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Encyclopedia > American Graffiti
American Graffiti
Directed by George Lucas
Produced by Francis Ford Coppola
Gary Kurtz
Written by George Lucas
Gloria Katz
Willard Huyck
Starring Richard Dreyfuss
Ron Howard
Paul Le Mat
Charles Martin Smith
Cindy Williams
Candy Clark
Mackenzie Phillips
Harrison Ford
Cinematography Jan D'Alquen
Ron Eveslage
Editing by George Lucas (uncredited)
Verna Fields
Marcia Lucas
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) August 1, 1973
Running time 112 min.
Country Flag of the United States United States
Language English
Budget $1,250,000[1]
Gross revenue $115,000,000 (domestic)
Followed by More American Graffiti
Official website
Allmovie profile
IMDb profile

American Graffiti is a 1973 period coming of age comedy-drama film directed by George Lucas, and written by Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck. The film includes a mostly young and unknown cast of Richard Dreyfuss, Ron Howard, Paul Le Mat, Charles Martin Smith, Cindy Williams, Candy Clark, Mackenzie Phillips, Harrison Ford, Kathleen Quinlan and Suzanne Somers. American Graffiti is set in 1962 Modesto, California, and tells the exploits of a group of teenagers and their adventures within one night of driving around town, while listening to pirate radio personality Wolfman Jack (who cameos as himself). Though the movie American Graffiti is well known for launching the careers of director George Lucas and actors Ron Howard, Richard Dreyfuss, Suzanne Somers and Harrison Ford, the movie stands out for its ability to accurately reflect the music of the period in which it is set. ... Image File history File links American_graffiti_ver1. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Gary Kurtz (born July 27, 1940 in Los Angeles, California) was the producer on Star Wars and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. ... Gloria Katz is a friend of George Lucas,who along with her husband Willard Huyck has worked on several movie screenplays. ... Willard Huyck is a friend of George Lucas,who along with his wife Gloria Katz has worked on several film screenplays. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... Charles Martin Smith (born October 30, 1953) is an American film actor and director. ... Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ... Candace June Clark (born June 20, 1947) is an Oscar-nominated American film and television actress. ... Mackenzie Phillips, as Julie Cooper on One Day at a Time. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... Verna Fields (21 March 1918 - 30 November 1982) was an American film editor and executive. ... Marcia Lucas (née Griffin) was married to George Lucas between 1969 and 1983. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... More American Graffiti (1979) is the follow-up film to George Lucass hit film American Graffiti (1973). ... // Events The Marx Brothers Zeppo Marx divorces his second wife, Barbara Blakely. ... In the performing arts, a period piece is a work set in a particular era. ... For other uses, see Coming of Age (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Gloria Katz is a friend of George Lucas,who along with her husband Willard Huyck has worked on several movie screenplays. ... Willard Huyck is a friend of George Lucas,who along with his wife Gloria Katz has worked on several film screenplays. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... Charles Martin Smith (born October 30, 1953) is an American film actor and director. ... Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ... Candace June Clark (born June 20, 1947) is an Oscar-nominated American film and television actress. ... Mackenzie Phillips, as Julie Cooper on One Day at a Time. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... Kathleen Denise Quinlan (born November 19, 1954) is an Oscar nominated American actress, mostly seen on television and in motion pictures. ... Suzanne Somers (born October 16, 1946) is an American actress, author, and businesswoman. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ... a Radio Personality is the modern incarnation of the disk jockey, or DJ. In the 1990s, successful radio stations began to focus less on the musical expertise of their hosts and more on the individual hosts personalities. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ...


Development phase for the film started shortly after the release of Lucas's THX 1138. Lucas was also developing an "untitled science fiction space opera" at the same time (later becoming the basis for Star Wars). The film was originally supposed to be funded by United Artists, but after creative differences, Lucas was able to find friendly operations at Universal Pictures. Filming started at San Rafael, California, but the production was kicked out of the town and the majority of the film was shot in Petaluma. Although Universal had little interferences during filming, they did object to the film's title of American Graffiti, wishing Lucas to change it to Another Slow Night in Modesto. Lucas brought in fellow friend Haskell Wexler as a "visual consultant" to solve problems with lighting and cinematography. THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... This article is about the film studio. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... San Rafael (IPA: ; originally IPA: ), is the county seat of Marin County, California, United States. ... Aerial view of Petaluma, California. ... Haskell Wexler (born February 6, 1922 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award-winning American cinematographer, and a film producer and director. ...


The editing process of the film was a strenuous path, with the first cut being roughly 210 minutes long, and the final cut was released at 112 minutes (to this day the other 100 minutes of footage remains unknown). American Graffiti received positive reviews and was a unanimous box office success (recouping 92 times its budget with its North American financial take). The film was nominated for five different categories at the 46th Academy Awards, and in 1995, American Graffiti was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress, being put for preservation in the National Film Registry. The 46th Academy Awards were presented April 2, 1974 at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is one of four official national libraries of the United States (along with the National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library, and National Archives and Records Administration). ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ...

