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Encyclopedia > American Football
American football


American football game between the Tennessee Titans and the Houston Texans in 2005. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 554 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): American football strategy American football rules ... City Nashville, Tennessee Team colors Navy, Titan Blue, White, and Red Head Coach Jeff Fisher Owner Bud Adams General manager Mike Reinfeldt Mascot T-Rac League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960–1969) Eastern Division (1960–1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC Central (1970... This article is about the current National Football League team. ...

Nickname(s) Football, Gridiron football
First played November 6, 1869, Rutgers University vs. Princeton University
Characteristics
Contact Contact
Team Members 11 at a time
Ball Football

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American football, known in the United States simply as football,[1] is a competitive team sport known for mixing strategy with intense physical play. The object of the game is to score points by advancing the ball[2] into the opposing team's end zone. The ball can be advanced by carrying it (a running play) or by throwing it to a teammate (a passing play). Points can be scored in a variety of ways , including carrying the ball over the goal line, catching a pass from beyond the goal line, tackling an opposing ball carrier in his own end zone, or kicking the ball through the goal posts on the opposing side. The winner is the team with the most points when time expires at the end of the last play. Gridiron football (or more commonly, just gridiron) is a term used in some countries outside the United States and Canada that refers to both American football and Canadian football. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... For other uses, see Ball (disambiguation). ... A football is used to play one of the different sports known as football or Rugby. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... A football is used to play one of the different sports known as football or Rugby. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... An amateur place kicker attempts to kick a field goal Placekicker, or simply Kicker, is the title of the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the kicking duties of field goals, extra points, and, in many cases, kickoffs. ...


American football is also played outside the United States. National leagues exist in Japan, Mexico and Europe. The National Football League ran a developmental league in Europe from 1991–1992 and 1995–2006. Canadian football, which is very similar to the American game, is widely played in Canada. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... NFL Europa is an American football league which operates in Europe. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ...

Contents

History

An early American football team, from the turn of the twentieth century
An early American football team, from the turn of the twentieth century

The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football. Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a ball is kicked at a goal and/or run over a line. An early American football team, from the turn of the twentieth century The history of American football, a spectator sport in the United States,[1] can be traced to early versions of rugby football. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A football is used to play one of the different sports known as football or Rugby. ... For other uses, see Goal (disambiguation). ...


American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby football, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, considered the "Father of American Football". Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmage and of down-and-distance rules. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, gameplay developments by college coaches such as Amos Alonzo Stagg, Knute Rockne, and Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. The popularity of collegiate football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport for the first half of the twentieth century. Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for collegiate teams. Bolstered by fierce rivalries, college football still holds widespread appeal in the US.[3][4][5] For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American football coach. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In American and Canadian football, a down refers to a period in which a play transpires. ... Amos Alonzo Stagg (August 16, 1862 – March 17, 1965) was a renowned American collegiate coach in multiple sports, primarily football, and an overall athletic pioneer. ... Knute (pronounced kah-noot) (noot is the anglicized nickname) Kenneth Rockne (March 4, 1888 – March 31, 1931) was an American football player and is regarded as one of the greatest coaches in college football history. ... Glenn Scobey Pop Warner in a 1997 USA Postage stamp. ... This article is about a type of football play. ... This article covers college football played in the United States. ... A bowl game is a post-season college football game, typically at the Division I-A level. ... This is a list of rivalry games in college football in the United States. ...

Walter Camp

The origin of professional football can be traced back to 1892, with William "Pudge" Heffelfinger's $500 contract to play in a game for the Allegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. In 1920 the American Professional Football Association was formed. This league changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. Primarily a sport of Midwestern, industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon. Football's increasing popularity is usually traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played". A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), began play in 1960; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis.[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x668, 45 KB) Walter Camp pictured as Yales Captain, 1878-79 - Project Gutenberg eText 18048 The Project Gutenberg EBook of Football Days, by William H. Edwards http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x668, 45 KB) Walter Camp pictured as Yales Captain, 1878-79 - Project Gutenberg eText 18048 The Project Gutenberg EBook of Football Days, by William H. Edwards http://www. ... William Pudge Walter Heffelfinger ( - ) was an US baseball player. ... NFL redirects here. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... The 1958 NFL Championship Game is regarded by many, and titled by the NFL, as the “Greatest Game Ever Played”. The game featured the New York Giants led by defensive great Sam Huff and the Baltimore Colts led by quarterback Johnny Unitas. ... Note: There were three earlier and unrelated major American professional football leagues of the same name: One in 1926, one in 1936-1937 and one in 1940-1941. ... The AFL-NFL Merger of 1970 involved the merger of the two major professional American football leagues in the United States during the time: the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL). ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ...


Rules

The object of American football is to score more points than the opposing team within the time limit. Note: this article is incomplete. ...


Field and players

The numbers on the field indicate the number of yards to the nearest end zone.
The numbers on the field indicate the number of yards to the nearest end zone.

American football is played on a field 360 feet (120 yards/109.7 m) long by 160 feet (53.3 yards/48.8 m) wide. The longer boundary lines are sidelines, while the shorter boundary lines are end lines. Near each end of the field is a goal line; they are 100 yards (91.4 m) apart. A scoring area called an end zone extends 10 yards (9.1 m) beyond each goal line to each end line. Image File history File links AmFBfield. ... Image File history File links AmFBfield. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ...


Yard lines cross the field every 5 yards (4.6 m), and are numbered every 10 yards from each goal line to the 50-yard line, or midfield (similar to a typical rugby league field). Two rows of lines, known as inbounds lines or hash marks, parallel the sidelines near the middle of the field. All plays start with the ball on or between the hash marks. Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ...


At the back of each end zone are two goalposts (also called uprights) that are 18.5 feet (5.6 m) apart (24 feet (7.3 m) in high school). The posts are connected by a crossbar 10 feet (305 cm) from the ground. On the sporting field, goalposts are posts between which players must carry, kick or pass a ball or similar object in order to score points, or simply a goal. ... A running back sweeps the left end in a high school football game near // Link title Cincinnati, Ohio High school football or prep(s) football is one of most popular interscholastic sports at high schools in the United States and among the most popular in Canada after ice hockey. ...


Each team has 11 players on the field at a time. However, teams may substitute for any or all of their players, if time allows, during the break between plays. As a result, players have very specialized roles, and, sometimes (although rarely) almost all of the (at least) 46 active players on an NFL team will play in any given game. Thus, teams are divided into three separate units: the offense, the defense and the special teams. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into American football positions. ... The defensive team or defense in American football or Canadian football, is the team that begins a play from scrimmage not in possession of the ball. ... Special teams are units in American football and Canadian football that are on the field during kickoffs, free kicks, punts, and field goal and extra point attempts. ...


