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Encyclopedia > American Jews
American Jews
Total population

7,000,000
2.5% of the US population Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1221x1791, 273 KB) High resolution version from http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x969, 340 KB) Photograph of Albert Einstein, published in the USA in 1921. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg,_SCOTUS_photo_portrait. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, New York) is an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. ...

Regions with significant populations
New York metropolitan area, All along the BosWash Megalopolis in the Northeastern United States, South Florida, the West Coast (especially the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas), the Chicago-Milwaukee corridor, the eastern and Great Lakes region and Las Vegas areas
Language(s)

Traditional Jewish languages
Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and other Jewish languages (most endangered, and some now extinct) New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island is the most populous metropolitan area in the United States and is also one of the most populous in the world . ... The BosWash or Bosnywash or Boshington or Northeast Corridor or simply Northeast megalopolis is the name for a group of metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States, extending from Boston, Massachusetts, to Washington, D.C., including Providence, Rhode Island; Hartford and New Haven and Stamford, Connecticut; New York, New York... Map of the US northeast. ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ...

Liturgical Languages
Hebrew and Aramaic
Predominant Spoken Languages
American English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian
Religion(s)
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Jews who are American citizens or resident aliens. The United States is home to the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world depending on religious definitions and varying population data. Hebrew redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their US-born descendants. There are, however, small numbers of both older and more recently arrived Sephardic Jews (Jews with roots tracing back to 15th century Spanish and Portuguese expellees and to North Africa), as well as smaller numbers of Mizrahi Jews (Jewish communities with extended histories in the Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asia), Ethiopian Jews, Indian Jews and others from various smaller Jewish ethnic divisions. The Jewish community in America, therefore, manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to Jews who are entirely secular. Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the pejorative term Falasha or Falash Mura (exiles or strangers) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... // Indian Jews are a religious minority, living among Indias predominantly Hindu populace. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...

Contents

History

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) · Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha · Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah · Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah The Torah or Five Books of Moses contains principles of biblical law, i. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic diversity
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · USA · Russia/USSR · Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Poland · Germany · Bosnia · Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela)  · France · England · Canada · Australia · Hungary · India · Turkey · Africa · Iran · China
Republic of Macedonia
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The Jewish community of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich and varied history, surviving World War II, Communism and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been been born as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... African Jew has a variety of meanings: Scattered African groups who have not historically been part of the international Jewish community, but who claim ancestry to ancient Israel or other connections to Judaism and who practice Jewish rituals or those bearing resemblance to Judaism. ... The history of Jews in the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times, when Jews first arrived in the region in the first century BC. Today, no more than 200 Jews reside in the Republic of Macedonia, almost all in the capital, Skopje. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform · Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian · Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile · Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) · Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms · Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars · Relationship with Christianity; with Islam · Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict · Land of Israel · Baal teshuva Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism · New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism · Religious Zionism · General Zionism · The Bund · World Agudath Israel · Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

v  d  e
Main article: History of the Jews in the United States

Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America as early as the seventeenth century, if not earlier, though they were small in numbers and almost exclusively Sephardic Jewish immigrants of Spanish and Portuguese ancestry.[5][6] Until about 1830 Charleston, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large scale Jewish immigration, however, did not commence until the nineteenth century, when, by mid-century, many secular Ashkenazi Jews from Germany arrived in the United States, primarily becoming merchants and shop-owners. There were approximately 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, and largely secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. For contemporary American Jewish culture, see Jews and Judaism in the United States. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... There is a long history of Jews living in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The charter of the Carolina Colony, drawn up by John Locke in 1669, granted liberty of conscience to all settlers, expressly mentioning Jews, heathens, and dissenters. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of antisemitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ...


As a result of persecution in parts of Eastern Europe, Jewish immigration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, with most of the new immigrants also being Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, though mostly from the poor rural populations of the Russian Empire (including the Russian-controlled portions of the former Duchy of Warsaw–see History of the Jews in Poland), many of them coming from the Pale of Settlement (modern Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova ). Over 2,000,000 arrived between the late nineteenth century and 1924, when immigration restrictions increased due to the National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924. Most settled in New York City and its immediate environs (New Jersey, etc.), establishing what became one of the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: , chertA osEdlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to live near the border with central Europe. ... National Origins Quota of 1924 according to Immigration Act of May 26, 1924, was the first permanent limitation on immigration, established the “national origins quota system. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


At the beginning of the twentieth century, these newly-arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Ashkenazi Jewish Landsmannschaften (German for "Territorial Associations") for Jews from the same town or village. Jewish American writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, and Jews quickly became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews (or half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50) fought in World War II, and after the war Jewish families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated as rising intermarriage rates combined with a trend towards secularization. At the same time, new centers of Jewish communities formed, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960. The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... A Landsmannschaft is a kind of Studentenverbindung. ... Jewish Assimilation is social religious process of loss of the Jewish identity of the individual by marriage to a spouse that is not Jewish, or the changing ones religion to a different religion which is more acceptable at the new habitat of the soon to be former Jew. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ...


Politics and civil rights

The German Jews were primarily Republicans.[citation needed] However the Yiddish speakers were either Socialists (especially if they were connected with the garment industry[citation needed]), Communist or nonpolitical until the 1930s[citation needed]. Polls showed Jews gave 90% support to Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman in the elections of 1940, 1944 and 1948[citation needed]. They gave about a third of their vote to Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956[citation needed]. In 1960 Jews voted 83% for Catholic Democrat John F. Kennedy[citation needed]. In 1964, when the Republicans nominated a strongly conservative candidate, Barry Goldwater, who was of partial Jewish descent, 90% of Jews voted for his opponent.[1] Since 1968 Jews have voted about 70%-80% Democratic, surging to 87% for Democratic House candidates in 2006.[2] After the 2006 elections there were 13 Jews in the Senate (out of 100 members),[3] of whom two (Norm Coleman and Arlen Specter) were Republicans, and 30 in the House (out of 435 members),[4] only one of whom (Eric Cantor) was a Republican. FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... See Norman Jay Coleman for the former secretary of Agriculture. ... Arlen J. Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... Eric Ivan Cantor (born June 6, 1963) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2001, representing Virginias 7th congressional district (map). ...


Jews participated in movements for civil rights for all United States citizens, including themselves, homosexuals and African Americans. Seymour Siegel argues the historic struggle against prejudice faced by Jews led to a natural sympathy for any people confronting discrimination. This further led Jews to dialogue about the relationship they had with African Americans. Joachim Prinz, president of the American Jewish Congress, stated the following at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963: "As Jews we bring to this great demonstration, in which thousands of us proudly participate, a twofold experience—one of the spirit and one of our history"[5] Yet there was dissension within Judaism about this civil rights involvement. Rabbi Bernard Wienberger exemplified this point of view, warning that "northern liberal Jews" put at risk southern Jews who faced hostility from white southerners because of their northern counterparts. Jewish responses to the civil rights movement and black relations lean toward acceptance and activism against prejudice, demonstrating the important role that this community played in race relations during the 1960s.[6] Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The American Jewish Congress is a civil rights body formed both to protect the civil rights of Jewish Americans, as well as to act as a conduit for pro-civil rights activities in the American Jewish community. ... March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Holocaust

The Holocaust had a profound impact on the community in the United States, especially after 1945, as Jews tried to comprehend what had happened, and especially to commemorate and grapple with it when looking to the future. Abraham Joshua Heschel summarized this dilemma when he attempted to understand Auschwitz: "To try to answer is to commit a supreme blasphemy. Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray [of] God's radiance in the jungles of history."[7] “Shoah” redirects here. ... Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907, Warsaw, Poland – December 23, 1972) was considered by many to be one of the most significant Jewish theologians of the 20th century. ...


International affairs

Jews began taking a special interest in international affairs in the early twentieth century, especially regarding pogroms in Imperial Russia, and restrictions on immigration in the 1920s. This period is also synchronous with the development of political Zionism and the Balfour Declaration. Large-scale boycotts of German merchandize were organized during the 1930s, which was synchronous with the rise of Fascism in Europe. Franklin D. Roosevelt's leftist domestic policies received strong Jewish support in the 1930s and 1940s, as did his foreign policies and the subsequent founding of the United Nations. Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion. The founding of Israel in 1948 made the Middle East a center of attention; the immediate recognition of Israel by the American government was an indication of both its intrinsic support and the influence of political Zionism. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Fascist redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


This attention initially was based on a natural and religious affinity toward and support for Israel and world Jewry. The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding Israel and Zionism itself. A lively internal debate commenced, following the Six-Day War. The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary. A tension existed especially for leftist Jews, between their liberal ideology and (rightist) Zionist backing in the midst of this conflict. This deliberation about the Six-Day War showed the depth and complexity of Jewish responses to the varied events of the 1960s.[8] Similar tensions were aroused by the 1977 election of Begin and the rise of revisionist policies, the 1982 Lebanon War and the continuing occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.[9] The subject remains fodder for deep divisions among American Jews to this day. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450...


Population

Percentage of Jewish population in the United States, 2000.
Percentage of Jewish population in the United States, 2000.

The Jewish population of the United States is one of the largest in the world.


Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on halakhic considerations, or secular, political and ancestral identification factors. There were about 4 million adherents of Judaism in the U.S. as of 2001, approximately 1.4% of the US population.[10] The community self-identifying as Jewish by birth, irrespective of halakhic (unbroken maternal line of Jewish descent or formal Jewish conversion) status, numbers about 7 million, or 2.5% of the US population. According to the Jewish Agency, for the year 2007 Israel is home to 5.4 million Jews (40.9% of the world's Jewish population), while the United States contained 5.3 million (40.2%).[11] The Jewish Agency's figure for Israel, however, included those who do not consider themselves Jews and those who are not Jewish by halakha (including a large number of Russians who immigrated under the Law of Return but are not technically Jewish by any authoritative definition), while the estimate for the US and other countries did not include such people. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ... Judaism is the Jewish religion, but Jews, religious or not, also form an ethnic group or nation. ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... Judaism is the Jewish religion, but Jews, religious or not, also form an ethnic group or nation. ... // Early History Tradition places Jews in southern Russia, Armenia, and Georgia since before the days of the First Temple, and records exist from the fourth century showing that there were Armenian cities possessing Jewish populations ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 along with substantial Jewish settlements in the Crimea. ... The Law of Return (Hebrew: חוק השבות, hok ha-shvut) is Israeli legislation that allows Jews and those with Jewish parents or grandparents, and spouses of the aforementioned, to settle in Israel and gain citizenship. ...