Contents

Plot

The film is set in a series of vignettes of the four main characters. A radio tunes in to a rock and roll station as the sun sets over Mel's Drive-In. Terry "The Toad" Fields (Charles Martin Smith), Steve Bolander (Ron Howard), Curt Henderson (Richard Dreyfuss) and John Milner (Paul Le Mat) meet in the parking lot. Steve and Curt are preparing to leave town to attend college on the East Coast, and this is the last night they will spend with their friends. Despite being given a scholarship by the local Moose Lodge, Curt is somewhat reluctant to head off for the unknown, but Steve is eager to get out of Modesto. His girlfriend Laurie (Cindy Williams), who is also Curt's year-younger sister, is unsure of him leaving, to which he suggests they see other people while he is away to "strengthen" their relationship. In theatre and script writing, these are a short, impressionistic, scenes that focus on one moment or gives one impression about a character, an idea or a setting. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Mels Drive-In in Hollywood, California. ... Charles Martin Smith (born October 30, 1953) is an American film actor and director. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... East Coast can refer to: East Coast of the United States East Coast hip hop East Coast Park East-coast liberal East Coast Railway East Coast Akalat East Coast bias East Coast Music Awards East Coast Bays East Coast Main Line East Coast Greenway East Coast Parkway East Coast Swing... Moose International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit fraternal organization comprised of Loyal Order of Moose for men and Women of the Moose for women. ... Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ...


Steve and Curt are off to the freshman sock hop, but John goes off to cruise the streets with his yellow deuce coupe. Intent on leaving for college, Steve lets Terry have his '58 Chevy Impala. While cruising down 10th street, Curt sees a beautiful blonde in a white Thunderbird (cameoed by Suzanne Somers). She mouths "I love you" before disappearing. After leaving the hop, Curt is coerced into riding with a gang of greasers who call themselves "The Pharaohs". He learns that Wolfman Jack broadcasts from just outside of town, and inside the dark, eerie radio station he encounters a bearded man he assumes to be the manager. Curt hands the manager a message to the blond in the Thunderbird, but as he walks away, Curt hears the voice of Wolfman and looks behind only to realise he had been speaking to Wolfman Jack. Look up Sock Hop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Deuce Coupe is a 1932 Ford automobile, popular for conversion into a hot rod. ... 1968 Chevrolet Impala at the weekly Garden Grove, California car show on April 16, 2004. ... Look up thunderbird in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of the term, see Greaser This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ...

Wolfman Jack's secret is discovered

The other three story lines involve breakups and reunions, and their stories intertwine until Toad and Steve end up on "Paradise Road" to watch John race against Bob Falfa (Harrison Ford), with Laurie as a passenger. Within seconds, it is all over, Falfa's car apparently blows a tire and plunges into a ditch. Steve and John run over to the wreck, and a dazed Bob and Laurie stagger out before it explodes. Distraught, Laure grips Steve tightly and tells him not to leave her. He assures her that he has decided to remain in town with her for the time being. For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ...


The next morning, the sound of a phone ringing in a booth wakes Curt from his sleep. He grabs the receiver and speaks excitedly to the mysterious blonde. She tells him she might see him cruising tonight, though Curt replies saying that's not possible. At the airfield, Curt says goodbye to his parents, his sister, and his friends. While bidding farewell to Steve and Laurie, he asks his friend if he will join him, and Steve, who will take a gap year off, tells him that he will be in college next year. As the plane takes off, he gazes out of the window at the town and the life he is leaving behind only to see the white Thunderbird returning home after yet another meaningless night. A gap year (also known as a year out, year off, deferred year, bridging year, overseas experience, time off, or time out) is a term that refers to a prolonged period (often, but not always, a year) between two major life stages. ...


Cast

  • Richard Dreyfuss as Curt Henderson: He has been given a scholarship by the local Moose Lodge, though is unsure if he wants to go to college in the East or stay at a local junior college. He sees a beautiful blonde girl in a Ford Thunderbird smiling at him and mouthing "I love you". Throughout the night he is determined to find her, ensuing into a series of events such as helping "The Pharaohs" (a local greaser gang) with their activities and finding Wolfman Jack's secretive radio station. He ends up becoming a writer and resides in Canada, possibly as a draft dodger.
  • Ron Howard as Steve Bolander: Best friend of Curt and boyfriend to Curt's sister Laurie. Due to Steve's decision to go to with Curt at a university in the East, a series of arguments coincide with Laurie, and she eventually leaves him for Bob Falfa. After the events in the film, Steve becomes less adventurous and takes some time off from school. As depicted in More American Graffiti, he graduated from business school, married Laurie, and holds the profession of an insurance agent.
  • Paul Le Mat as John Milner: A tough teenager who holds the title as "the fastest on the strip" with his yellow deuce coupe. He accidentally picks up Carol, thinking of her to be closer to his age (when she is a few years younger) and is forced to "babysit" her throughout the night. In the end they become friends, while John races Falfa. John is killed by a drunk driver in December 1964.
  • Charles Martin Smith as Terry "The Toad" Fields: A short, bespectacled nerd who is unsuccessful with girls. Steve lets Toad borrow his car and in return, Toad is able to meet Debbie. Toad tries to fake his image by lying (calling himself "Terry the Tiger" and telling stories how he hunts bear). The car is eventually stolen, but later recovered by the help of John. He becomes missing in action in December 1965 near An Loc.
  • Cindy Williams as Laurie Henderson: She is madly in love with Steve, though Steve suggests they "see other people" (but not exactly ending their relationship) as Steve plans to go to an eastern college. The situation leads to Laurie leaving Steve for Bob Falfa. She eventually becomes married to Steve as shown in More American Graffiti.
  • Candy Clark as Debbie "Deb" Dunham: Somewhat wild and rebellious, she falls for Toad due to his "intelligence", thinking he's smart enough to get the two of them a bottle of "Old Harper".
  • Mackenzie Phillips as Carol: A young teenager, far younger than the other main characters, who is able to ride all night with John. Although they do not get along at first, in the end they become good friends.
  • Harrison Ford as Bob Falfa: A street racer who is roughly older than most teenagers he races. He sports a cowboy hat and often has a girl by his side in the passenger's seat. After an argument with Steve, Laurie decides to join him, and survives the crash at the end with John Milner. In More American Graffiti, Ford cameos in one scene as Falfa, who holds the profession as a police officer.
  • Bo Hopkins as Joe Young: The leader of "The Pharaohs" who pressures Curt into helping out with their more dubious activities. This includes stealing money from the local shop where Curt's father works and wrecking the back axle of Officer Holstein's police car. In the sequel More American Graffiti, he serves in the same unit with Toad (as they become friends) in the Vietnam War, but is killed during gunfire.
  • Jana Bellan as Budda: A local carhop at Mel's Drive-In whom Toad tries to personally impress (only to be embarrassed by John). She is romantically attracted to Steve.
  • Jim Bohan as Officer Holstein: The local police officer who hopes to "catch John in the act". The back axle of his police car is later wrecked by Curt and The Pharaohs.
  • Wolfman Jack in the small, but pivotal role of Himself: a popular pirate radio disc jockey. "The Wolfman", as he is called, broadcasts illegally, and the cops still have yet to find him. Curt finds his station, learning advice that will change Curt's decision to stay in Modesto, or go to an Eastern college.

