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Encyclopedia > American Expeditionary Force
American Expeditionary Forces
Active May 3, 1917 - 1919
Country USA
Garrison/HQ Chaumont, France
Anniversaries November 11, 1918
Commanders
Notable
commanders
LTG John J. Pershing
Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission

The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.(In France, AEF is a news agency specialised in Education and Formation) May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chaumont is the name or part of the name of several communes in [[France], as well as a town in New York Chaumont, Cher, in the Cher département Chaumont, Haute-Marne, in the Haute-Marne département Chaumont, Orne, in the Orne département Chaumont, Haute-Savoie, in the... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission Source: http://www. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission Source: http://www. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The AEF fought alongside allied forces against imperial German forces. The AEF helped the French defend the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in May 1918, and fought its major action in the Meuse-Argonne offensive in the fall of 1918. For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War...

Contents

Overview

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson initially planned to give command of the AEF to General Frederick Funston, but after Funston's sudden death, Wilson appointed General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing in May 1917, who oversaw U.S. forces throughout the war. Pershing insisted that American soldiers be trained before going to Europe. As a result, few troops arrived before 1918. In addition, Pershing insisted that the American force would not be used merely to fill gaps in the French and British armies, and the European efforts to have U.S. troops used as individual replacements in decimated Allied units. This attitude was resented by the Allied leaders who were short on troops. The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Brig. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...


By June 1917, there were 14,000 U.S. soldiers in France, and by May of the next year there were one million American troops. Since even the transport ships needed to bring American troops to Europe were scarce, the army pressed into service cruise ships, seized German ships, and borrowed Allied ships to transport American soldiers from New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. The mobilization effort taxed the limits of the American military and required new organizational strategies and command structures to transport great numbers of troops and supplies quickly and efficiently. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... NY redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


The first American troops, who were called "Doughboys" by other Allied troops, arrived in Europe in June 1917, and four companies from the 131st and 132nd Infantry Regiments (33rd Division) saw action at the Battle of Le Hamel on July 4, 1918, while attached for training purposes to the Australian 4th Division. However the AEF did not fully participate at the front until October, when the 1st Infantry Division, one of the best-trained divisions of the AEF, entered the trenches at Nancy. Pershing wanted an American force that could operate independently of the other Allies, but his vision could not be realized until adequately trained troops with sufficient supplies reached Europe. Training schools in America sent their best men to the front, and Pershing also established facilities in France to train new arrivals for combat. Doughboy is a now-outdated slang term for an American infantryman, best known from its use in World War I, although it potentially dates back to the Mexican-American War of 1846-48. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 33d Infantry Division. ... The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a planned attack launched by the Australian Corps of the Australian Imperial Force against German positions in the town of Hamel in western France during World War I. The battle was planned and commanded by Lieutenant General John Monash (later knighted). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The name 4th Division has been used for two different units of the Australian Army. ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ...


Throughout 1917 and into 1918, American divisions were usually employed to augment French and British units in defending their lines and in staging attacks on German positions. Beginning in May 1918, with the first United States victory at Cantigny, AEF commanders increasingly assumed sole control of American forces in combat. By July 1918, French forces often were assigned to support AEF operations. During the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, beginning September 12, [1918]], Pershing commanded the American First Army, comprising seven divisions and more than 500,000 men, in the largest offensive operation ever undertaken by United States armed forces. This successful offensive was followed by the Meuse-Argonne offensive, lasting from September 26 to November 11, 1918, during which Pershing commanded more than one million American and French soldiers. In these two military operations, Allied forces recovered more than two hundred square miles (520 km²) of French territory from the German army. By the time the Armistice ended combat on November 11, 1918, the American Expeditionary Forces had evolved into a modern, combat-tested army. Cantigny is an estate in Wheaton, Illinois. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 7,000 2000 dead and 5500 wounded The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... The First United States Army is a Field Army of the United States Army. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Casualties

The AEF sustained about 360,000 casualties, including 116,000 dead - some 50,000 of them were killed in action or died of wounds - and 234,000 wounded. The high casualty rate sustained at a time when Allied casualty rates were lighter can be attributed to Pershing's insistence on doing things his way and not incorporating the latest field tested tactics that were proving successful to other Allied commanders on the ground. Earlier in the war, Allied casualty rates had been horrific, but by the time American forces entered battle new technology and advanced tactics had reduced casualty rates dramatically. Although he was quick to adjust, his slightly outdated tactics, lack of equipment and poor logistics proved costly in American casualties. Also, as a result of grave medical and sanitary problems in training camps as well as in Europe, many troops of the AEF fell victim to disease, especially influenza. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ...