The most recent large scale population survey, released in the 2006 American Jewish Yearbook population survey estimates place the number of American Jews at 6.4 million, or approximately 2.1% of the total population. This figure is significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the 2000-2001 National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.2 million Jews. A 2007 study released by the Steinhardt Social Research Institute (SSRI) at Brandeis University presents evidence to suggest that both of these figures may be underestimations with a potential 7.0-7.4 million Americans of Jewish decent.[12] Jews in the U.S. settled largely in and near the major cities. The Ashkenazi Jews, who are now the vast majority of American Jews, settled first in the Northeast and Midwest but in recent decades increasingly in the South and West. In descending order, the metropolitan areas with the highest Jewish populations are New York City (1,750,000), Miami (535,000), Los Angeles (490,000), Philadelphia (285,000), Chicago (265,000), San Francisco (210,000), Boston (208,000), and Baltimore-Washington (165,000). Although New York is the second largest Jewish population center in the world, after the Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel[7], the Miami metropolitan area has a slightly greater Jewish population on a per-capita basis (9.9% compared to metropolitan New York's 9.3%). Several other major cities have over 5% Jewish proportions, including Cleveland, Baltimore, and St. Louis. Miami and Los Angeles have long been major centers. Smaller, but growing numbers are found in Houston, Dallas, Phoenix, Charlotte, and especially Atlanta and Las Vegas. In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in suburban areas. In Detroit, for example, the Jewish population is particularly concentrated in suburban Oakland County. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ... New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island is the most populous metropolitan area in the United States and is also one of the most populous in the world . ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... Walt Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, architect The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, (not to be confused with the Los Angeles Metro Area which includes only Los Angeles and Orange Counties) is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the county of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... The Delaware Valley is a term used widely to refer to the metropolitan area centered on the city of Philadelphia in the United States. ... Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area, used primarily by copywriters, advertising agencies, native residents, and traffic reporters. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents Boston proper, the City of Boston Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew GuÅ¡ Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Houston redirects here. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Oakland County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Jewish Texans have been a part of Texas History since the first European explorers arrived in the 1500s. [8] By 1990, there are around 108,000 adherents to Judaism in Texas. [9] Jewish Texans have been a part of Texas History since the first European explorers arrived in the 1500s. ... The history of Texas (as part of the United States) began in 1845, but settlement of the region dates back to the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period, around 10,000 BC. Its history has been shaped by being part of six independent countries: Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic of... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... This article is about the year. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Israeli community in America is less widespread. The four significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in Los Angeles (approximately 150,000), New York City (162,000), Miami (105,000), and Chicago (50,000).[citation needed] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Miami redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Immigrant Soviet Jews began arriving after the Jackson-Vanik laws of the 1970s and are heavily concentrated in New York City, Houston, Dallas, San Francisco, Baltimore, Los Angeles and many other large American cities, although these Russian Jews can be found throughout the US in cities even with very small Jewish populations. Historical background As waves of anti-Jewish pogroms and expulsions from the countries of Western Europe marked the last centuries of the Middle Ages, a sizable portion of the Jewish populations there moved to the more tolerant countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Middle East. ... According to the 1974 Trade act, the Jackson-Vanik amendment, named for its major co-sponsors, Sen. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Dallas redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Persian Jews began arriving to the United States in large numbers in the late 1970s before the Islamic Revolution and most of them settled in Los Angeles and Great Neck on Long Island. Most Bukharian Jews arrived after the Collapse of the Soviet Union to New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, Atlanta, Arizona and elsewhere. A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Great Neck is a village located in Nassau County, New York in the USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 9,538. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...


According to the 2001 undertaking of the National Jewish Population Survey, 4.3 million American Jews have some sort of strong connection to the Jewish community, whether religious or cultural. The National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS) 2000-01 is a representative survey of the Jewish population in the United States sponsored by United Jewish Communities and the Jewish federation system. ...


Assimilation and population changes

The same social and cultural characteristics of the United States of America that facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community have also been attributed to contributing to widespread assimilation,[13] a controversial and significant issue in the modern American Jewish community. While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ... Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ...


Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 to approximately 40%-50% in the year 2000.[10][11] Only about 33% of intermarried couples raise their children with a Jewish religious upbringing.[citation needed] This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s.[12]. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older. [13]


Despite the fact that only 33% of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, doing so is more common among intermarried families raise their children in areas with high Jewish populations[citation needed], such as the greater New York City metropolitan area, Boston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit, Baltimore-Washington, Chicago, and Cleveland (which has the highest Jewish-American population per capita for smaller, major U.S. cities). In the Boston area, one study shows that 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised as Jews by religion; giving the perception that intermarriage is contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.[14] As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Boston redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Detroit redirects here. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Region (United States) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...


In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number. [15] This trend, however, is likely due at least as much to declining synagogue membership and practice among the non-Orthodox as to greater numbers of Orthodox.[citation needed] Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called "ultra-orthodox" (Haredi) Jews in USA (7.2%).[citation needed] The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%). [16] Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ...


About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are White, 5% Hispanic (Mostly Argentine Ashkenazim), 1% Asian (Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews), 1% Black and 1% Other (Mixed Race.etc). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.[14]


Religion

Jewishness is generally considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one. An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ...


Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as "strongly connected" to Judaism, over 80% have some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to as little as attendance Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other. Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on the first night of the Jewish holiday of Passover (the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ...


The survey[citation needed] found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a synagogue. Among those who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of Reform synagogues, 33% Conservative, 22% Orthodox, 2% Reconstructionist, and 5% other types. The survey discovered that Jews in the Northeast and Midwest are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West. Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant. The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Map of the US northeast. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see South (disambiguation). ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews, called baalei teshuva ("returners", see also Repentance in Judaism), returning to a more religious, in most cases, Orthodox, style of observance. It is uncertain how widespread or demographically important this movement is at present. Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ... Repentance in Judaism known as Teshuva (literally means Returning in Hebrew), is the way of atoning for sin in Judaism. ...


Education

The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools. Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Until the 1950s, a quota system at elite colleges and universities limited the number of Jewish students. Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities. In 1941, anti-Semitism drove Milton Friedman from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.[15] Harry Levin became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire Paul Samuelson in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.[16] Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Harry Tuchman Levin (July 18, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was an American literary critic and scholar of modernism and comparative literature. ... Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. ...


Today, American Jews no longer face the discrimination in college admissions that they did in the past. By 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate clubs at Harvard were Jewish,[15] and Paul Samuelson's nephew, Lawrence Summers, became President of Harvard University in 2001. According to estimates from Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, Jews make up well over one-fifth of the student body in America's most prominent institutions of higher learning: Lawrence Henry Larry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ... Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life (Hillel International) is the largest Jewish campus organization in the world. ...

Public Universities
Rank University Enrollment for Jewish Students (est.)  % of Student body Undergraduate Enrollment
1 University of Florida 5,400 15% 34,612
2 Rutgers University 5,000 13% 37,072
3 University of Central Florida 4,500 11% 39,545
4 University of Michigan
Pennsylvania State University
Indiana University
University of Wisconsin-Madison
4,000 16%
10%
10%
14%
25,555
36,612
32,000
28,462
5 California State University, Northridge
Florida State University
University of Texas, Austin
3,800 14%
9%
10%
26,854
40,474
36,878
6 University at Albany
Florida International University
3,500 31%
9%
12,013
39,500
Private Universities
Rank University Enrollment of Jewish Student (est.) % of Student body Undergraduate Enrollment
1 New York University 6,500 33% 19,401
2 Boston University 4,000 20% 15,981
3 Cornell University 3,500 25% 13,515
4 University of Miami 3,100 22% 14,000
5 The George Washington University
University of Pennsylvania
Yeshiva University
2,800 31%
30%
99%
10,394
9,718
2,803
6 Syracuse University 2,500 20% 12,500
7 Columbia University
Emory University
Harvard University
Tulane University
2,000 29%
30%
30%
30%
6,819
6,510
6,715
6,533
8 Brandeis University[19]
Northwestern University[20]
Washington University in St. Louis[21]
1,800 56%
23%
29%
3,158
7,826
6,097

The University of Florida (Florida or UF) is a flagship public land-grant, sea-grant[3] major research university located on a 2,000 acre campus in Gainesville, Florida, United States of America. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... UCF redirects here. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... This article is about the state-related university. ... Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... California State University, Northridge (also known as CSUN, Cal State Northridge, or C-Sun) is a public university in the San Fernando Valley, within the city limits of Los Angeles, California, USA. Part of the California State University system, CSUN was founded in 1958 as San Fernando Valley State College... Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[8] is a public research university located in Tallahassee. ... The University of Texas at Austin, often called UT or Texas, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. ... The University at Albany, (formerly known as Albany State University until the early 1990s) located in Albany, New York, in the USA, is one of four university centers of the State University of New York. ... Florida International University, commonly known as FIU, is a public research university whose main campus is located in University Park in metropolitan Miami, Florida, in the United States. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Cornell redirects here. ... This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. ... The George Washington University (GW) is a private, coeducational university located in Washington, D.C., United States. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Yeshiva University is a private Jewish university in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. ... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ... Northwestern University (NU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university with campuses located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago. ... Washington University redirects here. ...

Jewish American culture

See also: Secular Jewish culture

Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America (over 2,000,000 Eastern European Jews who arrived between 1890 and 1924), Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States. Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...