The casting call and notices went through numerous local high school drama groups and community theaters. Over one hundred young unknown actors were considered for the role of Curt Henderson before Richard Dreyfuss won the part. Of all the characters in the script, Curt is the most personal towards George Lucas, as he himself finds some of the film autobiographical. Lucas stated, "I was Terry [the Toad], fumbling with girls. Then I became a drag racer like John [Milner]. And finally I became Curt [Henderson]."[2] John Milner was named after John Milius, a friend of Lucas's at USC School of Cinematic Arts, but the character was based on various "hot rod enthusiasts" Lucas had known in Modesto, California. Paul Le Mat was then a nineteen-year-old amateur boxing champion turned actor when he was cast.[3] Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Moose International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit fraternal organization comprised of Loyal Order of Moose for men and Women of the Moose for women. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... The Ford Thunderbird was a car manufactured in the United States by the Ford Motor Company. ... For other uses of the term, see Greaser This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... A Deuce Coupe is a 1932 Ford automobile, popular for conversion into a hot rod. ... Charles Martin Smith (born October 30, 1953) is an American film actor and director. ... For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation). ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... An Loc is a small town in South Vietnam, located approximately 90 km north of Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). ... Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ... Candace June Clark (born June 20, 1947) is an Oscar-nominated American film and television actress. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Mackenzie Phillips, as Julie Cooper on One Day at a Time. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... Bo Hopkins (born February 2, 1942 in Greenville, South Carolina) is an American actor. ... More American Graffiti (1979) is the follow-up film to George Lucass hit film American Graffiti (1973). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A carhop is a waiter or waitress (often) on rollerskates who brings food to people in their cars. ... Mels Drive-In in Hollywood, California. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... The USC School of Cinematic Arts, formerly named the School of Cinema-Television (CNTV), is a film school within the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. ...


Francis Ford Coppola encouraged Lucas to ask Wolfman Jack to portray himself. On the character, Lucas quoted, "He's a legend. The mythical character I was dealing with in terms of the fantasy of radio."[4] Jack quoted, "It was played as close as I could to what it really was. If anything, it was 98 percent real. George and I went through thousands of Wolfman Jack phone calls that were taped with the public. The telephone calls heard on the broadcasts in the motion picture and on the soundtrack were actual calls with real people."[4] Harrison Ford was then concentrating on becoming a carpenter when he met casting director Fred Roos, remodeling his home. Ford agreed to take the role on the condition that he would not have to cut his hair. A compromise was eventually reached whereby Ford wore a Stetson.[4] Kathleen Quinlan and Suzanne Somers, who were both unknown actresses at the time, have small roles. Quinlan plays Peg, a popular girl at the local high school, and Somers portrays the "Blonde in T-Bird", the girl Curt sees and searches for the rest of the night. Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... Fred Roos (May 22, 1934, Santa Monica, California) is a noted American film producer. ... The Stetson Cavalry Hat For the university, see Stetson University. ... Kathleen Denise Quinlan (born November 19, 1954) is an Oscar nominated American actress, mostly seen on television and in motion pictures. ... Suzanne Somers (born October 16, 1946) is an American actress, author, and businesswoman. ...


Production

Development

George Lucas had pitched American Graffiti unsuccessfully around various Hollywood film studios and production companies in 1971,[5] with a five-page story treatment[6] and less than $500 to his name.[7] Lucas personally felt "it was time to make a movie where people felt better coming out of the theater than when they went in".[8] Lucas was quickly turned down by 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures and American International Pictures.[9] Alan Trustman was intrigued by the idea and impressed with Lucas's work on THX 1138 (1971), offering Lucas the chance to direct Lady Ice (1973). Lucas turned down a salary of $150,000 and a large percentage of the profits of the box office gross, determined to pursue his own projects, one of them being an "untitled space opera produced in the style of Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers (1939)".[5] He originally hoped to direct a new version of Flash Gordon, and met with King Features for film licenses, though they wished for Federico Fellini to direct.[5] George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... The early AIP logo. ... Alan Trustman (born December 16, 1930, in Boston, Massachusetts, is an American screenwriter and author. ... THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... For other uses, see Flash Gordon (disambiguation). ... Buck Rogers (1939) is a Universal movie serial based on the Buck Rogers comic strip. ... Flash Gordon is a 1980 science fiction film, based on the eponymous comic strip character Flash Gordon. ... King Features Syndicate is a syndication company owned by The Hearst Corporation; it distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons, puzzles and games to thousands of newspapers around the world. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ...


