities is a 2003 novel by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. ... The Book of the Dead is a novel by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. ... Dr. Aloysius X. L. Pendergast is a fictional character appearing in novels by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. ... The Squid and the Whale is a 2005 drama film written and directed by Noah Baumbach. ... Motherless Brooklyn is a Jonathan Lethem novel published in 1999. ... Jonathan Allen Lethem (born February 19, 1964) is an American writer. ... Were Back! A Dinosaurs Story is an animated film, produced by Steven Spielbergs Amblimation animation studio, distributed by Universal Pictures, and originally released to movie theatres in 1993. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ...


Images



See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
American Museum of Natural History

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. ... Education in New York City is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. ... The Margaret Mead Film Festival is an annual film festival held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. ... Night at the Museum is a 2006 American adventure comedy film. ... The Night at the Museum is a childrens book written by Milan Trenc and published by Barrons Juvenile in 1993. ...

References

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • American Museum of Natural History is at coordinates 40°46′52″N 73°58′27″W / 40.781033, -73.974174 (American Museum of Natural History)Coordinates: 40°46′52″N 73°58′27″W / 40.781033, -73.974174 (American Museum of Natural History)
Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Museum of Natural History - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (670 words)
The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattan's Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West.
Famous names associated with AMNH have been the paleontologist and geologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, president for many years; the dinosaur-hunter of the Gobi Desert, Roy Chapman Andrews (one of the inspirations for Indiana Jones), George Gaylord Simpson, Ernst Mayr and pioneer cultural anthropologists, Franz Boas and Margaret Mead and Ornithologist Robert Cushman Murphy.
The museum can be easily reached by the B and C lines of the New York City subway, via a subway stop directly adjacent to the museum.
American Museum of Natural History - definition of American Museum of Natural History in Encyclopedia (408 words)
The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattan's Upper West Side in New York, at 79th Street and Central Park West.
The Museum's anthropological collections are also outstanding: Halls of Asian Peoples and of Pacific Peoples, of Man in Africa, Native American collections, and collections from Mexico and Central America.
Famous names associated with AMNH have been the paleontologist and geologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, president for many years; the dinosaur-hunter of the Gobi Desert, Roy Chapman Andrews (one of the inspirations for Indiana Jones), and pioneer cultural anthropologists Franz Boas and Margaret Mead.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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