Language

Although almost all American Jews are today native English-speakers, a variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities which are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up America's Jewish population. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ...


Many of America's Hasidic Jews (being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent) are raised speaking Yiddish. Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million European Jews who immigrated to the United States (it was, in fact, the original language in which The Forward was published). Yiddish has had an influence on American English, and words borrowed from it include chutzpah ("effrontery", "gall"), nosh ("snack"), schlep ("drag"), schmuck ("fool", literally "penis"), and, depending on ideolect, hundreds of other terms. (See also Yinglish.) This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Forward is a Jewish-American newspaper published in New York. ... Look up Chutzpah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An idiolect (sometimes misspelled ideolect) is a variety of a language unique to an individual. ... Yinglish words are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country. ...


The Persian Jewish community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, California, primarily speak Persian (see also Judeo-Persian) in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as Kew Gardens and Great Neck, Long Island. A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Beverly Hills redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... This article is about the state. ... Kew Gardens is a neighborhood in central Queens bounded to the north and east by the Jackie Robinson Parkway (formerly Interborough Parkway), the Van Wyck Expressway, and Queens Boulevard, also to the east by 127th Street, to the south by 85th Avenue, and to the west by Babbage Street and... Great Neck is a village in Nassau County, New York, in the USA, on the North Shore of Long Island. ...


Many recent Jewish immigrants from Russia and Ukraine speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in Brighton Beach in New York City. For other uses, see Brighton Beach (disambiguation). ...


American Bukharian Jews speak Bukhori (a dialect of Persian) and Russian. They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live in Queens, New York. Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to 108th Street, which is called by some "Bukharian Broadway"[17], a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Many Bukharians are also represented in parts of Arizona, Miami, Florida, and areas of Southern California such as San Diego. Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... Station Square, home to Forest Hills striking Long Island Rail Road station. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Miami redirects here. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... San Diego redirects here. ...


Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh (Bible) and Siddur (prayerbook). Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel, which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language. Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...


Some of the Jews in Miami and Los Angeles, the second largest Jewish community in the United States, immigrated from the countries of Latin America. Many of these Hispanic Jews (many of them of Sephardic origin dating back to the Spanish and Portuguese colonial era, but also many of Ashkenazi descent from recent Central and Eastern European immigration to Latin America) speak Spanish in the home, and some have intermarried with the non-Jewish Hispanic population. Recent Jews from Spain and among their descendants speak Spanish. Spanish may be spoken by other Jews with ancestry outside Spain and Latin America living in areas near predominantly Hispanic populations. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. Many Luso-Jews with origin from Brazil and Portugal (Sephardic Jews but including in Brazil, Sephardic Jews with Spanish origin, Ashkenazi, and Mizrahi) speak Portuguese in home. There are a handful of older European immigrant communities that still speak Ladino. Miami redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ...


Jewish American literature

Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall (see the following section), there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Generally exploring the experience of being a Jew, especially a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history, the literary traditions of Philip Roth, Saul Bellow, Chaim Potok, Leon Uris, Herman Wouk, Cynthia Ozick and Bernard Malamud all fall into this category. Younger authors (e.g., Paul Auster, Lisa Crystal Carver, Allegra Goodman, Gary Shteyngart, Michael Chabon and Jonathan Safran Foer) continue this view of Jewish American literature, examining the Holocaust, and the meaning of being an American Jew. Jewish American literature holds an essential place in the literary history of the United States. ... Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey[1]) is a famous American novelist. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Rabbi Dr. Chaim Potok (February 17, 1929 - July 23, 2002) was an American author and rabbi. ... Leon Uris (August 3, 1924 - June 21, 2003) was an American novelist, known for his historical fiction and the deep research that went into his novels. ... Herman Wouk (May 27, 1915 —) is a bestselling American author with a number of notable novels to his credit, including The Caine Mutiny, The Winds of War, and War and Remembrance. ... Cynthia Ozick (born April 17, 1928, New York City), is an American writer, the daughter of William Ozick and Celia Regelson. ... Bernard Malamud (April 26, 1914 – March 18, 1986) was an American writer, allegorist, and a well-known Jewish-American author. ... Paul Auster Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ... Lisa Crystal Carvers (AKA Lisa Suckdog) writing in Rollerderby, made her one of the most well known writers of the zine boom in the early 90s, along with scribes like Pagan Kennedy. ... Allegra Goodman, Ph. ... Gary Shteyngart (born 1972) is an American writer born in Leningrad, USSR (he alternately calls it St. ... Michael Chabon (born May 24, 1963) is an American author and one of the most celebrated writers of his generation. ... Jonathan Safran Foer This American author is not to be confused with the Australian media personality John Safran. ...


Notable American Jews

Popular culture

Actors and actresses · Writers · Artists · Musicians · Show business figures · Sportspeople · List of Jewish American actors in television · Lists of Jews

Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture. There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors like Carmel Myers, Fanny Brice and the first cowboy film star, Broncho Billy Anderson, to classic Hollywood film stars like Lauren Bacall, Kirk Douglas, Tony Curtis, and culminating in many currently known actors, including Sarah Michelle Gellar, Winona Ryder, Alicia Silverstone, Natalie Portman, Sarah Jessica Parker, Kate Hudson, Scarlett Johansson, Rachel Bilson, Adam Brody, Zac Efron, Evan Rachel Wood, Adrien Brody, Lisa Kudrow, Ben Stiller, Adam Sandler, Jerry Seinfeld, Larry David, Bahar Soomekh, Sara Paxton, Jake Gyllenhaal and Maggie Gyllenhaal, amongst others. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish, such as Barney Balaban (Paramount Pictures), Henry Cohen (Columbia Pictures), Samuel Goldwyn and Louis B. Mayer (MGM), William Fox, Jesse L. Lasky, Carl Laemmle, Marcus Loew, Adolph Zukor, and the original Warner Brothers. The characteristically Jewish field of American comedy includes the Marx Brothers, Three Stooges, Milton Berle, Bea Arthur, Mel Brooks, George Burns, Woody Allen, Joan Rivers, and Gilda Radner. The legacy also includes songwriters as diverse as Irving Berlin, Burt Bacharach, Carol King, Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Robert B. Sherman and Richard M. Sherman (aka "The Sherman Brothers"), Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, Jeff Barry, Neil Diamond, Lou Reed, Bob Dylan, and Paul Simon and writers as diverse as J.D. Salinger, Joseph Heller, Ayn Rand, E.L. Doctorow, Lillian Hellman, Allen Ginsberg, Isaac Asimov, and Harlan Ellison, in addition to the authors listed above. The list is currently organized chronologically, listing people by decade of birth. ... This is a list of Jewish American writers. ... This is a list of Jewish American artists. ... This is a list of famous Jewish American musicians. ... This is a list of Jewish American show business figures. ... This is a list of notable Jewish American sportspeople. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Carmel Myers (April 4, 1899 - November 9, 1980) was a Jewish-American actress who worked chiefly in silent movies. ... Early Ziegfeld Follies portrait of Fanny Brice Fanny Brice (October 29, 1891 – May 29, 1951) was a popular and influential American comedian, singer, theatre and film actress and entertainer, remembered best for her many stage, radio and film appearances and her recordings. ... Broncho Billy Anderson (March 21, 1880 – January 20, 1971) was an American actor, writer, director, and producer, who is best-known as the first star of the Western film genre. ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch Demsky December 9, 1916) is an iconic American actor and film producer known for his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father to Hollywood actor and producer Michael Douglas. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... Sarah Michelle Prinze,[1][2] (born April 14, 1977) better known by her birth name of Sarah Michelle Gellar, is an American actress. ... Winona Laura Horowitz[1] (born October 29, 1971), better known under her professional name Winona Ryder, is a two-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning American actress. ... Alicia Silverstone, (born October 4, 1976) is an American actress and former fashion model. ... Natalie Portman (‎; born June 9, 1981) is a Golden Globe-winning, Academy Award-nominated Israeli-American actress. ... Sarah Jessica Parker (born March 25, 1965) is an American actress and producer, with a portfolio of television, movie, and theater performances. ... This article is about the actress. ... Scarlett Johansson (born November 22, 1984) is an American actress. ... Rachel Sarah Bilson (born August 25, 1981)[1] is an American actress. ... Adam Jared Brody (born December 15, 1979) is an American film and television actor. ... Zachary David Alexander Efron(born October 18, 1987) is an American actor. ... Evan Rachel Wood (born September 7, 1987[1]) is an American film, television and theater actress, and singer. ... Adrien Brody (born April 14, 1973) is an American actor. ... Lisa Marie Diane Kudrow (born July 30, 1963) is an Emmy Award- and SAG-winning American actress best known for her role as Phoebe Buffay in the popular television sitcom Friends. ... Benjamin Edward Stiller (born November 30, 1965) is an Emmy-winning American comedian, actor, film producer and director. ... Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American comedian, actor, musician, screenwriter, and film producer. ... This article is about the comedian. ... Lawrence Gene David[1] (born July 2, 1947 in Brooklyn, New York) is an Emmy-winning actor, writer, comedian, producer and film director. ... Bahar Soomekh (Persian: بهار سومخ born March 30, 1975) is an Iranian-born American Screen Actors Guild Award-winning actress and environmental activist. ... Sara Paxton[1] (born April 25, 1988) is an Emmy Award-nominated American actress and singer. ... Jacob Benjamin Gyllenhaal[1] (born December 19, 1980) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... Maggie Ruth Gyllenhaal (born November 16, 1977) is an American actress. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Barney Balaban was one of five Balaban brothers from Chicago who founded the Balaban and Katz Theatre Chain. ... Henry Cohen was the director of Föhrenwald, the third largest Displaced Persons camp in the American sector of post-WWII Germany in 1946. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William Fox (born Wilhelm Fuchs in January 1, 1879–May 8, 1952) founded the Fox Film Corporation in 1915 and the Fox West Coast Theatres chain. ... Lasky in 1915. ... Carl Laemmle Birthplace of Carl Laemmle in Laupheim Carl Laemmle (17 January 1867 – 24 September 1939), born in Laupheim, Württemberg, Germany, was a pioneer in American film making and a founder of one of the original major Hollywood movie studios. ... Marcus Loew Marcus Loew (May 7, 1870–September 5, 1927) was an American business magnate and a pioneer of the motion picture industry who formed Loews Theatres and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, MGM. Born into a poor Jewish family in New York City, circumstances dictated he go to work at a... Cukor Adolf (Adolph Zukor) (January 7, 1873–June 10, 1976) was the founder of Paramount Pictures Studios, and one of the greatest film moguls of all time. ... Warner Bros. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ... The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the mid 20th century best known for their numerous short subject films. ... Milton Berle (July 12, 1908 - March 27, 2002) was an Emmy-winning American comedian who was born Milton Berlinger. ... Beatrice Arthur as Maude Findlay on Maude. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... George Burns[1], born Nathan Birnbaum (January 20, 1896 – March 9, 1996), was an American comedian and actor. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ... Joan Rivers (born June 8, 1933) is an American comedian, actress, talk show host, businesswoman, and celebrity. ... Gilda Susan Radner (28 June 1946 – 20 May 1989) was an American comedienne and actress, best known for her five years as part of the original cast of the NBC comedy series Saturday Night Live. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ... Carole King (born February 9, 1942) is an American singer and songwriter, most active as a singer during the early to mid 1970s, and active as a successful songwriter considerably longer both before and after her period as a popular singer. ... Ramblin Jack Elliott Ramblin Jack Elliot (born Elliott Charles Adnopoz, August 1, 1931) is an American folk performer. ... Robert B. Sherman (born December 19, 1925) (see also: Sherman Brothers) is an Academy Award-winning American songwriter who specializes in musical films with his brother Richard M. Sherman. ... Richard Sherman redirects here. ... Robert B. Sherman & Richard M. Sherman at the London Palladium in 2002 during the premiere of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang: The Stage Musical. ... Mike Stoller, Elvis Presley & Jerry Leiber Jerry Leiber (born April 25, 1933) and Mike Stoller (born March 13, 1933) are among the most influential songwriters and music producers in post-World War II popular music. ... Jeff Barry (born Joel Adelberg, 1938, Brooklyn, N.Y.) and Ellie Greenwich (born 1940, Brooklyn, N.Y.) comprised one of the most prolific and successful Brill Building song writing and production teams in the early 1960s. ... Neil Leslie Diamond (born January 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and occasional actor. ... Lou Reed, born Lewis Allen Reed[1] March 2, 1942, is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ... Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (born January 6, 1931, New York, New York) is a writer who has written several critically aclaimed novels that blend history and social criticism. ... Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was a successful American playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing causes. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ...