THX 1138 was selected at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1971, where Lucas met David Picker, president of United Artists. The studio was intrigued with both American Graffiti and Lucas's untitled science fiction film, and Picker gave Lucas $10,000 to develop a script. Lucas contacted Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to write the script, but they were too busy with Messiah of Evil (1972), and Lucas found Richard Walter, a former colleague at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Walter was flattered, but instead tried to pitch a screenplay called Barry and the Persuasions, a story of East Coast teenagers in the late 1950s. Lucas held firm, his was a story about West Coast teenagers in the early 1960s. Lucas gave Walter the $10,000 to translate his story treatment into a script, but was dismayed when he returned and read the result, which he recalls was written in the style of a "Hot Rods to Hell exploitation film",[10] and too "overtly sexual".[7] The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Gloria Katz is a friend of George Lucas,who along with her husband Willard Huyck has worked on several movie screenplays. ... Willard Huyck is a friend of George Lucas,who along with his wife Gloria Katz has worked on several film screenplays. ... The USC School of Cinematic Arts, formerly named the School of Cinema-Television (CNTV), is a film school within the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... For the Transformers character, see Hot Rod (Transformers). ... Grindhouse redirects here. ...


Walter rewrote the script, but it soon became clear his ideas were out of sync with Lucas's intentions. After paying Walter, Lucas had exhausted his development fund, and he had to now write the script himself. Lucas wanted to show Picker a screenplay as soon as possible, writing his first draft in just three weeks. Drawing upon his large collection of vintage 45-rpm singles, Lucas wrote every scene with a specific musical backdrop in mind, while listening to the various record albums. American Graffiti would be the first film to feature such an extensive soundtrack of original rock and roll recordings.[10] A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


The cost of licensing the seventy-five songs Lucas wanted was a contributory factor in United Artist's rejection of the script, calling it "a musical montage with no characters".[11] They also passed on the science fiction idea, which Lucas temporarily shelved[11] (this would eventually become the birth of Star Wars).[12] Lucas spent the rest of 1971 and early 1972 trying to raise interest in his script for Graffiti. THX 1138 had brought him an unwelcome notoriety, and he was instead offered the chance to direct films such as Tommy (1975) and Hair (1979).[11] Columbia Pictures passed on Graffiti as they felt licensing the songs would be around $500,000[13] (the final cost only came to $80,000).[14] This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Roger Daltrey as Tommy Tommy was a 1975 musical film, based on The Whos 1969 rock opera concept album Tommy. ... Hair is a 1979 film based on the 1968 Broadway musical of the same name about a Vietnam war draftee who meets and befriends a tribe of long-haired hippies on his way to the army induction center. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ...

"Universal was [still] being run by Lew Wasserman. He had very eccentric tastes, and he made a lot of very, very commercial movies. They did all this low-budget stuff as well. The low-budget program at Universal was based on this concept that if they liked the script, and the elements were okay with them, they in effect wrote you a check and told you to go away and come back with a finished movie. They never bothered you at all."
— Producer Gary Kurtz on why Universal Pictures agreed to finance American Graffiti[11]

By the time the project was accepted at Universal Pictures, four drafts of the script had already been written.[11] The studio greenlighted the film after Francis Ford Coppola signed on as producer, feeling he was commercially famous after The Godfather (1972).[15] Universal's original budget was $600,000, a small sum, even for a film in the early 1970s. Lucas persuaded the studio for a $775,000 budget, which made Coppola reluctant enough to start raising money himself, though Coppola ultimately failed. In addition, Universal optioned off Star Wars (which they later dropped in 1973).[13] Lew Wasserman (March 15, 1913 - June 3, 2002) was a Hollywood agent and studio executive credited with first creating and then taking apart the studio system in a career spanning more than six decades. ... Gary Kurtz (born July 27, 1940 in Los Angeles, California) was the producer on Star Wars and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... The Godfather is a 1972 film adaptation of the novel of the same name, written by Mario Puzo, directed by Francis Ford Coppola and starring Marlon Brando and Al Pacino. ...


As Lucas continued to work on the script, he encountered difficulties with Steve Bolander (Ron Howard) and Laurie Henderson's (Cindy Williams) storyline. Nearly two years on from his original approach, he asked Katz and Huyck if they would work on the fifth draft, and specifically on the scenes featuring Steve and Laurie.[4] Katz and Huyck were heavily argued over the ending with Lucas. Katz and Huyck wanted to tell the fate of the girls, though Lucas felt that mentioning the girls meant adding another title card, which he felt would prolong the ending. Pauline Kael accused Lucas of chauvinism because of this decision.[16] The final shooting script came 160 pages.[4] Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. ... Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ...


Filming

George Lucas originally choose San Rafael, California to double for the city of Modesto. Production got underway on June 26, 1972 under a limited 30-day shooting schedule. Filming was interrupted by fixing camera mounts to cars and the city of San Rafael decided to kick out the cast and crew as they felt they were disrupting local businesses. The city of Petaluma instantly welcomed filming for American Graffiti.[17] Other locations included Sonoma, Richmond, Van Ness, and Novato (where most scenes of Mel's Drive-In were shot). Petaluma High School and Tamalpais High School were used for the sock hop scenes as well as exterior depictions of the high school in the film.[18] George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... San Rafael (IPA: ; originally IPA: ), is the county seat of Marin County, California, United States. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Top grossing films The Godfather Fiddler on the Roof Diamonds Are Forever Whats Up, Doc?, starring Barbra Streisand and Ryan ONeal Dirty Harry The Last Picture Show A Clockwork Orange Cabaret, starring Liza Minnelli The Hospital Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex Academy Awards Best Picture... Aerial view of Petaluma, California. ... Sonoma City Hall in the town plaza Sonoma is a historically significant town in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, USA. Sonoma is centered around its historic town plaza, a remnant of the towns Spanish colonial past. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Contra Costa Government  - Mayor Gayle McLaughlin (G) Area  - City  52. ... Novato is a city located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, in northern Marin County. ... Mels Drive-In in Hollywood, California. ... Petaluma High School is located in the relatively small town of Petaluma, California. ... Tamalpais High School (nicknamed Tam) is a public secondary school located in Mill Valley, California. ... Look up Sock Hop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Lucas encountered various problems during filming. A key member of the production crew was arrested for growing marijuana,[19] while Paul Le Mat was sent to the hospital when he found out he was allergic to walnuts. Harrison Ford, Le Mat and Bo Hopkins drank large amounts of beer between takes and often urinated in motel ice machines. In addition, Ford, Le Mat and Hopkins had climbing competitions and conducted races to the top of the local Holiday Inn sign. One actor set fire to Lucas' motel room.[20] Another night, Le Mat threw Richard Dreyfuss into a swimming pool, gashing his forehead on the day before he was due to have his close-ups filmed. Dreyfuss also had wardrobe complaints for his Bermuda shorts and shirt Lucas had chosen for his character.[20] Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... Bo Hopkins (born February 2, 1942 in Greenville, South Carolina) is an American actor. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Holiday Inn Great Sign Exterior of a Howard Johnsons motor lodge. ... An icemaker is a device found in a freezer that is used to make ice. ... This article is about the hotel chain. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ...