Start of halves

Similar to association football, the game begins with a coin toss to determine who will kick off to begin the games and which goal each team will defend. The options will be presented again to start the second half; the choices for the first half do not automatically determine the start of the second half. The referee will conduct the coin toss with the captains (or sometimes coaches) of the opposing teams. The team that wins the coin toss has three options: Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to resolve a dispute between two parties or otherwise choose between two alternatives. ...

  1. They may choose to either receive the opening kickoff or to kick off
  2. They may choose which goal to defend
  3. They may choose to defer the first choice to the other team and have first choice to start the second half (in the all leagues)[7]

Whatever the first team chooses, the second team has the option on the other choice (for example, if the first team elects to receive at the start of the game, the second team can decide which goal to defend).


At the start of the second half, the options to kick, receive, or choose a goal to defend are presented to the captains again. The team which did not choose first to start the first half (or which deferred its privilege to choose first) now gets first choice of options.[8]


Game duration

A standard football game consists of four 15-minute (typically 12 minutes in high-school football) quarters, with a half-time intermission after the second quarter. The clock stops after certain plays; therefore, a game can last considerably longer (often more than three hours in real time), and if a game is broadcast on television, TV timeouts are taken at certain intervals of the game to broadcast commercials outside of game action. If an NFL game is tied after four quarters, the teams play an additional period lasting up to 15 minutes. In an NFL overtime game, the first team that scores wins, even if the other team does not get a possession; this is referred to as sudden death. In a regular-season NFL game, if neither team scores in overtime, the game is a tie. In an NFL playoff game, additional overtime periods are played, as needed, to determine a winner. College overtime rules are more complicated and are described in Overtime (sport). In electronics (specifically, signal processing), half time usually refers to the time it takes for the amplitude of a pulse to drop from 100% to 50% of its peak value. ... A television timeout (or TV timeout) is a break in a sporting event to allow commercials to be shown. ... // Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sudden death (disambiguation). ... Overtime is an additional period of play specified under the rules of a sport in order to bring the game to a decision and avoid declaring the contest a tie or draw. ...


Advancing the ball

A line of scrimmage.
A line of scrimmage.
A quarterback searching for opportunity to throw a pass.
A quarterback searching for opportunity to throw a pass.
A running back being tackled when he tries to run with the ball.
A running back being tackled when he tries to run with the ball.
A quarterback passing.
A quarterback passing.

Advancing the ball in American football resembles the six-tackle rule and the play-the-ball in rugby league. The team that takes possession of the ball (the offense) has four attempts, called downs, to advance the ball 10 yards (9.1 m) towards their opponent's (the defense's) end zone. When the offense gains 10 yards, it gets a first down, which means the team has another set of four downs to gain yet another 10 yards or score with. If the offense fails to gain a first down (10 yards) after 4 downs, the other team gets possession of the ball at the spot of the football, beginning with their first down. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2284x2012, 500 KB) Subject: Pro Bowl Source page url: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2284x2012, 500 KB) Subject: Pro Bowl Source page url: http://www. ... P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... In American and Canadian football, a down refers to a period in which a play transpires. ...


Except at the beginning of halves and after scores, the ball is always put into play by a snap. Offensive players line up facing defensive players at the line of scrimmage (the position on the field where the play begins). One offensive player, the center, then passes (or "snaps") the ball between his legs to a teammate, usually the quarterback. A snap (colloquially called a hike, snapback, or pass from center) starts each American football and Canadian football play from scrimmage. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The offensive team or offense in American football or Canadian football, is the team that begins a play from scrimmage in possession of the ball. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ...


Players can then advance the ball in two ways:

  1. By running with the ball, also known as rushing. One ball-carrier can hand the ball to another player or throw backwards to another player. These are known as a handoff and a backward pass (sometimes referred to as a lateral) respectively.
  2. By throwing the ball to a teammate, known as a forward pass or as passing the football. The forward pass is a key factor distinguishing American and Canadian football from other football sports. The offense can throw the ball forward only once during a down and only from behind the line of scrimmage. The ball can be thrown, pitched, handed-off, or tossed sideways or backwards at any time.

A down ends, and the ball becomes dead, after any of the following: In American football, rushing has two different meanings. ... In American football a lateral pass or lateral, officially referred to as a backward pass, and an onside pass in Canadian football; is a sideways or rearward throwing of the football to a teammate. ... This article is about a type of football play. ...

  • The player with the ball is forced to the ground (tackled) or has his forward progress halted by members of the other team (as determined by an official).
  • A forward pass flies beyond the dimensions of the field (out of bounds) or touches the ground before it is caught. This is known as an incomplete pass. The ball is returned to the most recent line of scrimmage for the next down.
  • The ball or the player with the ball goes out of bounds.
  • A team scores.

Officials blow a whistle to notify players that the down is over. NFL officials (striped shirts) and guests prepare to toss the coin to start the 40th annual Pro Bowl. ... An incomplete pass, is a term in American football which means that a legal forward pass hits the ground before a player on either team gains possession. ...


Before each down, each team chooses a play, or coordinated movements and actions, that the players should follow on a down. Sometimes, downs themselves are referred to as "plays."


Change of possession

The offense maintains possession of the ball unless one of the following things occurs:

  • The team fails to get a first down— i.e., in four downs they fail to move the ball past a line 10 yards ahead of where they got their last first down (it is possible to be downed behind the current line of scrimmage, "losing yardage"). The defensive team takes over the ball at the spot where the 4th-down play ends. A change of possession in this manner is commonly called a turnover on downs, but is not credited as a defensive "turnover" in official statistics. Instead, it goes against the offense's 4th down efficiency percentage.
  • The offense scores a touchdown or field goal. The team that scored then kicks the ball to the other team in a special play called a kickoff.
  • The offense punts the ball to the defense. A punt is a kick in which a player drops the ball and kicks it before it hits the ground. Punts are nearly always made on fourth down (though see quick kick), when the offensive team does not want to risk giving up the ball to the other team at its current spot on the field (through a failed attempt to make a first down) and feels it is too far from the other team's goal posts to attempt a field goal.
  • A defensive player catches a forward pass. This is called an interception, and the player who makes the interception can run with the ball until he is tackled, forced out of bounds, or scores.
  • An offensive player drops the ball (a fumble) and a defensive player picks it up. As with interceptions, a player recovering a fumble can run with the ball until tackled or forced out of bounds. Backward passes that are not caught do not cause the down to end like incomplete forward passes do; instead the ball is still live as if it had been fumbled. Lost fumbles and interceptions are together known as turnovers.
  • The offensive team misses a field goal attempt. The defensive team gets the ball at the spot where the previous play began (or, in the NFL, at the spot of the kick). If the unsuccessful kick was attempted from within 20 yards (18.3 m) of the end zone, the other team gets the ball at its own 20 yard line (that is, 20 yards from the end zone). If a field goal is missed and the ball remains in the field of play, a defensive player may also catch the ball and attempt to advance it.
  • In his own end zone, an offensive ballcarrier is tackled, forced out of bounds or loses the ball out of bounds, or the offense commits certain penalties. This fairly rare occurrence is called a safety.
  • An offensive ballcarrier fumbles the ball forward into the end zone, and then the ball goes out of bounds. This extremely rare occurrence leads to a touchback, with the ball going over to the opposing team at their 20 yard line. (Note that touchbacks during non-offensive special teams plays, such as punts and kickoffs, are quite common.)

The 2007 Penn State Nittany Lions football team kicks the ball off after scoring a touchdown in their season opening game A kickoff is a method of starting or restarting play in American football. ... Josh Miller of the New England Patriots punts the ball. ... In American football and Canadian football, a quick kick is any punt made under conditions such that the opposing team should not expect a punt. ... In Canadian or American football, an interception occurs when a quarterbacks pass is caught by a player on the opposing team. ... Look up fumble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A safety or safety touch, is a type of score in American football and Canadian football where a defensive team gains two points when the offensive team is tackled or loses possession in their own end zone. ...

Scoring

A kicker attempts an extra point.

A team scores points by the following plays: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (798 × 621 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alabama kicker, Leigh Tiffin, attempts a point after kick (PAT) at a game versus Ole Miss. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (798 × 621 pixel, file size: 284 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alabama kicker, Leigh Tiffin, attempts a point after kick (PAT) at a game versus Ole Miss. ...

  • A touchdown (TD) is worth 6 points. It is scored when a player runs the ball into or catches a pass in his opponent's end zone. A touchdown is analogous to a try in rugby with the major difference being that a try requires the player to place the ball on the ground.
    • After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a conversion (which is also analogous to the conversion in rugby). The ball is placed at the other team's 3-yard (2.7 m) line (the 2-yard (1.8 m) line in the NFL). The team can attempt to kick it over the crossbar and through the goal posts in the manner of a field goal for 1 point (an extra point or point-after touchdown (PAT)[9]), or run or pass it into the end zone in the manner of a touchdown for 2 points (a two-point conversion). In college football, if the defense intercepts or recovers a fumble during a two point conversion attempt and returns it to the opposing end zone, the defensive team is awarded the two points.
  • A field goal (FG) is worth 3 points, and it is scored by kicking the ball over the crossbar and through the goal posts (uprights). Field goals may be placekicked (kicked when the ball is held vertically against the ground by a teammate) or drop-kicked (extremely uncommon in the modern game, with only two successes in the last 60 years). A field goal is usually attempted on fourth down instead of a punt when the ball is close to the opponent's goal line, or, when there is little or no time left to otherwise score.
  • A safety, worth 2 points, is scored by the defense when a ball-carrier is tackled in his own end zone. Safeties are also awarded if the offense fumbles the ball out-of-bounds in the end zone, has a kick blocked out of the end zone or commits certain penalties in the end zone. Safeties are relatively rare.

Texas Longhorn quarterback Vince Young (center top of picture), now with the Tennessee Titans, rushing for a touchdown vs. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ... In American football, the extra point, point after touchdown, or PAT is the act of lining up to kick, as in a field goal, immediately following a touchdown. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A field goal (formerly goal from the field) in Canadian football and American football (collectively called gridiron football) is a goal that may be scored during general play (from the field). Execution of a field goal A field goal may be scored by a placekick or the very rare drop... A drop kick is someones dropping a ball and then kicking it when it bounces off the ground. ... A safety or safety touch, is a type of score in American football and Canadian football where a defensive team gains two points when the offensive team is tackled or loses possession in their own end zone. ...

Kickoffs and free kicks

Each half begins with a kickoff. Teams also kick off after scoring touchdowns and field goals. The ball is kicked using a kicking tee from the team's own 30-yard (27 m) line in the NFL and college football (as of the 2007 season). The other team's kick returner tries to catch the ball and advance it as far as possible. Where he is stopped is the point where the offense will begin its drive, or series of offensive plays. If the kick returner catches the ball in his own end zone, he can either run with the ball, or elect for a touchback by kneeling in the end zone, in which case the receiving team then starts its offensive drive from its own 20 yard line. A touchback also occurs when the kick goes out-of-bounds in the end zone. A kickoff that goes out-of-bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is considered an illegal procedure penalty, and the ball will be placed where it went out of bounds or 30 yards (27 m) from the kickoff spot, depending on which is more advantageous to the opposite team. Unlike with punts, once a kickoff goes 10 yards, it can be recovered by the kicking team. A team, especially one who is losing, can try to take advantage of this by attempting an onside kick. Punts and turnovers in the end zone can also end in a touchback. The 2007 Penn State Nittany Lions football team kicks the ball off after scoring a touchdown in their season opening game A kickoff is a method of starting or restarting play in American football. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Onside kick (sometimes onsides kick) is a term used in American and Canadian football for a type of kickoff in which the ball is kicked a shorter distance than usual in order for the kicking team to regain possession of the ball. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After safeties, the team that gave up the points must free kick the ball to the other team from its own 20 yard line. A safety or safety touch, is a type of score in American football and Canadian football where a defensive team gains two points when the offensive team is tackled or loses possession in their own end zone. ...


Penalties

For a complete list of penalties, see American football rules

Fouls (a type of rule violation) are punished with penalties against the offending team. Most penalties result in moving the football towards the offending team's end zone. If the penalty would move the ball more than half the distance towards the offender's end zone, the penalty becomes half the distance to the goal instead of its normal value. Note: this article is incomplete. ...


Most penalties result in replaying the down. Some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down. Conversely, some offensive penalties result in loss of a down (loss of the right to repeat the down). If a penalty gives the offensive team enough yardage to gain a first down, they get a first down, as usual.


If a foul occurs during a down, an official throws a yellow flag near the spot of the foul. When the down ends, the team that did not commit the foul has the option of accepting the penalty, or declining the penalty and accepting the result of the down.