On the countercultural and radical political front, Jewish hippies Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, with help from Allen Ginsberg, formed the controversial Youth International Party ("Yippies"), and the four main organizers of the 1969 Woodstock Festival concert were all Jewish, as was Max Yasgur, the man on whose farm the legendary concert took place. In addition, master sound mixer and producer Eddie Kramer was Jewish, as is Bob Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman, his first wife, Sara and sons Jesse and Jakob. Bob Dylan did convert to Christianity in the late 1970s, but he returned to his Jewish roots in the 1980s. Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Yippie flag, ca. ... The Woodstock Music and Art Fair was a historic event held at Max Yasgurs 600 acre (2. ... Max Yasgurs Farm (1999) Max B. Yasgur (December 15, 1919—February 9, 1973) was the owner of a dairy farm in Bethel, New York upon which the Woodstock Music and Art Fair was held on August 15-18, 1969. ... Eddie Kramer is an audio engineer and producer who has worked with Led Zeppelin, Kiss, Jimi Hendrix, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, Peter Frampton, Curtis Mayfield, Santana, Anthrax, Carly Simon and Robin Trower. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Sara Dylan (born Wilmington, Delaware, USA, October 28, 1939), born as Shirley Marlin Noznisky and later known as Sara Lownds, was the first wife of singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. ... Jesse Dylan, son of musician Bob Dylan, is an American director whose credits include the 2001 Redman comedy How High, the third film in the American Pie trilogy American Wedding (2003), and the 2005 Will Ferrell film Kicking & Screaming. ... Jakob Luke Dylan, born December 9, 1969 in New York City, is the lead singer and songwriter of the rock band The Wallflowers. ... This article is about the recording artist. ...


Many Jews have been at the forefront of women's issues. Jewish Women's rights activist Gloria Steinem once became a Playboy Bunny in order to write a book on how women were treated at their clubs. The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Gloria Steinem at news conference, Womens Action Alliance, January 12, 1972 Gloria Marie Steinem (born March 25, 1934) is an American feminist icon, journalist and womens rights advocate. ... Playboy Bunny at the Karma Foundation Inaugural Gala hosted at the Playboy Mansion, October 2005 A Playboy Bunny was a waitress at the Playboy Clubs (open 1960–1988). ...


Jews have also done well in the field of sport. The most notable of all would be Jewish Swimmer Mark Spitz who won 7 gold medals at the 1972 Munich Olympics, which is still an Olympic record for a single year in any sport. Mark Andrew Spitz (born February 10, 1950, in Modesto, California) is a former American swimmer. ... The Games of the XX Olympiad were held in 1972 in Munich, Germany. ... Olympic can mean: Olympic Games, an international multi-sport event: Olympic Games, the modern games held since 1896 Ancient Olympic Games, the ancient games held in Olympia, Greece between 776 BC and 393 AD Olympic (band), a Czech rock band Olympic (MTR) A MTR station in Hong Kong Olympic Airlines...


Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg has recently made a name for himself by bringing the world together online. Facebook is a social networking website that was launched on February 4, 2004. ... Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (born May 14, 1984) is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur. ...


Government and military

Politicians · Military figures

Since 1845, a total of 29 Jews have served in the Senate, including present-day senators Chuck Schumer (D-NY), Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Arlen Specter (R-PA), Norm Coleman (R-MN), Russ Feingold and Herb Kohl (both D-WI), Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein (both D-CA), Carl Levin (D-MI), Ron Wyden (D-OR), and Joe Lieberman (Independent-CT). In 2007, the number of Jews in the Senate rose to thirteen with the additional of Bernie Sanders (I-VT) and Ben Cardin (D-MD). The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all time high of 30. Seven Jews have been appointed on the United States Supreme Court. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles Ellis Chuck Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is the senior U.S. Senator from the state of New York, serving since 1999. ... Frank Raleigh Lautenberg (born January 23, 1924) is an American businessman and Democratic Party politician. ... Arlen J. Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... See Norman Jay Coleman for the former secretary of Agriculture. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... This article refers to Sen. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... Ronald Lee Wyden (born May 3, 1949) to German American parents, is Oregons senior United States Senator. ... Joseph Isadore Joe Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a United States Senator from Connecticut. ... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ... Benjamin Louis Ben Cardin (born October 5, 1943) is a Democratic member of the United States Senate representing the state of Maryland. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Sixteen American Jews have been awarded the Medal of Honor. Judah P. Benjamin was a member of the Confederate cabinet. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


The Manhattan Project, America's World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, included the contributions of American Jewish physicists, many of whom were refugees from Hitler's Germany or from anti-semitic persecution in other European nations: J. Robert Oppenheimer, Richard P. Feynman, Wolfgang Pauli, Leo Szilard, Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, Isidor I. Rabi, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, Otto Frisch, Samuel Goudsmit, Jerome Karle, Stanisław Ulam, Robert Serber, Louis Slotin, Walter Zinn, Robert Marshak, Felix Bloch, Emilio G. Segrè, James Franck, Joseph Joffe, Eugene Rabinowitch, Hy Goldsmith, Samuel Cohen, Victor F. Weisskopf, and David Bohm. Hans Bethe and Niels Bohr both had Jewish mothers, which also necessitated their fleeing from Nazi-occupied lands during the war. This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Richard Feynman Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918–February 15, 1988) (surname pronounced FINE-man) was one of the most influential American physicists of the 20th century, expanding greatly the theory of quantum electrodynamics. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Leó Szilárd (right) working with Albert Einstein. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Isidor Isaac Rabi (July 29, 1898 - January 11, 1988) was an American physicist of Austro-Hungarian origin. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál JenÅ‘) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... Samuel Goudsmit (1902–1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck. ... Jerome Karle is an American physical chemist. ... StanisÅ‚aw Ulam in the 1950s. ... Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ... A sketch used by doctors to determine the amount of radiation to which each person in the room had been exposed during the excursion. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Felix Bloch (October 23, 1905 – September 10, 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the USA. // A stamp from Guyana commemorating Felix Bloch. ... Portrait of Emilio Segrè. Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Eugene Rabinowitch (1901-1973) was a Russian-American biophysicist who is best known for his work in relation to nuclear weapons, especially as a co-author of the Franck Report and a co-founder in 1945 of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, a global security and public policy magazine... Sam Cohen, neutron bomb inventor and author of Shame For the composer, see Samuel Cohen (composer). ... External links National Academy of Sciences biography Categories: People stubs | 1908 births | 2002 deaths | Manhattan Project | Physicists ... David Bohm. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ...


When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the United States declared war on Japan and Germany, thousands of American Jewish men and women responded to their country's call for the armed forces. More than 550,000 served in the Armed Forces of the United States during World War II. About 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded. There were three recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, 157 received the Distinguished Service Medal and Crosses, which included Navy Crosses, and 1,600 were awarded the Silver Star. About 50,242 other decorations. citations and awards were given to Jewish soldiers and military personnel for a total of 52,000 decorations. This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


During this period, Jews were approximately 3.3 percent of the total American population but they constituted about 4.23 percent of the Armed Forces. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and medics.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt praised the fighting abilities and service of Jewish men and women. General Douglas MacArthur in one of his speeches said, “I am proud to join in saluting the memory of fallen American heroes of Jewish faith.” At the 50th National Memorial Service conducted by the Jewish War Veterans of the United States, General A. A. Vandergrift, Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps, said, “Americans of Jewish faith in the Marine Corps have served with distinction throughout the prosecution of this war. During the past year, many Jewish fighting men in our armed forces have given their lives in the cause of freedom. With profound sympathy and respect, I join you in paying homage to them at this memorial service.” [22] FDR redirects here. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ...