Filming proceeded with virtually no input or interference from Universal Pictures. American Graffiti was a low-budget project, and the studio had only modest expectations for its commercial success. However, they did object to the film's title, having no clue what "American Graffiti" meant (some thought it was about feet). Universal submitted a long list of alternative titles (with their favorite being Another Slow Night in Modesto). Francis Ford Coppola and Universal also insisted to change it to Rock Around the Block.[21] Lucas didn't like any of the choices and persuaded the studio to keep the title. The following are about half of Universal's preferred titles:[22] Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ...

  • 1962 Was Some Year
  • Ask Wolfman Jack
  • Birth of the Sixties
  • The Boys and Their Girls
  • Buddies No More
  • Burger City Blues
  • Color Them Wild
  • A Crowded Evening
  • The Drag Years
  • The Fast and the Deadly
  • The First Time is the Worst Time
  • The Frantic Heart
  • Goodbye Burger City
  • High School's Out
  • It'll Never Be Like This Again
  • Last Night to Make Out
  • Love on Wheels
  • Looking For Trouble
  • Make Out as Burger City
  • No More Cotton Candy
  • Rock Generation
  • The Savage Heart
  • Something to Do
  • That Crazy Time
  • The Toy Dreams Gone
  • Those Sweet and Sour Sixties
  • To Learn About the World
  • The Violent Four
  • Wake Me Up, I'm Getting Older
  • Wine, Women, and Song
  • You Go Your Way...
  • The Young and Doomed
  • Young and Foolish
  • The Yesterday People

Lucas had elected to shoot Graffiti using two camera operators (as he had done in THX 1138) and no formal cinematographer.[17] Since he wanted to shoot the film in an "urban documentary style", he proposed the use of Techniscope. This would add features of a 16 mm camera in a widescreen frame, which Lucas felt set the boundaries between a feature length, and a documentary film. However, the use of Techniscope[23] and difficulty with cinematographers Jan D'Alquen and Ron Eveslage[24] presented lighting problems. Lucas called in fellow friend Haskell Wexler (who was credited as "visual consultant").[23] Wexler took the job with no money and three hours of sleep, similar to Lucas.[24] Wexler came up with solutions by adding 1,000—2,000 powered volt light bulbs to the lamps, and asking store owners to keep their lights on throughout the night. Wexler placed twelve-volt lights inside the cars, powered directly from the batteries, to light faces of the actors for closeups.[23] Two camera operators nearly died when filming the climatic car race between Milner and Falfa. Dreyfuss recalled, "That car missed one camera by inches. We were all shitting in our pants!"[25] American Graffiti finished filming after 28 days.[26] Cameraman redirects here. ... A Techniscope camera film frame. ... (Redirected from 16 mm) 16mm film was initially created in the 1920s as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ... The Wikipedia main page as viewed with a widescreen monitor. ... Haskell Wexler (born February 6, 1922 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award-winning American cinematographer, and a film producer and director. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ...

George Lucas during filming and hanging off of John Milner's yellow deuce coupe. Inside are Mackenzie Phillips (left) and Paul Le Mat (right)

A Deuce Coupe is a 1932 Ford automobile, popular for conversion into a hot rod. ... Mackenzie Phillips, as Julie Cooper on One Day at a Time. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ...

Post-production

Lucas's then wife Marcia and Verna Fields (his former teacher at USC School of Cinematic Arts) performed an initial editing cut at 165 minutes.[25] Gerald Peary described the result: "... between them they set the style of cutting for the rest of the 1970s: to the nostalgic beat of old rock songs."[27] Fields left to work on What's Up, Doc?,[28] while Lucas struggled with the film's structure as the film now went up to roughly 210 minutes. Walter Murch heavily assisted in the sound editing process.[29] Lucas's choice of background music was crucial to the mood of each scene, but he was prepared for complexities of copyright clearances and suggested a number of alternate tracks.[2] Marcia Lucas (née Griffin) was married to George Lucas between 1969 and 1983. ... Verna Fields (21 March 1918 - 30 November 1982) was an American film editor and executive. ... The USC School of Cinematic Arts, formerly named the School of Cinema-Television (CNTV), is a film school within the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California. ... Gerald Peary, an American film critic for the past three decades, has been a weekly film critic and columnist for the Boston Phoenix since 1996. ... Whats Up, Doc? is a screwball comedy from 1972, directed by Peter Bogdanovich and starring Barbra Streisand, Ryan ONeal, and Madeline Kahn (in her first full-length film role). ... Walter Murch speaking 13 March 2005 Walter Scott Murch (born July 12, 1943) is an Academy Award–winning film editor/sound mixer. ...