A few of the most-common fouls include:

  • False start: An offensive player illegally moves after lining up for--but prior to--the snap. Since the ball is dead, the down is not allowed to begin.
  • Offside: A defensive or offensive player is on the wrong side of the ball when the ball is snapped. This foul occurs simultaneously with the snap.
  • Holding: Illegally grasping or pulling an opponent other than the runner.
  • Pass interference: Illegally contacting an opponent to prevent him from catching a forward pass.
  • Delay of game: Failing to begin a new play after a certain time from the end of the last one.
  • Face mask: Grasping the face mask of another player while attempting to block or tackle him.
  • Illegal block in the back: A blocker contacting a member of the opposing team (who is not the runner) in the back and above the waist.
  • Clipping: A blocker contacting an opponent (who is not the runner) from behind and at or below the waist.

Under certain circumstances clipping and blocking in the back are legal. In American Football pass interference is when a player interferes with an eligible receivers ability to make a fair attempt to catch a forward pass. ...


Variations

Variations on these basic rules exist, particularly touch and flag football, which are designed as non-contact or limited-contact alternatives to the relative violence of regular American football. In touch and flag football, tackling is not permitted. Offensive players are "tackled" when a defender tags them or removes a flag from their body, respectively. Both of these varieties are played mainly in informal settings such as intramural or youth games. Another variation is "wrap", where a player is "tackled" when another player wraps his arms around the ball carrier. Professional, intercollegiate, and varsity-level high school football invariably use the standard tackling rules. Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1940s in which the players tackle the individual carrying the ball only by touching him with one or two hands, based on whether one is playing the one-hand touch or two... An Intramural game of co-ed flag football at the University of Texas at Austin Flag football is a version of American football that is popular across the United States. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... The term intramural is most commonly associated with sports teams organized within a school. ...


Another variation is with the number of players on the field. In sparsely populated areas, it is not uncommon to find high school football teams playing nine-man football, eight-man football or six-man football. Players often play on offense as well as defense. The Arena Football League is a league that plays eight-man football, but also plays indoors and on a much smaller playing surface with rule changes to encourage a much more offensive game. Nine-Man Football is a type of American Football played by small schools. ... Eight-man football is a type of American football, generally played by small high schools. ... Six-man football is a variant of high school American football that is played with six players per team, instead of 11. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ...


Players

See also: Formation (American football)
This diagram shows typical offensive and defensive formations. The offense (blue) consists of the quarterback (QB), fullback (FB), tailback (TB), wide receivers (WR), tight end (TE), and offensive linemen (C, OG, OT). The defense (red) consists of the defensive line (DL, DE), linebackers (LBs), cornerbacks (CB), strong safety (SS) and free safety (FS). Because teams can change any or all of the players between plays, the number of players at certain positions may differ on a given play. Here the offense is in the Normal I-Formation while the defense is in a 4-3 Normal.
This diagram shows typical offensive and defensive formations. The offense (blue) consists of the quarterback (QB), fullback (FB), tailback (TB), wide receivers (WR), tight end (TE), and offensive linemen (C, OG, OT). The defense (red) consists of the defensive line (DL, DE), linebackers (LBs), cornerbacks (CB), strong safety (SS) and free safety (FS). Because teams can change any or all of the players between plays, the number of players at certain positions may differ on a given play. Here the offense is in the Normal I-Formation while the defense is in a 4-3 Normal.

Most football players have highly specialized roles. At the college and NFL levels, most play only offense or only defense. A diagram showing typical football positions In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time. ... A Formation in American football refers to the position players line up in before the start of a play from scrimmage. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Offense

  • The offensive line (OL) consists of five players whose job is to protect the passer and clear the way for runners by blocking members of the defense. The lineman in the middle is the Center. Outside the Center are the Guards, and outside them are the Tackles. Except for the center, who snaps the ball to one of the backs, offensive linemen generally do not handle the ball.
  • The quarterback (QB) receives the snap from the center on most plays. He then hands or tosses it to a running back, throws it to a receiver or runs with it himself. The quarterback is the leader of the offense and calls the plays that are signaled to him from the sidelines.
  • Running backs (RB) line up behind or beside the QB and specialize in running with the ball. They also block, catch passes and, on rare occasions, pass the ball to others or even receive the snap. If a team has two running backs in the game, usually one will be a halfback (HB) or tailback (TB), who is more likely to run with the ball, and the other will usually be a fullback (FB), who is more likely to block.
  • Wide receivers (WR) line up near the sidelines. They specialize in catching passes, though they also block for running plays or downfield after another receiver makes a catch.
  • Tight ends (TE) line up outside the offensive line. They can either play like wide receivers (catch passes) or like offensive linemen (protect the QB or create spaces for runners). Sometimes an offensive lineman takes the tight end position and is referred to as a tackle eligible.[10]

At least seven players must line up on the line of scrimmage on every offensive play. The other players may line up anywhere behind the line. The exact number of running backs, wide receivers and tight ends may differ on any given play. For example, if the team needs only 1 yard, it may use three tight ends, two running backs and no wide receivers. On the other hand, if it needs 20 yards, it may replace all of its running backs and tight ends with wide receivers. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with American football. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... The wide receiver (WR) position in American and Canadian football is the pass-catching specialist. ... Example of tight end positioning in an offensive formation. ...


Defense

In contrast to members of the offense, the rules of professional football (NFL Rulebook) and American college football NCAA Rulebook) do not specify starting position, movement, or coverage zones for members of the defensive team, except that they must be in the defensive zone at the start of play. The positions, movements and responsibilities of all defensive players are assigned by the team by selection of certain coverages, or patterns of placement and assignment of responsibilities. The positional roles are customary. These roles have varied over the history of American football. The following are customary defensive positions used in many coverages in modern American football.

  • The defensive line consists of three to six players who line up immediately across from the offensive line. They try to occupy the offensive linemen in order to free up the linebackers, disrupt the backfield(behind the offensive line)of the offense, and tackle the running back if he has the ball before he can gain yardage or the quarterback before he can throw or pass the ball. They are the first line of defense.
  • Behind the defensive line are the linebackers. They line up between the defensive line and defensive backs and may either rush the quarterback or cover potential receivers. Their main job is to cover the run up the middle.
  • The last line of defense is known as the secondary, comprising at least three players who line up as defensive backs, which are either cornerbacks or safeties. They cover the receivers and try to stop pass completions. They occasionally rush the quarterback. However, this leaves the field wide open for passing.

