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Encyclopedia > American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. The AMA's purpose is to advance the interests of physicians, to promote public health, to lobby for legislation favorable to physicians and patients, and to raise money for medical education. It also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which has the largest circulation of any weekly medical journal in the world,[1] nine medical specialty journals,[2] and a weekly newspaper for physicians, the American Medical News.[3] Image File history File links Logo(ama). ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


The affiliated American Medical Association Alliance is an organization of physicians and their spouses that is working to support family medicine and to build healthy communities. In 1996, the alliance launched the Stop America's Violence Everywhere (SAVE) program.[4]


The AMA Physician Specialty Codes are a standard in the United States for identifying physician and practice specialties. // Physicians in the United States report their primary and secondary practice specialty via American Medical Association surveys, the AMA Online Data Collection Center and other data collection vehicles. ...

Contents

History

  • 1847, Nathan Smith Davis and others established the AMA at the University of Pennsylvania. He wanted to "elevate the standard of medical education in the United States." It was considered "impractical, if not utopian" by some. The goals of the AMA were scientific advancement, standards for medical education, launching a program of medical ethics, and improved public health. 250 delegates from 28 states attended the founding meeting at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Nathaniel Chapman was the first president of the AMA [5].
  • 1848, the AMA notes the dangers of secretive remedies and patent medicine.
  • 1858, the AMA established the Committee on Ethics.
  • 1864-1865, Davis was president of the AMA during the American Civil War.
  • 1873, AMA Judicial Council is founded.
  • 1883, AMA begins publishing the Journal of the American Medical Association, which is now referred to as JAMA.
  • 1884, the AMA supports experimentation on animals.
  • 1897, the AMA is incorporated.
  • 1898, AMA creates the Committee on Scientific Research to provide grants for medical research.
  • 1899, AMA creates Committee on National Legislation to represent AMA's interests in US Government.
  • 1902, AMA gets its first permanent headquarters in Chicago.
  • 1904, AMA establishes the Council on Medical Education to raise educational requirements for physicians [6].
  • 1905, AMA creates the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry to set standards for drug manufacturing and advertising. The Council also fought against quack patent medicines.
  • 1912, The Federation of State Medical Boards is created. It accepts the AMA's rating of medical schools as authoritative.
  • 1927, AMA Council on Medical Education and Hospitals publishes first list of hospitals approved for residency training.
  • 1935, Social Security Act is approved.
  • 1937, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act is passed, which the AMA opposed.
  • 1943, AMA opens an office in Washington DC.
  • 1950, AMA started a medical student section, called the Student American Medical Association (SAMA), initially as a pipeline into organized medicine. SAMA eventually broke away from the AMA in the 1960s to become the indepedent, student-run, AMSA, the American Medical Student Association.
  • 1952, House of Delegates adopted a council report condemning fee splitting in health care.
  • 1960, AMA states that a blood alcohol level of 0.1% should be accepted as evidence of alcohol intoxication.
  • 1970, AMA encourages the Federal Aviation Administration to require all airlines to separate nonsmokers from smokers.
  • 1974, AMA gives recommendations to insure adequate protection of individuals used in human medical experimentation.
  • 1976, AMA Section on Medical Schools is created.
  • 1982, AMA urges each state medical society to support laws to raise the legal drinking age to 21.
  • 1987, in Wilk v. American Medical Association, U.S. District Court Judge Susan Getzendanner found that the AMA violated § 1 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, by conducting an illegal boycott in restraint of trade directed at chiropractors (895 F.2d 352)
  • 1988, AMA creates the Office of HIV/AIDS.
  • 1995, AMA starts campaign for liability reform.
  • 1999, AMA creates Physicians for Responsible Negotiations (PRN, a labor organization to represent doctors, allowing them to advocate on behalf of their patients.
  • 2000, AMA supports Patients' Bill of Rights legislation in Congress.
  • 2001, Shortly after Sept. 11th disaster, the AMA provided the government with a list of 3,500 volunteer doctors who were ready to help. The AMA educated U.S. patients and doctors about bioterrorism and disaster preparedness through public service announcements and by posting updated information on its Web site.

1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America which leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act (strictly the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act) was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of Cannabis. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The American Medical Student Association, (AMSA) founded in 1950, is the oldest and largest independent association of physicians-in-training in the United States. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Blood alcohol content (or blood alcohol concentration), often abbreviated BAC, is the concentration of alcohol in blood, measured, by volume, as a percentage. ... Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with ethyl alcohol to a sufficient degree to impair mental and motor functioning. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...   FAA redirects here. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The legal drinking age is (informally) the minimum age at which people are legally allowed to purchase or consume alcoholic beverages in a given jurisdiction. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chiropractic, or chiropractic care, is a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and the effects of these disorders on the function of the nervous system and general health. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... President Bush meets with House leaders to discuss Patients Bill of Rights legislation The Patients Bill of Rights Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities The following was adopted by the US Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry in 1998. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ...

Charitable activities

The AMA Foundation provides approximately $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to financially constrained students (who now graduate medical school with an average debt load of well over $100,000 each). It funds awareness projects about health literacy. It supports research funding for students and fellows around the US. It provides grants to community projects designed to encourage healthy lifestyles (of diet and exercise, good sleep habits, etc.) The Worldscopes program has a goal of providing over 100,000 stethoscopes to third world countries, donated from physicians and students.