The studio personally suggested hiring an orchestra to re-record the songs. In turn, Universal proposed a deal that offered every music publisher the same amount of money. This was acceptable to most of the companies representing Lucas's first choices, but not to RCA (with the consequence that Elvis Presley is conspicuous by his absence from the soundtrack).[2] In total, $80 thousand was spent for music rights, and none for a film score.[14] Lucas originally choose 80 songs, before narrowing it down to 45.[21] By December 1972, American Graffiti was complete.[14] This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... Elvis redirects here. ... A film score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ...


Themes

Each of the four male protagonists is complemented by a female character. Curt is haunted by glimpses of an enticing beauty who remains frustratingly out of reach (played by then unknown Suzanne Somers). Although her performance amounted to only a few minutes of screen time, her character's role as a metaphor is a key element of the film.[3] As Curt Henderson's plane disappears in the final shot of the film, each character's brief information about their further exploits is revealed.[30] George Lucas claims that Curt's departure from Modesto has the same metaphorical significance as the moment THX realizes he can simply walk out of the prison as seen in Lucas' earlier film THX 1138. It's noted that Curt is the only one to meet Wolfman Jack out of all the characters, and yet he is the only person to leave. Steve, who is hesitantly ready to go to college far from Modesto, ends up taking time off from heading into the adult world.[30] Suzanne Somers (born October 16, 1946) is an American actress, author, and businesswoman. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ...


Release

A premiere screening was set up for executives at Universal Pictures on January 28, 1973, also including a public audience.[30] Producer Gary Kurtz tape-recorded the audience to see which scenes drew most laughter.[25] While the public audience greeted American Graffiti with positive response, Universal was less enthusiastic. This ensued with an argument between Francis Ford Coppola and executives, whereas Coppola offered to buy the film from them immediately, but Universal refused.[30] Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The Marx Brothers Zeppo Marx divorces his second wife, Barbara Blakely. ... Gary Kurtz (born July 27, 1940 in Los Angeles, California) was the producer on Star Wars and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ...


In the words of George Lucas's friend Matthew Robbins, "it only reaffirmed so many of George's feelings about what Hollywood was made of".[31] Universal was constantly telling Lucas "a lot of editing work has to be done for this to be a completed film". Lucas mostly ignored their intentions, until they threatened having William Hornbeck re-edit the film completely.[32] Only four-and-a-half minutes of edits were taken out. This included Toad's encounter with a car salesman, and argument between Steven and former teacher Mr. Kroot at the sock hop, and Falfa's effort to sing Some Enchanted Evening to Laurie. Universal then told Lucas they were going to release American Graffiti as a TV movie.[31] 20th Century Fox and Paramount Pictures offered to buy Graffiti from Universal.[33] Eventually, good word of mouth around various employees at Universal prompted the studio to set a theatrical release date,[31] spending $500,000 on marketing the film.[1] George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Matthew Robbins may refer to: Matthew Robbins (footballer). ... ... Look up Sock Hop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Some Enchanted Evening was the thirteenth non short Simpsons episode released on television. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ...


Reaction

American Graffiti opened on August 1, 1973, accumulating over $115,000,000 in North America. The film was a box office success, as it recouped 92 times its budget of $1,250,000.[34] Graffiti is the highest cost-to-profit success in film history.[1] It was due to the enormous financial success, that American Graffiti is often cited for helping give birth to the summer blockbuster.[35] However, George Lucas and Francis Ford Coppola had a controversy over the box office profits, affecting their friendship.[36] Film rentals went up to a staggering %55,886,000. However, Graffiti was less successful in foreign countries, making only five million overseas, though the film developed into a cult following in France. Lucas quoted, "Francis [Coppola] was kicking himself forever for the fact that if he had financed the film himself, he would have been a rich man." No one expected Graffiti to be a financial success, least of all Lucas.[1] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Blockbuster, as applied to film or theater, denotes a very popular and/or successful production. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... This article does not discuss cultist groups, personality cults, or cult in its original sense of religious practice. See cult (disambiguation) for more meanings of the term cult. A cult following is a group of fans devoted to a specific area of pop culture. ...


Based on 31 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, American Graffiti received an average 97% overall approval rating;[37] the film was more balanced with the four critics in Rotten Tomatoes' "Top Critics", which consists of popular and notable critics from the top newspapers, websites, television and radio programs,[38] receiving a rare and highly positive 100% approval rating.[39] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Jay Cocks felt American Graffiti captured "the charm and tribal energy of the teen-age 1950s, and the listlessness and the resignation that underscored it all like an incessant bass line in one of the rock-'n'-roll songs of the period."[40] Roger Ebert felt the film reminded him of his teenage days, citing that he connected with the stories and characters. He quoted, "I can only wonder at how unprepared we were for the loss of innocence that took place in America with the series of hammer blows beginning with the assassination of President Kennedy."[41] Dave Kehr of the Chicago Reader called it "a brilliant work of popular art", while he was impressed as to how the film established a new narrative style.[42] A.D. Murphy of Variety was impressed with the basic premises that included the cast, dialogue, story, design and direction.[43] Jay Cocks is a film critic and screenwriter. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Dave Kehr is an American film critic currently writing for The New York Times. ... The Chicago Reader is an alternative newsweekly in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was founded in 1971[2] by a group of friends who attended Carleton College. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ...