Science, business, and academia

Scientists · Businesspeople · Academics

Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally been drawn to business and academia (see Secular Jewish culture for some of the causes), and have made major contributions in science, economics, and the humanities. Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37% have been Jewish Americans (19 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 71% of the John Bates Clark Medal winners (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage). While Jewish Americans only constitute roughly 2.5% of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7% of board seats at U.S. corporations.[23] This is a list of Jewish American scientists. ... This is a list of Jewish American Businesspeople. ... This is a list of Jewish American academics. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... The biennial John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge. Named after the American Neoclassical economist John Bates Clark (1847-1938), it is considered...


Jewish American purchasing power was estimated at $375 billion (or 3% of the US economy) in 2005. Jewish Americans are more likely to be found in the finance and media industries than others.


Distribution of Jewish-Americans

According to the Glenmary Research Center, which publishes Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States [18], the 100 counties and independent cities in 2000 with the largest Jewish communities, based by percentage of total population, were: An independent city is a city in the United States of America that does not belong to any county, but rather interacts directly with the state government. ...

County Jewish
population
 %
of total
1 Rockland County, New York 90,000 31.4%
2 New York County, New York[24] 314,500 20.5%
3 Falls Church, Virginia 1,800 17.4%
4 Fairfax, Virginia 3,600 16.7%
5 Nassau County, New York 207,000 15.5%
6 Kings County, New York[25] 379,000 15.4%
7 Palm Beach County, Florida 167,000 14.8%
8 Broward County, Florida 213,000 13.1%
9 Queens County, New York 238,000 10.7%
10 Monmouth County, New Jersey 65,000 10.6%
11 Westchester County, New York 94,000 10.2%
12 Sullivan County, New York 7,425 10.0%
13 Essex County, New Jersey 76,200 9.6%
14 Bergen County, New Jersey 83,700 9.5%
15 Montgomery County, Maryland 83,800 9.1%
16 Baltimore, Maryland 56,500 8.7%
17 Fulton County, Georgia 65,900 8.1%
18 Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 59,550 7.9%
19 Middlesex County, Massachusetts 113,700 7.8%
20 Richmond County, New York[26] 33,700 7.6%
21 Marin County, California 18,500 7.5%
22 Camden County, New Jersey 36,000 7.1%
22 Morris County, New Jersey 33,500 7.1%
24 Suffolk County, New York 100,000 7.0%
25 Denver County, Colorado 38,100 6.6%
26 Oakland County, Michigan 77,200 6.5%
27 San Francisco County, California 49,500 6.4%
28 Bronx County, New York 83,700 6.3%
29 Middlesex County, New Jersey 45,000 6.0%
30 Los Angeles County, California 564,700 5.9%
30 Norfolk County, Massachusetts 38,300 5.9%
32 Atlantic County, New Jersey 14,600 5.8%
32 Bucks County, Pennsylvania 34,800 5.8%
32 Union County, New Jersey 30,100 5.8%
35 Cuyahoga County, Ohio 79,000 5.7%
35 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 86,600 5.7%
37 Clark County, Nevada 75,000 5.5%
37 Miami-Dade County, Florida 124,000 5.5%
39 Baltimore County, Maryland 38,000 5.0%
39 Pitkin County, Colorado 750 5.0%
39 Plymouth County, Massachusetts 23,600 5.0%
42 St. Louis County, Missouri 47,100 4.6%
43 Boulder County, Colorado 13,200 4.5%
43 Washington, District of Columbia 25,500 4.5%
45 Cook County, Illinois 234,400 4.4%
45 Fairfield County, Connecticut 38,800 4.4%
45 Orange County, New York 15,000 4.4%
48 Alexandria, Virginia 5,400 4.2%
49 Albany County, New York 12,000 4.1%
49 Alpine County, California 50 4.1%
49 Sarasota County, Florida 13,500 4.1%
County Jewish
population
 %
of total
52 Howard County, Maryland 10,000 4.0%
53 Lake County, Illinois 25,000 3.9%
54 Portsmouth, Virginia 3,800 3.8%
55 Somerset County, New Jersey 11,100 3.7%
55 West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana 800 3.7%
57 Rockdale County, Georgia 2,500 3.6%
57 Suffolk County, Massachusetts 24,700 3.6%
59 Bristol County, Rhode Island 1,760 3.5%
59 Custer County, Idaho 150 3.5%
59 Hartford County, Connecticut 30,000 3.5%
59 New Haven County, Connecticut 28,900 3.5%
59 Passaic County, New Jersey 17,000 3.5%
59 San Mateo County, California 24,500 3.5%
59 Schenectady County, New York 5,200 3.5%
66 Ulster County, New York 5,900 3.3%
67 Norfolk, Virginia 7,600 3.2%
67 Santa Clara County, California 54,000 3.2%
69 Burlington County, New Jersey 13,000 3.1%
69 Monroe County, New York 22,500 3.1%
71 Essex County, Massachusetts 21,700 3.0%
72 Berkshire County, Massachusetts 3,900 2.9%
72 Delaware County, Pennsylvania 15,700 2.9%
72 Monroe County, Michigan 4,200 2.9%
72 Multnomah County, Oregon 19,300 2.9%
76 Hennepin County, Minnesota 31,600 2.8%
76 Sussex County, New Jersey 4,100 2.8%
78 Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 34,600 2.7%
78 Fayette County, Georgia 2,500 2.7%
78 Hamilton County, Ohio 22,500 2.7%
78 Johnson County, Kansas 12,000 2.7%
82 Mercer County, New Jersey 9,100 2.6%
82 Nantucket County, Massachusetts 250 2.6%
82 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin 2,100 2.6%
82 Pinellas County, Florida 24,200 2.6%
82 Prince George's County, Maryland 20,700 2.6%
82 Worcester County, Massachusetts 19,500 2.6%
88 San Diego County, California 70,000 2.5%
89 New Castle County, Delaware 11,900 2.4%
89 Pima County, Arizona 20,000 2.4%
91 Alameda County, California 32,500 2.3%
91 Chester County, Pennsylvania 10,100 2.3%
91 Contra Costa County, California 22,000 2.3%
91 Cumberland County, Maine 6,000 2.3%
91 Hampden County, Massachusetts 10,600 2.3%
91 Ocean County, New Jersey 11,500 2.3%
91 Santa Cruz County, California 6,000 2.3%
98 Bristol County, Massachusetts 11,600 2.2%
98 Clay County, Georgia 75 2.2%
98 Washtenaw County, Michigan 7,000 2.2%

The Tappan Zee Bridge, in a view looking toward Rockland. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1875 Government  - Mayor Robin Gardner Area  - City  2. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Government  - Mayor Robert Lederer Area  - City  6. ... Theodore Roosevelt home at Sagamore Hill Nassau County is a suburban county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Broward County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... Monmouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey, within the New York metropolitan area. ... Westchester County is a primarily suburban county located in the U.S. state of New York with about 950,000 residents. ... Sullivan County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Bergen County is the most populous county of the state of New Jersey, United States. ... Montgomery County of the U.S. state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington, D.C. and Southwest of Baltimore. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Fulton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Middlesex County is a county located in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Camden County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Morris County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey, about 25 mi (40 km) west of New York City. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Oakland County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the city in California. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... Middlesex County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States. ... Norfolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Atlantic County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Philadelphia County is a county located in the U.S. State of Pennsylvania. ... Clark County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nevada. ... Miami-Dade County (formerly known as Dade County and many times referred to as simply Miami) is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. ... For other uses of Baltimore, see Baltimore (disambiguation). ... Pitkin County is a county in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Plymouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... St. ... Boulder County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Fairfield County is located in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Connecticut. ... For other uses, see Orange County (disambiguation). ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ... Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ... Alpine County is the smallest county, by population, in the U.S. state of California. ... Sarasota County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Howard County is a county located in the central part of the U.S. state of Maryland, between Baltimore and Washington, D.C.. It is considered part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. ... Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Map Political Statistics Founded 1752 County Independent city Mayor Dr. James W. Holley III Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 120. ... Somerset County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... West Baton Rouge Parish (French: Paroisse de Baton Rouge Ouest) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... Rockdale County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Bristol County is a county located in the state of Rhode Island. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of Idaho. ... Hartford County is located in the north central part of the U.S. state of Connecticut. ... New Haven County is located in the south central part of the state of Connecticut. ... Bergen and Passaic counties, 1872 Passaic County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... San Mateo County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1809 Seat Schenectady Area  - Total  - Water 543 km² (210 mi²) 9 km² (4 mi²) 1. ... Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the states beautiful Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Santa Clara County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Location in the state of New Jersey Formed 1694 Seat Mount Holly Area  - Total  - Water 2,122 km² (819 mi²) 38 km² (15 mi²) 1. ... Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the state of Massachusetts. ... Berkshire County is a county located in on the western edge of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Delaware County (also known colloquially as Delco) is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Monroe County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ... Multnomah County (IPA: ) is one of 36 counties in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... Hennepin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Minnesota, named in honor of the 17th-century French explorer Father Louis Hennepin. ... The County of Sussex (also known as Sussex County) is the northernmost county in the State of New Jersey. ... Pittsburgh skyline The Allegheny County Courthouse Allegheny County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Fayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Hamilton County is a county in the located in the southwest corner of the state of Ohio, United States. ... Johnson County (standard abbreviation: JO) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... {{Infobox U.S. CoiirjhtfnEGEYWnfv state = New Jersey | seal = Mc-m f seal. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Ozaukee County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ... Pinellas County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Not to be confused with Prince George County, Virginia. ... Worcester County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... San Diego County is a county located on the Pacific Ocean in the far southwest of the U.S. state of California, United States along its border with Mexico. ... New Castle County is the northern-most county of the three counties in the state of Delaware. ... Pima County is located in the south central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. ... Official website: http://www. ... Chester County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Contra Costa County is a suburban county in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Cumberland County is a county located in the state of Maine. ... Hampden County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ... Ocean County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, just south of the San Francisco Bay Area, it forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. ... Bristol County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Washtenaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