Defensive end is the name of a defensive position in the sport of American football. ... For other uses, see Tackle. ... This article relates to sports. ... In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players, who take positions directly behind the line of scrimmage. ... For corner back, the Gaelic football and hurling position, see Gaelic football and Hurling positions . ...

Special teams

The units of players who handle kicking plays are known as special teams. Three important special-teams players are the punter, who handles punts, the placekicker or kicker, who kicks off and attempts field goals and extra points, and the long snapper, who snaps the ball for extra points, field goals, and punts. Also included on special teams are the returners. These players return punts or kickoffs and try to get in good field position. These players can also score touchdowns. Special teams are units in American football and Canadian football that are on the field during kickoffs, free kicks, punts, and field goal and extra point attempts. ... [[Image:|frame|right|Todd Sauerbrun punts the ball for the Carolina Panthers. ... An amateur place kicker attempts to kick a field goal Placekicker, or simply Kicker, is the title of the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the kicking duties of field goals, extra points, and, in many cases, kickoffs. ... In American football, the term long snapper refers to a player who is a specialized center during punts, field goals, and extra point attempts. ...


Uniform numbering

In the NFL, ranges of uniform numbers are (usually) reserved for certain positions: In American football, uniform numbers are more unusual than in any other sport. ...

  • 1–9: Quarterbacks, kickers, and punters
  • 10–19: Quarterbacks, kickers, punters, and wide receivers
  • 20–49: Running backs and defensive backs
  • 50–59: Centers and linebackers
  • 60–79: Offensive and defensive linemen
  • 80–89: Wide receivers and tight ends
  • 90–99: Defensive linemen and linebackers

NCAA and high school rules specify only that offensive linemen must have numbers in the 50-79 range, but the NCAA "strongly recommends" that quarterbacks and running backs have numbers below 50 and wide receivers numbers above 79. This helps officials as it means that numbers 50 to 79 are ineligible receivers, or players that may never receive a forward pass. There are no numbering restrictions on defensive players in the NCAA, other than that no two players with the same jersey number can be on the field at the same time. In American football and Canadian football, not all players on offense are entitled to receive a forward pass. ...


Basic strategy

Because the game stops after every down, giving teams a chance to call a new play, strategy plays a major role in football. Each team has a playbook of dozens to hundreds of plays. Ideally, each play is a scripted, strategically sound team-coordinated endeavor. Some plays are very safe; they are likely to get only a few yards. Other plays have the potential for long gains but at a greater risk of a loss of yardage or a turnover. American football strategy takes many forms, and is not always about the strength and size of the two teams. ...


Generally speaking, rushing plays are less risky than passing plays. However, there are relatively safe passing plays and risky running plays. To deceive the other team, some passing plays are designed to resemble running plays and vice versa. These are referred to as play-action passes and draws. There are many trick or gadget plays, such as when a team lines up as if it intends to punt and then tries to run or pass for a first down. Such high-risk plays are a great thrill to the fans when they work. However, they can spell disaster if the opposing team realizes the deception and acts accordingly.


The defense also plans plays in response to expectations of what the offense will do. For example, a "blitz" (using linebackers or defensive backs to charge the quarterback) is often attempted when the team on defense expects a pass. A blitz makes downfield passing more difficult but exposes the defense to big gains if the offensive line stems the rush.


Many hours of preparation and strategizing, including film review by both players and coaches, go into the days between football games. This, along with the demanding physicality of football (see below), is why teams typically play at most one game per week.


Physicality

Main article: Health issues in American football
Main article: Football protective equipment
A halfback leads fellow backs through an agility drill at the Air Force Academy
A halfback leads fellow backs through an agility drill at the Air Force Academy

American football is a collision sport. To stop the offense from advancing the ball, the defense must tackle the player with the ball by knocking or pulling him down. As such, defensive players must use some form of physical contact to bring the ball-carrier to the ground, within certain rules and guidelines. Tacklers cannot kick or punch the runner. They also cannot grab the face mask of the runner's helmet or lead into a tackle with their own helmet. Despite these and other rules regarding unnecessary roughness, most other forms of tackling are legal. Blockers and defenders trying to evade them also have wide leeway in trying to force their opponents out of the way. Quarterbacks are regularly hit by defenders coming on full speed from outside the quarterback's field of vision. This is commonly known as a blindside. There a number of issues relating to public awareness and health aspects of American football. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1787x2547, 3181 KB) Falcons sophomore halfback Chad Smith leads fellow backs through an agility drill. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1787x2547, 3181 KB) Falcons sophomore halfback Chad Smith leads fellow backs through an agility drill. ...


To compensate for this, players must wear special protective equipment, such as a padded plastic helmet, shoulder pads, hip pads and knee pads. These protective pads were introduced decades ago and have improved ever since to help minimize lasting injury to players. An unintended consequence of all the safety equipment has resulted in increasing levels of violence in the game. Players may now hurl themselves at one another at high speeds without a significant chance of injury. The injuries that do result tend to be severe and often season or career-ending and sometimes fatal. In previous years with less padding, tackling more closely resembled tackles in Rugby football. Better helmets have allowed players to use their helmets as weapons. This form of tackling is particularly unwise, due to the great potential for brain or spinal injury. All this has caused the various leagues, especially the NFL, to implement a complicated series of penalties for various types of contact. Most recently, virtually any contact with the helmet of a defensive player on the quarterback, or any contact to the quarterback's head, is now a foul. Group of men drilling in football helmets A football helmet is a protective device used primarily in American football and Canadian football which was created by Paul Brown. ... This article is about football protective equipment. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


Despite protective equipment and rule changes to emphasize safety, injuries remain very common in football. It is increasingly rare, for example, for NFL quarterbacks or running backs (who take the most direct hits) to make it through an entire season without missing some time to injury. Additionally, 28 football players, mostly high schoolers, died from direct football injuries in the years 2000-05 and an additional 68 died indirectly from dehydration or other examples of "non-physical" dangers, according to the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research.[11] Concussions are common, with about 41,000 suffered every year among high school players according to the Brain Injury Association of Arizona.[12] In 1981, former U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who played football in high school, commented on the contact of the sport: "[Football] is the last thing left in civilization where men can literally fling themselves bodily at one another in combat and not be at war."[13] Cerebral Concussion redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Extra and optional equipment such as neck rolls, spider pads, rib protectors, and elbow pads help against injury as well, though they do not tend to be used by the majority of players due to their lack of requirement. Elbow pads are protective padded gear worn on the elbows to protect them against injury during a fall or a strike. ...