Awards

At the 46th Academy Awards, American Graffiti was nominated for five categories, losing four of them (Best Picture, Director, Original Screenplay and Editing) to The Sting. Candy Clark lost the Best Actress in a Supporting Role nomination to Tatum O'Neal (only 10 years old at the time) of Paper Moon.[44] The film was able to win Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy) at the Golden Globe Awards while Paul Le Mat won Most Promising Newcomer of the year. George Lucas received the nomination for Best Director and Richard Dreyfuss was nominated for Best Actor in a Comedy or Musical.[45] The 46th Academy Awards were presented April 2, 1974 at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... The Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material. ... The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934. ... This article is about the 1973 film involving con artists. ... Candace June Clark (born June 20, 1947) is an Oscar-nominated American film and television actress. ... Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... Tatum Beatrice ONeal (born November 5, 1963 in Los Angeles, California) is an Academy Award-winning American actress best known for her film work as a child actress in the 1970s. ... Paper Moon is an American motion picture comedy that was released in 1973 and was directed by Peter Bogdanovich. ... Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy has been awarded annually since 1952 by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ... Paul Le Mat (born September 22, 1946) is an actor who first came to prominence in the 1973 film American Graffiti . ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Golden Globe Award for Best Director - Motion Picture has been awarded annually since 1944 by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... The Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. ...


Cindy Williams was nominated by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts with a Best Actress in a Supporting Role nomination.[46] Lucas received a nomination from the Director's Guild of America,[47] while the Writers Guild of America honored Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck for a Best Comedy Written Directly for the Screen Award.[48] Entertainment Weekly listed American Graffiti as the seventh best in its list of "The 50 Best High School Movies".[49] In 1995, this film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[50] In June 2007, the American Film Institute ranked American Graffiti as #62 for its 100 Years... 100 Movies list.[51] Cindy Williams (born August 22, 1947) is an American actress // Born Cynthia Jane Williams in Van Nuys, California to John and Lillie Williams. ... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... Winners of the BAFTA Award Best Actress in a Supporting Role presented by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. ... Directors Guild of America (DGA) is the labor union which represents the interests of film and television directors in the United States motion picture industry. ... The Writers Guild of America (WGA) is the collective bargaining representative, or labor union, for writers in the motion picture and television industries in the United States. ... Gloria Katz is a friend of George Lucas,who along with her husband Willard Huyck has worked on several movie screenplays. ... Willard Huyck is a friend of George Lucas,who along with his wife Gloria Katz has worked on several film screenplays. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ...


Home video

When American Graffiti was first released on home video, George Lucas was able to add the three deleted scenes that didn't appear in the theatrical cut.[52] The film had been released various times in VHS before the debut of DVD.[53] American Graffiti was first released on DVD in September 1998, only including the documentary The Making of American Graffiti,[54] and again with the same specifications, but as a double feature with More American Graffiti (1979) in January 2004.[55] George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... The double feature, also known as a double bill, was a motion picture industry phenomenon in which theatre managers would exhibit two films for the price of one, supplanting an earlier format in which one feature film and various short subject reels would be shown. ... More American Graffiti (1979) is the follow-up film to George Lucass hit film American Graffiti (1973). ...