In less than two years, the United States had established new motorized and combat forces, equipped them with all types of ordnance including machine guns and tanks, and created an entirely new support organization capable of moving supplies thousands of miles in a timely manner. World War I provided the United States with valuable strategic lessons and an officer corps that would become the nucleus for mobilizing and commanding sixteen million American military personnel in World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


African-Americans

African-Americans were drafted on the same basis as whites and made up 13% of the draftees. By the end of the war, over 350,000 African-Americans had served in AEF units on the Western Front. However, they were assigned to segregated "Blacks only" units and commanded by white officers. One fifth of the black soldiers sent to France saw combat, compared to two-thirds of the whites. "The mass of the colored drafted men cannot be used for combatant troops," said a General Staff report in 1918, and it recommended that "these colored drafted men be organized in reserve labor battalions." They handled unskilled labor tasks as stevedores in the Atlantic ports and common laborers at the camps and in the Services of the Rear in France.[1] The French, whose front-line troops were resisting combat duties to the point of mutiny, requested and received control of several regiments of black combat troops. [2] Kennedy reports:[3] Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ...

"Units of the black 92nd Division particularly suffered from poor preparation and the breakdown in command control. As the only black combat division, the 92nd entered the line with unique liabilities. It had been deliberately dispersed throughout several camps during its stateside training; some of its artillery units were summoned to France before they had completed their courses of instruction, and were never fully equipped until after the Armistice; nearly all its senior white officers scorned the men under their command and repeatedly asked to be transferred; the black enlisted men were frequently diverted from their already attenuated training opportunities in France in the summer of 1918 and put to work as stevedores and common laborers."

One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the Harlem Hellfighters, which fought under French command for the duration of the war, although it remained an American unit with American uniforms. The 369th was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other African-American regiment in the war. 171 members of the 396th were awarded the Legion of Merit.[2]. One member of the 369th, Sgt. Henry Johnson, was awarded the French Croix de Guerre.[3] and has been considered for a posthumous Medal of Honor. Harlem Hellfighters in action. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


See also

Nebraska State Historical Marker for Fort Omaha at the corner of 30th and Fort Streets Fort Omaha is an Indian War-era United States Army supply installation where the important trail of Standing Bear v. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kennedy (1982) 162
  2. ^ Barbeau and Henri (1974); [1]
  3. ^ Kennedy (1982) p. 199

References

  • Ayres, Leonard P, The War with Germany: A Statistical Summary Government Printing Office, 1919 full text online
  • Arthur E. Barbeau and Florette Henri, The Unknown Soldiers: Black American Troops in World War I (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974),
  • Beaver, Daniel R. Newton D. Baker and the American War Effort, 1917-1919 (1966)
  • Chambers, John W., II. To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America (1987)
  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998), the standard history
  • James J. Cooke; The Rainbow Division in the Great War, 1917-1919 Praeger Publishers, (1994)
  • Robert H. Ferrell; Collapse at Meuse-Argonne: The Failure of the Missouri-Kansas Division University of Missouri Press, (2004)
  • Frank Freidel, Over There (1964), well illustrated
  • Mark E. Grotelueschen; Doctrine under Trial: American Artillery Employment in World War I Greenwood Press, 2001
  • Hallas, James H. Doughboy War: The American Expeditionary Force in World War I (2000)
  • Heller Charles E. Chemical Warfare in World War I. The American Experience, 1917-1918. Fort Leavenworth, Kan.: Combat Studies Institute, 1984.
  • Holley, I. B. Ideas and Weapons: Exploitation of the Aerial Weapon by the United States During World War I(1983)
  • Howarth, Stephen. To Shining Sea: A History of the United States Navy, 1775-1991 (1991)
  • Hurley, Alfred F. Billy Mitchell, Crusader for Air Power (1975)
  • James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur, I, 1880-1941. (1970)
  • Herbert A. Johnson; Wingless Eagle: U.S. Army Aviation through World War I University of North Carolina Press, (2001)
  • Kennedy, David M. Over Here: The First World War and American Society (1982)
  • Koistinen, Paul. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 (2004)
  • John Joseph Pershing, My Experiences in the World War (1922)
  • Donald Smythe. Pershing: General of the Armies (1986)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918 (1961)
  • Frank E. Vandiver. Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing (1977)
  • Venzon, Anne ed. The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1995)
  • Wilson Dale E. Treat 'Em Rough: The Birth of American Armor, 1917-1920 Presidio Press, 1989.
  • Susan Zeiger; In Uncle Sam's Service: Women Workers with the American Expeditionary Force, 1917-1919 Cornell University Press, 1999

Leonard Porter Ayres (1879 - 1946) was a U.S. statistician. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ...

External links

  • United States Army Center of Military History
    • Army Historical Series: American Military History
      • Chapter 17: "World War I: The First Three Years"
      • Chapter 18: "World War I: The U.S. Army Overseas"
    • CMH Subject Publications
      • CMH Pub 24-1: "Learning Lessons in the American Expeditionary Forces"
    • U.S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies
      • "Gas Warfare in World War I: Study Number 9: The 1st Division at Ansauville"; January - April 1918
    • American Battle Monuments Commission Publications
      • "82d Division: Summary of Operations in the World War"
      • "92d Division: Summary of Operations in the World War"
      • "93d Division: Summary of Operations in the World War"
    • Archival material
      • Awards and Decorations: World War I Statistics
      • Campaigns of the United States Army

  Results from FactBites:
 
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In addition, Pershing insisted that the American force would not be used merely to fill gaps in the French and British armies and in particular resisted European efforts to have U.S. troops used as individual replacements in decimated Allied units.
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