Major Jewish-American communities

(Alphabetically by state and region)

California
Northern California Berkeley · Marin County · Oakland · Pleasanton · San Francisco · Santa Clara County · Walnut Creek
Southern California Agoura Hills · Bel Air · Beverly Hills · Brentwood, Los Angeles · Burbank · Calabasas · Coachella Valley · Fairfax District, Los Angeles · Glendale · Irvine · Lake Forest · Newport Beach · Palm Springs · Pasadena · San Diego · San Fernando Valley (west and south) · Santa Monica · Sun City · Tarzana · Thousand Oaks · Ventura County · West Hollywood · Westlake Village · West Los Angeles
Colorado
Denver
Connecticut
Hamden · Stamford · West Hartford · Westport · Woodbridge
Florida
Central Florida Ormond Beach
South Florida Aventura · Bradenton · Boca Raton · Boynton Beach · Delray Beach · Fort Lauderdale · Golden Beach · Lake Worth · Miami Beach · Miami · Sarasota · Sunny Isles Beach · West Palm Beach
Georgia
Atlanta
Louisiana
New Orleans Uptown
Illinois
Arlington Heights · Buffalo Grove · Chicago (Gold Coast · Hyde Park · West Rogers Park) · Deerfield · Des Plaines ·  · Highland Park · Glencoe · Lincolnwood · Long Grove · Morton Grove · Northbrook · Skokie ·
Maryland · District of Columbia
Baltimore · Owings Mills · Pikesville · Reisterstown · Aspen Hill · Bethesda · Chevy Chase · Gaithersburg · Kemp Mill · Kensington · Olney · Potomac · Rockville · Silver Spring · Takoma Park · Washington, D.C. · Wheaton · White Oak
Massachusetts
Boston · Brighton · Brookline · Lexington · Marblehead · Newton · Sharon · Sudbury · Wayland
Michigan
Ann Arbor · Detroit (Bloomfield Hills · Bloomfield Township · West Bloomfield · Farmington Hills · Huntington Woods · Oak Park · Southfield)
Minnesota
Minneapolis (St. Louis Park · Minnetonka) · St. Paul
Missouri
St. Louis (University City · Clayton · Ladue)
New Jersey[27]
Cherry Hill · East Brunswick · Edison · Elizabeth · Englewood · Fair Lawn · Highland Park · Lakewood · Livingston · Manalapan Township · Marlboro Township · Millburn · Morristown · Newark · South Orange · West Orange · Passaic · Short Hills · Springfield · Teaneck · Tenafly · Wayne · Woodcliff Lake · Englewood Cliffs · Paramus · Fort Lee · Westfield
New York
Long Island[27] Baldwin · Bellmore · Dix Hills · East Hampton · "Five Towns" · Great Neck · Huntington · Jericho · Merrick · Massapequa · Oceanside · Old Bethpage · Plainview · Roslyn · Port Washington · Syosset  · West Hempstead
New York City[27] Brooklyn Bensonhurst · Borough Park · Brighton Beach · Brooklyn Heights · Coney Island · Crown Heights · Dyker Heights · Midwood · Prospect-Lefferts Gardens · Prospect Heights · Sheepshead Bay · Williamsburg
Bronx Castle Hill · City Island · Co-op City · Norwood · Pelham Gardens · Pelham Parkway · Riverdale · Van Cortlandt Park · Woodlawn
Queens Forest Hills · Kew Gardens · Little Neck · Fresh Meadows · Rego Park
Manhattan Lower East Side · Inwood · Midtown · Upper West Side, Manhattan
Staten Island Willowbrook · New Springville
Orange County Kiryas Joel
Rockland County Kaser · Monsey · Montebello · New City · New Square · Spring Valley · Suffern · Viola · Wesley Hills
Westchester County[27] Chappaqua · Harrison · Hartsdale · Irvington · Larchmont · Mamaroneck · New Rochelle · Rye · Scarsdale · White Plains
North Carolina
Cary · Charlotte · Gastonia · Greensboro · Raleigh
Ohio
Cincinnati Amberley · Blue Ash · Reading
Cleveland Beachwood · Cleveland Heights · Lyndhurst · Moreland Hills · Orange · Pepper Pike · Shaker Heights · Solon · South Euclid · University Heights
Columbus Bexley
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia Cheltenham Township (Elkins Park) · Overbrook · Lower Merion Township (Bala Cynwyd · Gladwyne · Merion · Wynnewood) · Narberth · Oxford Circle · Rhawnhurst · Bustleton · Richboro · Spring House · Upper Dublin Township (Abington Township · Dresher · Fort Washington) · West Chester
Pittsburgh Squirrel Hill
Texas
Dallas North Dallas (Preston Hollow, Devonshire, Melshire Estates, Bluff View, Greenway Parks, Turtle Creek, Bent Tree, Far North Dallas) · Plano
Houston Meyerland · Memorial · Maplewood · Braeburn · Inwood Forest · Addicks · Cypress · Jersey Village · Piney Point Village · Bunker Hill Village · Hedwig Village · Hilshire Village · Hunters Creek Village · West University Place · Sugar Land · Champions Forest · The Woodlands · Klein ·
Virginia
Alexandria · Fairfax · Falls Church
Washington
Bellevue · Mercer Island · Seattle  · Seward Park
Wisconsin
Bayside · Glendale · Fox Point · Mequon · Whitefish Bay (All in metro Milwaukee)