The danger of football and the equipment required to reduce it make regulation football impractical for casual play. Flag football and touch football are less violent variants of the game popular among recreational players. An Intramural game of co-ed flag football at the University of Texas at Austin Flag football is a version of American football that is popular across the United States. ... Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1940s in which the players tackle the individual carrying the ball only by touching him with one or two hands, based on whether one is playing the one-hand touch or two...


Organization in the United States

Befitting its status as a popular sport, football is played in leagues of different size, age and quality, in all regions of the country. Organized football is played almost exclusively by men and boys, although a few amateur and semi-professional women's leagues have begun play in recent years. A new variation of American football is Womens American football. ...


Professional and semi-professional

The 32-team National Football League (NFL) is currently the only major professional American football league in North America. At least two new professional American Football Leagues are slated to begin playing in 2009, the All-American Football League and the United Football League. There are American football leagues located in over 50 countries in the world, although most outside the United States are semi-professional leagues (see List of leagues of American and Canadian football). A few of the more popular international leagues are the German Football League (GFL) and the Japanese X-League. The NFL does not operate any developmental leagues currently since the folding of NFL Europa. Players unable to make an NFL team sometimes play in other leagues such as the Arena Football League or Canadian Football League, both of which have rules differing somewhat from those of the NFL. NFL redirects here. ... The term major professional sports league is used to describe the most important and well regarded leagues in the biggest professional sports in a country or region. ... A list of professional sports leagues: Auto racing Champcars, formerly CART (Official Page) Formula One, Grand Prix racing (Official Site) IRL (Indy Racing League) (Official Page) NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) (Official Page) NHRA (National Hot Rod Association) (Official Page) Baseball Major League Baseball Minor League Baseball... The All American Football League is a professional American football league. ... This is a list of current and defunct leagues of American football and Canadian football. ... The German football League (GFL) is the elite bundesliga for American football in Germany. ... The X-League is a semi-professional American football league in Japan. ... NFL Europa is an American football league which operates in Europe. ... The Arena Football League (AFL) was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. ... Lions Stampeders Eskimos Roughriders Blue Bombers Tiger-Cats Argonauts Alouettes The Canadian Football League (CFL) (Ligue canadienne de football (LCF) in French), is a professional sports league located in Canada that plays Canadian football. ...


University and collegiate

College football is also popular throughout North America. A majority of colleges and universities have football teams, often with dedicated football stadiums. These teams mostly play other similarly sized schools. The largest, most popular collegiate teams routinely fill stadiums larger than 75,000[3]. Four college football stadiums, The University of Michigan's Michigan Stadium, Penn State's Beaver Stadium, The University of Tennessee's Neyland Stadium and Ohio State's Ohio Stadium, seat more than 100,000 fans and usually sell out. The weekly autumn ritual of college football includes marching bands, cheerleaders, homecoming, parties, the tailgate party; it forms an important part of the culture in much of smalltown America. Football is generally the major source of revenue to the athletic programs of schools, public and private, in the United States. This article covers college football played in the United States. ... University of Michigan, Ann Arbor The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U-M or U of M) is a public coeducational university in Michigan, United States. ... Michigan Stadium, nicknamed The Big House, is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... Beaver Stadium is an outdoor football stadium located on the campus of The Pennsylvania State University in State College, Pennsylvania. ... The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the flagship institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee public university system in the American state of Tennessee. ... Neyland Stadium is a sports stadium in Knoxville, Tennessee. ... This article is about Ohio State; there is also an Ohio University. ... Ohio Stadium (also known as The House Harley Built, The Horseshoe, or simply The ’Shoe) is the home of the Buckeyes football team at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. ... An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ... Youth Cheerleaders during a football halftime show. ... For other uses, see Homecoming (disambiguation). ... A tailgate party at the 2005 Big 12 Championship game - note the pickup truck tailgates In North America, a tailgate party is a social event held on and around the open tailgate of a vehicle. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ...


High school

Further information: High school football

Most American high schools field football teams. Schools that are too small to field the minimum number of players play variants of football that specify six, seven, eight or nine players instead of the normal eleven. High school football is popular, especially in Texas, Florida, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, California, Colorado, Pennsylvania, and the Southern United States, where many schools regularly fill stadiums holding over 10,000 fans, and can afford artificial playing surfaces[citation needed]. A running back sweeps the left end in a high school football game near // Link title Cincinnati, Ohio High school football or prep(s) football is one of most popular interscholastic sports at high schools in the United States and among the most popular in Canada after ice hockey. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A running back sweeps the left end in a high school football game near // Link title Cincinnati, Ohio High school football or prep(s) football is one of most popular interscholastic sports at high schools in the United States and among the most popular in Canada after ice hockey. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


High school teams generally play only against other teams from their state (notable exceptions include matchups between nearby schools located on opposite sides of a state line and occasional matchups between two nationally-ranked teams for television purposes). Still, some private Christian high schools play for national championships through organizations like the Federated Christian Athletic Association For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Stateline is used in many ways including: A general term to describe the border between any two states Belleville, Stateline and Southern Railroad Stateline, Kansas Stateline, Nevada Stateline Wind Project Stateline (TV series) Australian Broadcasting Corporation Stateline (TV series-OETA) Oklahoma Educational Television Authority Stateline (TV series-SCETV) South Carolina...


Youth leagues

Football is played recreationally by amateur and youth teams (e.g., the American Youth Football and Pop Warner little-league programs). There are also many "semi-pro" teams in leagues where the players are paid to play but at a small enough salary that they generally must also hold a full-time job. The current official logo of the Pop Warner Little Scholars. ...


Due to the speed and violence of the sport, many non-organized football games involve variations of the rules to minimize contact. These include touch football and flag football. Touch football is a version of American football originally developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1940s in which the players tackle the individual carrying the ball only by touching him with one or two hands, based on whether one is playing the one-hand touch or two... An Intramural game of co-ed flag football at the University of Texas at Austin Flag football is a version of American football that is popular across the United States. ...


Calendar

Football is an autumn sport. A season typically begins in mid-to-late August and runs through December, into January. The professional playoffs run through January, and the Super Bowl is often played in the first week of February. The NFL draft is usually held in April, in which eligible college football players are selected by NFL teams, the order of selection determined by the teams' final regular season records. The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... The NFL Draft (officially the NFL Annual Player Selection Meeting[1]) is an annual sports draft in which National Football League (NFL) teams take turns, through seven rounds[2], selecting amateur college American football players and other first-time eligible players. ...