Legacy

The film's box office success made George Lucas an instant millionaire, giving a large amount of the profits to Haskell Wexler for his visual consulting help during filming, and to Wolfman Jack. Lucas's net worth was now up to $4 million, setting aside a $300,000 fund for his long cherished science fiction project, which he would title The Star Wars.[56] With his profits of the film, Lucas was able to establish more elaborate development for his division of Lucasfilm and created what would become successful companies Industrial Light & Magic and Skywalker Sound.[56] A sequel, titled More American Graffiti (1979), told the furthers stories of John Milner becoming a drag racer, Steve and Laurie's marriage, Deb becoming a country western singer, and Toad in the Vietnam War. George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Haskell Wexler (born February 6, 1922 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award-winning American cinematographer, and a film producer and director. ... Robert Weston (Bob) Smith (21 January 1938 – 1 July 1995) became world famous in the 1960s and 1970s as a disc jockey using the stage name of Wolfman Jack. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Industrial Light & Magic original logo, designed by Drew Struzan Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is a motion picture visual effects company, founded in May 1975 by George Lucas and owned by Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Skywalker Sound is the renowned sound effects, sound editorial, sound design and music recording division of George Lucass Lucas Digital motion picture group. ... More American Graffiti (1979) is the follow-up film to George Lucass hit film American Graffiti (1973). ... Drag racing is a form of auto racing in which cars attempt to complete a fairly short, straight and level course in the shortest amount of time. ... Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck would later collaborate on Radioland Murders (1994), released by Universal Pictures (which Lucas also executive produced). The film features characters intended to be Curt and Laurie Henderson's parents, Roger and Penny Henderson. Additionally, several actors from American Graffiti appeared as unrelated characters.[56] David Fincher credited American Graffiti as a visual influence for Fight Club (1999).[57] Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002), also directed by Lucas, features references to American Graffiti. The yellow airspeeder that Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi use to pursue the bounty hunter Zam Wesell is based on John Milner's yellow deuce coupe[58] while Dex's Diner is reminiscent of Mel's Drive-In.[59] Gloria Katz is a friend of George Lucas,who along with her husband Willard Huyck has worked on several movie screenplays. ... Willard Huyck is a friend of George Lucas,who along with his wife Gloria Katz has worked on several film screenplays. ... Radioland Murders was a 1994 film directed by Mel Smith, with a screenplay by George Lucas. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... David Leo Fincher (born August 28, 1962) is an American film director and music video director known for his dark and stylish films, particularly Fight Club and Se7en. ... Fight Club is a 1999 American feature film adaptation of the 1996 novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, adapted by Jim Uhls and directed by David Fincher. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... As depicted in Star Wars, an aircraft that uses anti-gravity (repulsorlift) thrust rather than aerodynamics for lift. ... Anakin Skywalker is the central character in the Star Wars franchise. ... Obi-Wan Kenobi is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... Zam Wesell is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe, played by Leeanna Walsman in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. ... A Deuce Coupe is a 1932 Ford automobile, popular for conversion into a hot rod. ... Mels Drive-In in Hollywood, California. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Pollock, p.123
  2. ^ a b c Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., p.56. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7. 
  3. ^ a b Hearn, p.57
  4. ^ a b c d e Hearn, p.58
  5. ^ a b c Hearn, p.52
  6. ^ Pollock, p.101—2
  7. ^ a b Pollock, p.103
  8. ^ Pollock, p.104
  9. ^ Pollock, p.105
  10. ^ a b Hearn, p.53
  11. ^ a b c d e Hearn, p.54
  12. ^ (2005). Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy (DVD). Lucasfilm.
  13. ^ a b Pollock, p.107
  14. ^ a b c Hearn, p.67
  15. ^ Hearn, p.55
  16. ^ Pollock, p.106
  17. ^ a b Hearn, p.61
  18. ^ Hearn, p.74—5
  19. ^ Pollock, p.111
  20. ^ a b Pollock, p.114—5
  21. ^ a b Pollock, p.108
  22. ^ Hearn, p.60
  23. ^ a b c Hearn, p.62
  24. ^ a b Pollock, p.113
  25. ^ a b c Dale Pollock (1999). Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas: Updated Edition. DaCapo Press, p.116—9. ISBN 0306809044. 
  26. ^ Pollock, p.109
  27. ^ Gerald Peary. "Verna Fields", The Real Paper, 1980-10-23. Retrieved on 2008-02-11. 
  28. ^ Hearn, p.64
  29. ^ Hearn, p.66
  30. ^ a b c d Hearn, p.69—70
  31. ^ a b c Hearn, p.71
  32. ^ Pollock, p.120
  33. ^ Pollock, p.122
  34. ^ American Graffiti (1973). Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  35. ^ "The Evolution of the Summer Blockbuster", Entertainment Weekly, 1991-05-24. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  36. ^ Pollock, p.130
  37. ^ American Graffiti. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  38. ^ Rotten Tomatoes FAQ: What is Cream of the Crop. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  39. ^ American Graffiti: Rotten Tomatoes' Cream of the Crop. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  40. ^ Jay Cocks. "Fabulous '50s", Time, 1973-08-20. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  41. ^ Roger Ebert. "American Graffiti", RogerEbert.com, 1973-08-11. Retrieved on 2008-01-18. 
  42. ^ Dave Kehr. "American Graffiti", Chicago Reader. Retrieved on 2008-01-18. 
  43. ^ A.D. Murphy. "American Graffiti", Variety. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. 
  44. ^ Academy Awards: 1974. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  45. ^ Golden Globes: 1974. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  46. ^ BAFTA Awards: 1975. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  47. ^ DGA Awards: 1974. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  48. ^ WGA Awards: 1974. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  49. ^ "The 50 Best High School Movies", Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  50. ^ National Film Preservation: 1995. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  51. ^ Citizen Kane Stands the Test of Time. American Film Institute. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  52. ^ (1998). The Making of American Graffiti (DVD). Universal Pictures / Lucasfilm.
  53. ^ Merchandise for American Graffiti. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  54. ^ American Graffiti (Collector's Edition). Amazon. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  55. ^ American Graffiti / More American Graffiti (Drive-In Double Feature). Amazon. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  56. ^ a b c Hearn, p.72—82
  57. ^ "Movie Preview: Oct. 15", Entertainment Weekly, 1999-08-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. 
  58. ^ Anakin Skywalker's Airspeeder. StarWars.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  59. ^ Dex's Diner. StarWars.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Gerald Peary, an American film critic for the past three decades, has been a weekly film critic and columnist for the Boston Phoenix since 1996. ... The Real Paper was a Boston alternative weekly newspaper that ran from August 2, 1972, to June 18, 1981, often devoting space to counterculture issues of the early 1970s. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jay Cocks is a film critic and screenwriter. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dave Kehr is an American film critic currently writing for The New York Times. ... The Chicago Reader is an alternative newsweekly in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was founded in 1971[2] by a group of friends who attended Carleton College. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amazon. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amazon. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic way. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Look At Life is a short film by George Lucas. ... Herbie is a short film by George Lucas and Paul Golding made in 1966. ... Freiheit is a short film by George Lucas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anyone Lived in a Pretty How Town is a short film by George Lucas. ... The decade of the 1970s in film involved many significant films. ... THX 1138 was George Lucas first full length movie. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Films made in the 1990s included: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Above the Rim (1994) Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls (1995) Ace Ventura: Pet... The first decade of the 2000s in film involved many significant films. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Industrial Light & Magic original logo, designed by Drew Struzan Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is a motion picture visual effects company, founded in May 1975 by George Lucas and owned by Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Skywalker Sound is the renowned sound effects, sound editorial, sound design and music recording division of George Lucass Lucas Digital motion picture group. ... LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... Skywalker Ranch is the name of the well-disguised workplace of film director and producer George Lucas in secluded but open country near Nicasio, California. ...

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village voice > art > Graffiti at Brooklyn Museum by Jan Avgikos (818 words)
Graffiti art was really its own thing: It had none of the irony of European "bad painting," and none of the anger channeled by disenfranchised artists of color whose voices were beginning to be heard for the first time inside the museum.
Graffiti had to be tamed in order to function as proper art, and that was the beginning of the end.
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American Graffiti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1700 words)
American Graffiti is a 1973 film directed by George Lucas.
The license plate is identical to the one on John Milner's '32 Ford deuce coupe in American Graffiti.
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