This article is about the U.S. state. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Location of Pleasanton within Alameda County, California. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Santa Clara County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Walnut Creek is a suburban community located several miles east of the city of Oakland in Contra Costa County, California, United States. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... For the unincorporated community, see Agoura, California. ... Bel-Air is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... Beverly Hills redirects here. ... This article is about the neighborhood in Los Angeles. ... For the community in Santa Clara County, California, see Burbank, Santa Clara County, California. ... Location of Calabasas in California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1991-04-05[2] Government  - Mayor James Bozajian[1] Area  - City  13. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fairfax District is an area of neighborhoods in the City of Los Angeles, California, that is roughly bordered by West Hollywood on the north, La Brea Avenue on the east, West Hollywood and Beverly Hills on the west and Wilshire Boulevard on the south. ... Nickname: Location of Glendale within Los Angeles County and the State of California. ... Motto: Innovation. ... Location of Lake Forest within Orange County, California. ... Newport Harbor redirects here. ... Palm Springs is a desert city in Riverside County, California approximately 110 miles (177 km) east of Los Angeles and 140 miles (225 km) northeast of San Diego. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... San Diego redirects here. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Sun City is a census-designated place (CDP) in Riverside County, California, United States. ... Tarzana is a community in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. ... Location in Ventura County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Ventura Settled 1875 Incorporated September 29, 1964 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Andrew P. Fox  - City manager Scott Mitnick Area [1]  - Total 55. ... Ventura County . ... Nickname: WeHo Location of Los Angeles County in California and West Hollywood within Los Angeles County Country United States State California County Los Angeles Incorporated 1984  - City Council John Heilman (mayor) Sal Guarriello John J. Duran Abbe Land Jeffrey Prang Area    - City  1. ... Location of Westlake Village in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1981-12-11 [2] Government  - Mayor Susan McSweeney [1] Area  - City  5. ... West Los Angeles (West L.A. in the short form) or the Westside is generally considered to be the portion of Los Angeles, California and its suburbs that lies east of the Pacific Ocean, west of La Cienega Boulevard (or, occasionally, Fairfax or even La Brea Avenue), south of the... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ... Motto: Where City Style meets Village Charm Coordinates: , NECTA Region Incorporated 1854 Government  - Type Council-manager  - Town manager James Francis   - Town council Scott Slifka, Mayor Art Spada, Deputy Mayor Shari Cantor Barbara Carpenter Charles Coursey Maureen K. McClay Mark C. Sinatro Carolyn Thornberry Joseph Verrengia Area  - Total 58. ... Location in Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region South Western Region Incorporated 1835 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - First selectman Gordon F. Joseloff  - Town meeting moderator Alice H. Shelton Area  - City 86. ... Woodbridge is a town located in New Haven County, Connecticut. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Central Florida is the central region of the United States state of Florida, on the East Coast. ... Ormond Beach is a city located in Volusia County, Florida. ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida. ... Bradenton is a city in Manatee County, Florida, United States. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ... Boynton Beach is a city in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. ... The Delray School, built in 1913, now houses the Cornell Museum, part of Old School Square in Delray Beach. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Broward Established 27 March 1911 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Jim Naugle Area [1]  - City 36. ... Golden Beach is a town located in the northeast corner of Miami-Dade County, Florida, between the Intracoastal Waterway and Atlantic Ocean. ... Location of Lake Worth, in Palm Beach County, Florida Lake Worth is a city in Palm Beach County, Florida, named after a lake who takes its name from General William J. Worth, who led U.S. forces during the Second Seminole War. ... Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida. ... Miami redirects here. ... Cà dZan - a 1925 Sarasota residence that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places Sarasota is a city located in Sarasota County on the central west coast of Florida, USA. Its official limits include Sarasota Bay and several barrier islands between the bay and the Gulf of... Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Established 1997 Government  - Type Manager-Commission  - Mayor Norman S. Edelcup Area  - Total 1. ... Nickname: Location in Palm Beach County and the state of Florida. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Uptown is a large area of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Incorporated Village in 1836. ... Incorporated Village in 1958. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The Near North Side is the part of Chicago, Illinois just north of the downtown central business district (the Loop). ... This article is about the Chicago community area. ... West Ridge or West Rogers Park is a middle to upper middle class neighborhood located on the far north side of Chicago, Illinois. ... Incorporated Village in 1903. ... Incorporated City in 1925. ... Incorporated City in 1869. ... Incorporated Village in 1869. ... Incorporated Village in 1922. ... Incorporated Village in 1956. ... Morton Grove is a village located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Incorporated Village in 1901. ... For the film of the same name, see Skokie (Movie). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Owings Mills is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. ... The Pikes Theater, one of Pikesvilles historic landmarks. ... Reisterstown is a census-designated place located in Baltimore County, Maryland. ... Aspen Hill is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place (CDP) in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Location in the State of Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Founded 1802 Incorporated April 5, 1878 Government  - Mayor Sidney A. Katz Area  - City 10. ... Kemp Mill is a census-designated place and an unincorporated census area located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Kensington is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. ... Olney is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area of Montgomery County, Maryland, located in the north central part of the state, twenty miles north of Washington, D.C. It was largely agricultural until the 1960s, when growth of the Washington suburbs led to its conversion into a mostly... Potomac is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. ... Location in the State of Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Founded 1717 Incorporated 1860 Government  - Mayor Larry Giammo Area  - Total 13. ... Not to be confused with Silver Springs. ... Location Location in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Maryland Montgomery Founded Incorporated 1883 1890 Mayor Kathryn H. Porter Geographical characteristics Area     City 5. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Wheaton is an unincorporated but urbanized area in Montgomery County, Maryland, USA, north of Washington, D.C., northwest of Silver Spring. ... White Oak is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Boston redirects here. ... Brighton is a section of the City of Boston in the US Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 6. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ... Motto: A nice place to live, because it’s naturally beautiful. ... Sudbury is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Wayland is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Bloomfield Hills is a city in Oakland County of the U.S. state of Michigan, 25. ... Bloomfield Township is the name of some places in the U.S. state of Michigan: Bloomfield Township, Huron County, Michigan Bloomfield Township, Missaukee County, Michigan Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, Michigan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... West Bloomfield Township is a charter township in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Farmington Hills is the most populous city in Oakland County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Oak Park is a city in Oakland County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Southfield is a city in Oakland County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Location in Hennepin County Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin County Founded 1852 Incorporated November 19, 1886 Government  - Mayor Jeff Jacobs (DFL) Area  - City  10. ... Location in Hennepin County Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin County Founded 1850s Incorporated 1956  - Mayor Jan Callison Area    - City  28. ... State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... University City is a city located in St. ... Clayton is the county seat of St. ... Ladue is a city in west St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cherry Hill highlighted in Camden County Cherry Hill Township is a township located in Camden County, New Jersey. ... East Brunswick is an suburban township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Map of Edison Township in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1651 Incorporated March 17, 1870 (as Raritan Township) Government  - Type Faulkner Act Mayor-Council  - Mayor Jun Choi Area  - Township  30. ... Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... Map highlighting Englewoods location within Bergen County. ... Fair Lawn is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... Highland Park is a Borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Lakewood is a census-designated place located in Ocean County, New Jersey. ... Livingston is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Manalapan Township is a Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ... Marlboro is a Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. ... Millburn is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Nickname: Location of Morris County in New Jersey; Inset: Location of Morristown in Morris County Coordinates: , Country State County Morris Founded 1715 Incorporated April 6, 1865 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Donald Cresitello (D; term ends December 31, 2009. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Map of South Orange Village in Essex County South Orange is a village in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... “Passaic” redirects here. ... Short Hills is an unincorporated area located within the township of Millburn, in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Map of Springfield Township in Union County Springfield Township is a township in Union County, New Jersey, United States. ... Teaneck (pronounced ) is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, and is a suburb of New York City. ... Tenafly (pronounced ) is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... Wayne is a township in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States, located less than 20 miles from midtown Manhattan. ... Map highlighting Woodcliff Lakes location within Bergen County. ... Map highlighting Englewood Cliffs location within Bergen County. ... Paramus (IPA: ) is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... The George Washington Bridge, viewed from Fort Lee, across the Hudson River towards Manhattan Fort Lee is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... Westfield is a town in Union County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Baldwin is the name of some places in the U.S. state of New York: Baldwin, Chemung County, New York (town) Baldwin, Nassau County, New York (community in Hempstead (town), New York) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Bellmore is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in Nassau County, New York. ... Located in western Suffolk County, New York, on Long Island, Dix Hills is a hamlet (and census-designated place). ... East Hampton is a town located in Suffolk County, New York. ... The Five Towns is an informal grouping of villages and hamlets in Nassau County, New York, United States on the South Shore of western Long Island adjoining the border with Queens County in New York City. ... Great Neck is a village in Nassau County, New York, in the USA, on the North Shore of Long Island. ... For the hamlet within the Town of Huntington, see Huntington (CDP), New York. ... Jericho is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ... Merrick is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the CDP population was 22,764. ... Massapequa is a hamlet (and a census-designated place) located in Nassau County, New York. ... Oceanside is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in the south part of the Town of Hempstead, Nassau County, New York. ... Old Bethpage is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York, USA. The population was 5,400 at the 2000 census. ... Plainview is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York, USA. The population was 25,637 at the 2000 census. ... Roslyn (/ROHZ-lin/) is a village in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ... Port Washington is a hamlet and Census Designated Place in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ... Syosset is a hamlet (and a census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, within the Town of Oyster Bay. ... West Hempstead is a suburban community (and census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... Bensonhurst Embankment is a common walkway in Bensonhurst Bensonhurst is a neighborhood located in the south-central part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Borough Park Street covered with snow. ... Brighton Beach is a community on Coney Island in the borough of Brooklyn, New York City. ... Expensive real estate: Brooklyn Heights in the snow taken from the Promenade, 2003 Brooklyn Heights is a neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn; originally designated through popular reference as Brooklyn Village, it has, since 1834, become a prevalent area of the Brooklyn borough. ... Image of Coney Island, located in the middle left of the picture, taken by NASA. The peninsula to the right is Rockaway, Queens. ... Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Dyker Heights is a neighborhood in southwestern Brooklyn, New York, USA. It is sandwiched between Bay Ridge, Bensonhurst on Gravesend Bay(Lower New York Bay). ... Residential building cluster in Midwood Midwood is a neighborhood in the south central part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, New York, USA, roughly halfway between Prospect Park and Coney Island. ... Prospect-Lefferts Gardens is the name given to a neighborhood in Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... Prospect Heights is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bounded by Flatbush Avenue to the west, Atlantic Avenue to the north, Eastern Parkway to the south, and, traditionally, Washington Avenue to the east,[1] though some people believe the eastern boundary is Bedford Avenue. ... Sheepshead Bay is a bay separating the mainland of Brooklyn, New York City from the eastern portion of Coney Island, the latter originally a barrier island but now effectively an extension of the mainland with peninsulas both east and west. ... Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint, Bed-Stuy, and Bushwick. ... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... Castle Hill is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of The Bronx. ... City Island is a small island approximately 1. ... Co-op City is the largest cooperative housing development in the world. ... Norwood is a neighborhood in the Bronx in New York City, one of the few in the city (or any city, for that matter) whose boundaries are extremely obvious. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pelham Parkway is a neighborhood located in The Bronxs central portion. ... Riverdale Riverdale (population approximately 45,000, according to the 2000 U.S. Census) is a middle- and upper-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. ... Van Cortlandt Park is a large urban park in the Bronx, NY. It has an area of 1,146 acres (4. ... Woodlawn Woodlawn (population 7,741) is a neighborhood in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Austin Street, the main shopping area in Forest Hills, Queens, New York. ... Kew Gardens is a neighborhood in central Queens bounded to the north and east by the Jackie Robinson Parkway (formerly Interborough Parkway), the Van Wyck Expressway, and Queens Boulevard, also to the east by 127th Street, to the south by 85th Avenue, and to the west by Babbage Street and... Little Neck is a community in Queens, New York. ... Fresh Meadows is a primarily residential neighborhood in northeastern portion of the borough of Queens in New York City, which is bordered to the east by Francis Lewis Boulevard and Cunningham Park, to the south by Union Turnpike, to the north by Kissena Park, and to the west by parts... Rego Park is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Queens. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... L.E.S. redirects here. ... Broadway and Dyckman Street intersection in Inwood. ... View of Midtown from Empire State Building. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Springville is a neighborhood in Staten Island, New York. ... For other uses, see Orange County (disambiguation). ... Kiryas Joel (New York) Kiryas Joel (or Kiryas Yoel or Kiryat Joel or KJ) (Hebrew: קרית יואל, Town of Joel) is a village within the Town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States. ... The Tappan Zee Bridge, in a view looking toward Rockland. ... Kaser is a village located in Rockland County, New York. ... Monsey is a hamlet (and also a census-designated place) located in Rockland County, New York. ... Montebello is a village in Rockland County, New York, United States. ... New City is a hamlet (and also a census-designated place) in Rockland County, New York, USA. The population was 34,038 at the 2000 census. ... New Square (Hebrew: שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the Town of Ramapo in Rockland County, New York. ... Spring Valley is a village located in Rockland County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 25,464. ... The Village of Suffern, New York, viewed from the top of Nordkop Mountain Suffern is a village in Rockland County, New York, USA near the southern border of the county and the state in the Town of Ramapo. ... Viola is a hamlet (and a census-designated place) located in Rockland County, New York. ... Wesley Hills is a village located in Rockland County, New York. ... Westchester County is a primarily suburban county located in the U.S. state of New York with about 950,000 residents. ... This article is about the hamlet; for the film, see Chappaqua (film). ... Harrison is a town/village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... Hartsdale is an unincorporated census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York. ... Irvington is a village in Westchester County, New York, USA. The population was 6,631 at the 2000 census. ... emblem, Village of Larchmont Larchmont is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. ... Mamaroneck, New York may refer to two places in New York: The Town of Mamaroneck, a town in Westchester County The Village of Mamaroneck, a village partially within the town This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with... Rye, New York is the name of two places in Westchester County, New York. ... Scarsdale redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see White Plains (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... Gastonia is a city in Gaston County in North Carolina, a state in the southeastern United States. ... Greensboro redirects here. ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Amberley is a village located in Hamilton County, Ohio. ... Blue Ash is a city located in Hamilton County, Ohio. ... Reading is a city located in Hamilton County, Ohio. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Beachwood is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Cleveland Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Lyndhurst is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Moreland Hills is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... Orange is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... Penis Pike is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Solon Fine Arts Center Solon City Hall Solon is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and is a suburb of Cleveland in the Northeast Ohio Region, the 14th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States. ... South Euclid (a suburb in the Greater Cleveland area) is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... University Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... Bexley is a city in Franklin County, Ohio, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Cheltenham Township is a township near Philadelphia in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Elkins Park is an unincorporated community, portions of which are located in both Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania and Abington Township, Pennsylvania in the suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Overbrook is a neighborhood in the West Philadelphia section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Lower Merion Township is a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania and part of the Pennsylvania Main Line. ... Bala Cynwyd is a village in Lower Merion Township which is located in the Main Line in southeastern Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. ... Gladwyne is a suburban community in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Merion is a community in Pennsylvania state of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Narberth is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The intersection of Rhawn Street and Castor Avenue in Rhawnhurst Rhawnhurst is a residential neighborhood in the Northeast section of Philadelphia, named for George and William Rhawn by area real estate developers. ... The Bustleton section of Northeast Philadelphia is located in the Far Northeast, north of Rhawnhurst and south of Somerton; sitting between Roosevelt Boulevard and the city boundary to the west, it is centered at the intersection of Grant Avenue and Bustleton Avenue. ... Richboro is a census-designated place located in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. ... Spring House is a census-designated place located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Upper Dublin Township is an upper middle class township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Abington Township is a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Dresher is a community located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, USA. As of the 2000 census, the community had a total population of 5,610. ... Hillside houses in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania Fort Washington is an unincorporated census-designated place and suburb of Philadelphia in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Murray Avenue in Squirrel Hill (2005) Squirrel Hill is a large residential neighborhood in the east end of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. As of the census of 2000, there were 26,425 people, 12,030 households, and 6,325 families residing in the 15217 ZIP code, which covers approximately the same... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Dallas redirects here. ... North Dallas is a group of neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas, USA. It can also include three island cities of Dallas. ... Preston Hollow is an established prestigious neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Devonshire is a neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas (USA), bounded by the Dallas North Tollway on the east, Lovers Lane on the south, Inwood Road on the west, and Northwest Highway ( SH Loop 12) on the north. ... Melshire Estates is a neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Bluff View is a neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Greenway Parks is a neighborhood in north Dallas, Texas (USA), bounded by the Dallas North Tollway on the east, Mockingbird Lane on the south, Inwood Road on the west, and University Boulevard on the north. ... Turtle Creek is the name of a name of a neighborhood in Dallas, Texas. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Texas Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Pat Evans Area  - City 185. ... Houston redirects here. ... A sign indicating Meyerland Meyerland Plaza The Meyer Library of the Houston Public Library system Meyerland is a 6000-acre community in southwest Houston, Texas, outside of the 610 Loop and inside Beltway 8. ... The Memorial area of Houston, Texas is a wealthy distict west of the Galleria. ... Maplewood Maplewood is a community in Houston, Texas. ... Braeburn is a group of subdivisions in southwest Houston, Texas along Brays Bayou west of Hillcroft Avenue and south of the Sharpstown community. ... Inwood Forest is a community of 1,200 homes in near-northwest Houston, Texas. ... Addicks is an area of Houston that was formerly its own community. ... Cypress is an unincorporated area of Harris County, Texas located completely inside the extraterritorial jurisdiction of the City of Houston. ... Jersey Village is a city located in Harris County, Texas. ... A sign at the city limits Piney Point Village is a city in Harris County, Texas. ... Bunker Hill Village is a city located in Harris County, Texas. ... Hedwig Village is a city located in Harris County, Texas. ... Hilshire Village is a city in Harris County, Texas, United States. ... Hunters Creek Village is a city located in Harris County, Texas. ... A sculpture with the logo of the city of West University Place An electronic sign in the center of West University Place West University Place, often called West University or West U for short, is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land... Sugar Land is a city located along the Gulf Coast region in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. ... Champions Forest is a neighborhood in suburban northwest Houston, Texas. ... The Woodlands is a census-designated place located in Montgomery County, Texas. ... Klein is the Dutch and German word for small, which came to be used as a family name, and thence passed into the names of places, concepts and discoveries associated with bearers of this surname. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Government  - Mayor Robert Lederer Area  - City  6. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1875 Government  - Mayor Robin Gardner Area  - City  2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Location of Bellevue within King County, Washington, and King County within Washington. ... Mercer Island is a city in King County, Washington, U.S. The population was 22,036 at the 2000 census. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Seward Park is a 300 acre (1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Bayside (zip code 53217) is a village located in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. ... Glendale is a city in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Fox Point is a village in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Mequon is a city located in Ozaukee County, Wisconsin. ... Whitefish Bay is a village in Milwaukee County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Mark R. Levy and Michael S. Kramer, The Ethnic Factor (1973) p. 103
  2. ^ 2006 exit polls at [1] They were 74% for John Kerry, a Catholic, in 2004.[2]
  3. ^ See Ynet News at [3]
  4. ^ See Ynet News at [4]
  5. ^ Staub (2004) p.90
  6. ^ Staub (2004)
  7. ^ Staub (2004) p.80
  8. ^ Staub (2004)
  9. ^ Roberta Strauss Feuerlicht. “The Fate of the Jews, A people torn between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics”. Times Books, 1983. ISBN 0812910605
  10. ^ ARIS Key Findings at http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm
  11. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel. Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  12. ^ Brandeis University Study Finds that American-Jewish Population is Significantly Larger than Previously Thought - Press Release
  13. ^ Postrel, Virginia (May 1993). "Uncommon Culture". Reason Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-10-05. 
  14. ^ ARIS 2001
  15. ^ a b Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman, Two Lucky People: Memoirs (1998) p. 58 online
  16. ^ Morton Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. (2001), pp 75, 82, 97, 212, 472.
  17. ^ Hillel's Top 10 Jewish Schools
  18. ^ Hillel's Top 10 Jewish Schools
  19. ^ Brandeis University
  20. ^ Northwestern University
  21. ^ Washington University
  22. ^ Jewish Recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor
  23. ^ Mother Jones, the Changing Power Elite, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  24. ^ Manhattan
  25. ^ Brooklyn
  26. ^ Staten Island
  27. ^ a b c d New Jersey, New York City, Long Island and Westchester County each have large Jewish communities, but the areas listed within and without have the highest concentrations.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ...