It is a long-standing tradition in the United States (though not universally observed) that high school football games are played on Friday night, college games on Saturday, and professional games on Sunday. In the 1970s, the NFL began to schedule one game on Monday nights. Beginning in 2006, the NFL began scheduling games on Thursday and Saturday nights after the college football regular season concludes in mid-November, aired on the NFL Network. In recent years, nationally televised Thursday night college games have become a weekly fixture on ESPN, and most nights of the week feature at least one college game, though most games are still played on the traditional Saturday. MNF redirects here. ... NFL Network is an American specialty channel owned and operated by the National Football League (NFL) and is also shown in Canada and Mexico. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ...


Certain fall and winter holidays—such as the NFL's Thanksgiving Classic and numerous New Year's Day college bowl games—have traditional football games associated with them. For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... NFL Thanksgiving 2006 logo. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Outside the United States

Outside the United States, the sport is referred to as "American football" (or a translation thereof) to differentiate it from other football codes such as association football and rugby football. In Australia and New Zealand the game is known as Gridiron football, although in the United States the term gridiron refers only to the playing field itself.[14] In much of the world, the term football is ambiguous and can refer to a number of different codes. Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Gridiron football (or more commonly, just gridiron) is a term used in some countries outside the United States and Canada that refers to both American football and Canadian football. ... The English language word football may mean any one of several games, or the ball used in that game, depending on the national or regional origin/location of the person using the word. ...


The NFL has attempted to introduce the game to other nations and operated a developmental league, NFL Europa, with teams in five German cities and one in the Netherlands, but this league folded following the 2007 season. The professional Canadian Football League and collegiate Canadian Interuniversity Sport play under the only slightly different Canadian rules. NFL Europa is an American football league which operates in Europe. ... Lions Stampeders Eskimos Roughriders Blue Bombers Tiger-Cats Argonauts Alouettes The Canadian Football League (CFL) (Ligue canadienne de football (LCF) in French), is a professional sports league located in Canada that plays Canadian football. ... CIS Logo. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ...


In Japan, the X-League is a professional league with 60 teams in four divisions, using promotion and relegation. After the post-season playoffs, the X-League champion is determined in the Japan X Bowl. There are also over 200 universities fielding teams, with the national collegiate championship determined by the Koshien Bowl. The professional and collegiate champions then face each other in the Rice Bowl to determine the national champion. The X-League is a semi-professional American football league in Japan. ... In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... The Koshien Bowl is the annual Japanese american college football championship game[1], usually played on December at Koshien Stadium. ... The Rice Bowl is an annual American Football game held in Japan every January 3d that pits the Japanese college champion and the champion of the corporate X-League. ...


In Germany, the German Football League whose elite division is called bundesliga, has 12 teams partitioned into north and south conferences. The finalists from the playoffs determine the German champion during the German Bowl. The German football League (GFL) is the elite bundesliga for American football in Germany. ... The Bundesliga (plural: -ligen) (Federal League, meaning nation-wide league) is the name for the premier league of any sport in Germany or Austria. ... The German Bowl, like the NFL Superbowl, is the final match of the season for the German Football League (GFL). ...


The International Federation of American Football is the governing body for American football with 45 member associations from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. The IFAF also oversees the American Football World Cup, which is held every four years. Japan won the first two World Cups, held in 1999 and 2003. Team USA, which had not participated in the previous World Cups, won the title in 2007. IFAF Logo International Federation of American Football (IFAF) is the international governing body of American football associations outside of the United States. ... American Football World Cup is an international competition held every four years since 1999 to decide on a world champion of American football. ...


Major American leagues have also held some regular season games outside of the United States. On October 2, 2005, the Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers played the first regular season NFL game outside of the United States, in Mexico City's Estadio Azteca,[15] From 2007, the NFL has played or has plans to play at least one regular season game outside of the United States. The NCAA will also play games outside of the U.S. In 2012, The United States Naval Academy will play the University of Notre Dame in Dublin, Ireland.[citation needed] is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NCAA redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ...


See also

American football Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // The Beginning Dutch American Football has been on the map both nationally and internationally for more than twenty years. ... A comparison of American football and rugby league can be made due to their shared origins, resulting in similarities and shared concepts in terms of scoring and advancing the ball. ... Eight-man football is a type of American football, generally played by small high schools. ... Fantasy Football is a fantasy sports game in which participants (called owners) are arranged into a league. ... The following terms are used in American football and Canadian football. ... Gridiron football (or more commonly, just gridiron) is a term used in some countries outside the United States and Canada that refers to both American football and Canadian football. ... See one of the following lists of American football players: List of current American football players List of retired American football players See also American Football League Pro Football Hall of Fame American football List of leagues of American football External links American Football League Website NFL Website Categories: Lists... FedExField (left) is the largest NFL stadium, while Beaver Stadium (right) is the largest football stadium in the United States. ... This is a List of American Football Teams in Germany (Version: 2005): // NFL Europe Main article: NFL Europe 1st Bundesliga Main article: German Football League GFL North Berlin Adler Braunschweig Lions Cologne Falcons Düsseldorf Panther Dresden Monarchs Hamburg Blue Devils GFL South Marburg Mercenaries Munich Cowboys Saarland Hurricanes Schw... This is a list of American Football Teams in The Netherlands (Version: 2006): // Main article: NFL Europe Amsterdam Admirals Main article: American Football Bond Nederland Amsterdam Crusaders Delft Dragons Lightning Leiden Hilversum Hurricanes Arnhem Falcons Alphen Eagles Maastricht Wildcats Rotterdam Trojans Almere Flevo Phantoms Amstelland Panthers Groningen Giants Hoorn Unicorns... // Tasmanian Football League (TFL 1879-2000) Australian Baseball League New South Wales Rugby League Super League Anglo-Australian Football Association Queensland British Football Association South Australian British Football Association Southern British Football Association Tasmania British Football Association National Soccer League Canadian Baseball League (CBL 2003) National Basketball League (NBL 1993... This is a list of current and defunct leagues of American football and Canadian football. ... Nine-Man Football is a type of American Football played by small schools. ... The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame of the National Football League (NFL). ... Six-man football is a variant of high school American football that is played with six players per team, instead of 11. ... Cornell Sprint Football team Sprint football, or lightweight football is a version of American football where no player may weigh more than 172 pounds. ... Strat-O-Matic Pro Football. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Notes