Political positions

For much of the twentieth century, the AMA opposed publicly-funded health care. When the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was passed in the U.S., the AMA protested the law soon after, both on the grounds of actual disagreement with the law and the supporters' "lies" on the subject. Harry J. Anslinger (Bureau of Narcotics Commissioner) and others had claimed the AMA had vocalized support when, in fact, the opposite was true. Publicly-funded health care is a health care system that is financed entirely or in majority part by citizens tax payments instead of through private payments made to insurance companies or directly to health care providers (health insurance premiums, copayments or deductibles)[citation needed]. // Publicly-funded health care systems are... REDIRECT ] ... Harry J. Anslinger (May 20, 1892 – November 14, 1975) is widely considered to be the first United States drug czar. He held office as the Assistant Prohibition Commissioner in the Bureau of Prohibition, before being appointed as the first Commissioner of the Treasury Departments Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN... Amid evidence of corruption in 1929, the US Treasury Departments Narcotics Division collapsed and the following year Congress created the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), still under the Treasury Deparment. ...


In the 1930s, it attempted to prohibit its members from working for the primitive health maintenance organizations that had sprung up during the Great Depression. The AMA's subsequent conviction for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act was affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court. American Medical Ass'n. v. United States, 317 U.S. 519 (1943). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a type of Managed Care Organization (MCO) that provides a form of health insurance coverage in the United States that is fulfilled through hospitals, doctors, and other providers with which the HMO has a contract. ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act, formally known as the Act of July 2, 1890, ch. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ...


The AMA's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup supported by Ronald Reagan. Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA has stated that it "continues to oppose attempts to cut Medicare funding or shift increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care" and "strongly supports subsidization of prescription drugs for Medicare patients based on means testing". The AMA also campaigns to raise Medicare payments to physicians, arguing that increases will protect seniors' access to health care. In the 1990s it was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform proposed by President Bill Clinton. President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Operation Coffee Cup was a campaign by the American Medical Association (AMA) conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s in order to derail plans by Democrats to extend Social Security to include health insurance for the elderly, later known as Medicare. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The AMA has given high priority to supporting changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, contribute inability of patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high risk specialists have moved to other states with such limits. For example, in 2004 not a single neurosurgeon remained in the entire southern half of Illinois. The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of healthcare and lost income. Multiple states have found that limiting these costs have actually dramatically slowed increases in the costs of medical malpractice insurance. Texas, having recently enacted such reforms has reported that all major malpractice insurers in 2005 were able to offer either no increase or a decrease in premiums to physicians. At the same time however, states without caps also experienced similar results; this suggests the cyclical nature of insurance markets may have actually been responsible. Some economic studies have found that caps have historically had a dubious effect on premium rates.[1] Nevertheless, AMA believes the caps may alleviate what is often perceived as an excessively litigious environment for many doctors. Medical malpractice is an act or omission by a health care provider which deviates from accepted standards of practice in the medical community and which causes injury to the patient. ...


Another top priority of the AMA is to lobby for change to the federal tax codes to allow the current health insurance system (based on employment) to be purchased by individuals. Such changes could possibly allow millions of currently uninsured Americans to be able to afford insurance through a series of refundable tax credits based on income (ie: the lower your income, the greater your credit).


Criticisms

Critics of the American Medical Association, including economist Milton Friedman, have asserted that the organization acts as a government-sanctioned guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees limit by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and non-physician competition [7] [8]. They assert that these actions have not only inflated the cost of healthcare in the United States, but have also have caused a decline in the quality of healthcare [9]. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist and public intellectual who made major contributions to the fields of macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history and statistics while advocating laissez-faire capitalism. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


See also

The Office of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse at the American Medical Association (AMA) was established by the temperance-oriented Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with an initial grant of $5 million, followed by more substantial funding. ... The A Matter of Degree program is designed to reduce alcohol consumption on college campuses and in their surrounding communities in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.weissratings.com/News/Ins_General/20030602pc.htm

Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ... Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, Auburn, Alabama The Ludwig von Mises Institute (LvMI), based in Auburn, Alabama, is a libertarian academic organisation engaged in research and scholarship in the fields of economics, philosophy and political economy. ...

External links

Criticism of the AMA


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Medical Association - MSN Encarta (1185 words)
The AMA’s mission is to maintain high standards of medical education, provide scientific information to medical professionals and health-related information to the public, and develop programs to advance the practice of medicine and to serve the health needs of the public.
Also in 1993 the AMA passed a resolution declaring that a physician’s participation in assisted suicide was “fundamentally inconsistent” with a physician’s professional role.
The AMA was forced to rescind the deal after many of its members left in protest of the organization’s commercial interests and ethics.
American Medical Association Summary (2689 words)
To reach this goal, the AMA devotes much of its resources to gathering, synthesizing and distributing current information on health and the practice of medicine, to setting standards for medical ethics, to fostering medical education, and to serving as an advocate for physicians and patients.
The AMA provides ethical guidance to physicians through its "Principals of Medical Ethics" and "Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship." In addition, the AMA's Code of Medical Ethics is regarded as the standard for professional conduct for physicians in the United States, both by the physicians themselves and by the courts.
Critics of the American Medical Association, including economist Milton Friedman, have asserted that the organization acts as a government-sanctioned guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees limit by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and non-physician competition [4] [5].
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