Bibliography

  • Antler, Joyce., ed. Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture. 1998.
  • Cohen, Naomi. Jews in Christian America: The Pursuit of Religious Equality. 1992.
  • Cutler, Irving. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb. 1995
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004) online
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard. Antisemitism in America. 1994.
  • Dollinger, Marc. Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America. 2000.
  • Eisen, Arnold M. The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology. 1983.
  • Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2nd ed., 1989.
  • Goren, Arthur. The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews. 1999.
  • Gurock, Jeffrey S. From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America. Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998.
  • Hyman, Paula, and Deborah Dash Moore, eds. Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 1997
  • Lederhendler, Eli. New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970. 2001
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A. 1994
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation (2006)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. 1999.
  • Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp.
  • Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-10197-X 512pp
  • Shapiro, Edward S. A Time for Healing: American Jewry since World War II. Jewish People in America, vol. 5. 1992.
  • Sorin, Gerald. Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America. 1997.
  • Staub, Michael E. ed. The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. ISBN 1-58465-417-1 online review
  • Svonkin, Stuart. Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties. 1997
  • Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don't Know about the Judaism of America's Jews." Contemporary Jewry (2002) 23: 72-95. Issn: 0147-1694 Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973-2002.
  • Wertheimer, Jack, ed. The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed. 1987.
  • Whitfield, Stephen J. In Search of American Jewish Culture. 1999

External links

  • American Jewish Historical Society
  • Short article on the archaeology of immigrant California Jews see Chapter 3.
  • Resources > Jewish communities > America > Northern America The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Feinstein Center. Comprehensive collection of links to Jewish American history, organizations, and issues.
  • United Jewish Communities of North America. Also site of population survey statistics.
  • Jews in America from the Jewish Virtual Library.
  • Jewish-American Literature
  • Thoughts About The Jewish People By American Thinkers
  • Jewish-American History on the Web
  • Jewish American Hall of Fame
  • The Jewish Impact on America
  • Jewish Success In The American Media
  • 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey
  • 2005 Great Boston Jewish Community Study


American Jews


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"Religion and the Public Square: Attitudes of American Jews in Comparative Perspective - Part One" by Steven M. Cohen (4247 words)
Jews, in particular, were concerned that the schools not be used to indoctrinate their children in the culture and tenets of Christianity, or that their children be made to feel unwelcome or unequal in a predominantly Christian environment.
Second, Jews' support for separationism is also connected with their liberal worldview and identification with the liberal camp, a segment of the American political spectrum highly supportive of separationism.
Jews in the United States have been liberal in part because of their minority status concerns and because of the friendliness of Democrats and liberals to Jews and Jewish inclusion.
A Portrait of American Jews (1431 words)
Jews are more likely than members of any other American ethnic group to purchase a hardcover book or attend a live musical performance in the coming year, but they're much less likely to buy a car, truck, recreational vehicle or major home appliance.
Jews are overwhelmingly pro-choice, with 61 percent saying the decision should always be left to the mother.
Jews are also the most supportive of letting the federal government set education policy, the most supportive of campaign donation limits and the least supportive of increasing the military budget.
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