  1. ^ In the United States and Canada, the term "football" may refer to either American football or to the similar sport of Canadian football, the meaning usually being clear from the context. This article describes the American variant.
  2. ^ Technically, the ball is a prolate spheroid. See 2006 NCAA Football Rules and Interpretations, Sec. 1, Art. 1
  3. ^ Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876–1889. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Professional Football Researchers Association. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  4. ^ The History of Football. The History of Sports. Saperecom (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  5. ^ NFL History 1869–1910. NFL.com. NFL Enterprises LLC (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  6. ^ NFL Makes Some Rule Changes (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  7. ^ 2005 Rules and Interpretations. National Collegiate Athletic Association (2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  8. ^ (1 October 2007) 2007 Official Rules of the NFL. Triumph Books. ISBN 1699780288. 
  9. ^ Member - Pro Football Hall of Fame
  10. ^ Annual Survey of Football Injury Research 1931 - 2005, National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research. Updated January 18, 2006. Accessed October 31, 2006
  11. ^ Studies Suggest 10% of Arizona High School Football Players Will Suffer a Concussion During This Coming Season PR Newswire press release from the Brain Injury Association of Arizona, August 23, 2005. Accessed October 31, 2006
  12. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (February 23, 1999). Ronald Reagan: How an Ordinary Man Became an Extraordinary Leader. Free Press, 40. ISBN 0684848236. 
  13. ^ "gridiron." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 01 Oct. 2007. [1].
  14. ^ [2]

Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PR Newswire is a U.S-based company that is primarily in the business of disseminating corporate news releases to the news media, financial institutions and web sites. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Digest of Rules. National Football League. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  • History and the basics. National Football League. Retrieved on 2005-12-28.
  • Playing with the Percentages When Trailing by Two Touchdowns. Montana State University. Retrieved on 2005-12-24.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Sports Illustrated magazine dated December 4, 2005; "Football America", a series of articles attesting to the pervasive popularity of American football in the United States at all levels.

The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up American football in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
American football
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
College football
  • Top 10 Super Bowl Commercials
  • NCAA's complete college football rules; available as a PDF file
  • Movie of 1903 football game between the University of Chicago and the University of Michigan
  • National Football League Official Signals.
  • Annual Survey of Football Injury Research
  • Brief explanation of the sport by the BBC aimed at a non-american audience
  • American Football at the Open Directory Project
  • American Youth Football
  • Football rules and the history

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Austus is a sport which was started in Australia during World War Two when U.S. soldiers wanted to play football against the Australians. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Composite rules Shinty/Hurling (sometimes known simply as Shinty/Hurling or, particularly in Ireland, compromise rules) is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international representative matches between shinty players and hurling players. ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... International Rules Football match at the Telstra Dome - Australia vs Ireland. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... Universal football was a hybrid of Australian rules football and rugby league, trialled at the Sydney Showground in 1933. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... A sport governing body comes in several forms. ... There are a variety of articles listing people of a particular sport. ... A National sport is a sport which has been declared to be the sport of a nation by its government such as Lacrosse and ice hockey in Canada. ... This article is about the sport. ... A korfball match in the Netherlands between Trekvogels and OZC Korfball (Dutch: Korfbal) is a team ball game, similar in many ways to mixed netball. ... A netball game in Australia Netball is a non-contact generally indoor sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. ... Game of Buzkashi in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis (Persian: بزکشی buzkashī: goat grabbing) (Uzbek, Tatar, Turkmen: kökbörü, kök blue + börü wolf, Kazakh: көкпар, Kyrgyz: улак) is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback. ... For other uses, see Curling (disambiguation). ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Beach handball is a team sport where two teams pass and bounce a ball trying to throw it in the goal of the opposing team. ... Dimensions of a field of field handball played with 11 players at 1936 summer olympics compared to a football field. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Camogie (in Irish, camógaíocht) is a Celtic team sport, the womens variant of hurling. ... Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (Telugu: , Punjabi: , Marathi: , Hindi: ,Urdu: ; IPA: ) is a team sport originally from the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Cycle Polo or Bike Polo or Bicycle polo is an outdoor game similar to Polo, except that bicycles are used instead of horses. ... Water polo is a team water sport. ... Ultimate (sometimes called ultimate Frisbee in reference to the trademarked brand name) is a non-contact competitive team game played with a 175 gram flying disc. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Fistball is a very old sport which continues to be practiced all over the world: in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Asia. ... A child demonstrating sepak takraw. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Beach Soccer is a variant of the sport of association football. ... Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... An indoor soccer game in Mexico. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Diagram of a Canadian football field. ... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Bold text // Rugby sevens being played at the 2006 Commonwealth Games, which was held at Melbournes Telstra Dome. ... Gridiron football (or more commonly, just gridiron) is a term used in some countries outside the United States and Canada that refers to both American football and Canadian football. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round disc called a puck, into the opponents net or goal, using a hockey stick. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A game of broomball begins with a face-off Broomball is a popular recreational ice sport originating in Canada and played around the world. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... A floorball match between Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is a gay indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Indoor field hockey is an indoor variant of traditional outdoor field hockey. ... Ringette is a team sport played on an ice surface. ... Roller Hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. ... Inline hockey is a variation of roller hockey very similar to ice hockey, from which it is derived. ... Rink hockey - Hardball hockey - Hoquei em Patins Roller Hockey (Quad) is highly popular and has many names worldwide that mean the same sport. ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... Adults playing kickball. ... Lapta (Russian: ) is a Russian ball game, similar to baseball. ... Oina is a Romanian sport, similar in some ways to the American baseball. ... Over-the-line is a game related to baseball and softball. ... Girls playing pesäpallo in Siilinjärvi Pesäpallo (Swedish: Boboll, also referred to as Finnish baseball) is a fast-moving ball sport thats quite often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries, such as Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Northern... For the movie, see Rounders (film). ... Softball is a team sport popular especially in the United States. ... Stool ball is a historical ball game, originating in southern England, where variants are still played in some schools. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Football - MSN Encarta (1221 words)
Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players, and is widely considered to be the most popular sport in...
Football is considered a full-contact sport, meaning that play involves bodily contact by way of checking, blocking, grabbing, and tackling.
American football differs slightly in rules and field size from a style of football played mostly in Canada, called Canadian football.
American Football - Conservapedia (1092 words)
Football is easily the most-viewed spectator sport in the United States, far surpassing baseball.
American football is played on a field that is 120 yards long and 160 feet wide.
The football is placed on the opposing teams 2-yard line, and the offense may either kick it between to goalposts (for an extra point or Point After Touchdown (PAT)), or attempt to run or pass the ball into the endzone (a two-point conversion).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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